Connectedness and Disconnectedness in topological Spaces By Dr. P.K. Sharma P.G. Department of Mathematics D.A.V. College , Jalandhar. (Punjab) Email : pksharma_davc@yahoo.co.

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Connectedness and Disconnectedness in topological Spaces
Connectedness is the technical term for the intuitive notion of consisting of a single piece ; in other words, a space X is not connected mean intuitively that it can be split into two non-empty disjoint parts A and B i.e. X = A ∪ B, A ≠ ∅, B ≠ ∅, A ∩ B = ∅. If we do not impose any other conditions to A and B, then every space with two or more points can not be connected. This is not consistent, for the familiar spaces like Euclidean spaces, circles, spheres, intervals (all with usual topologies) be connected so the two parts should not only be mutually disjoint but also that they should be far away from each other. But the idea of nearness can be formalized in terms of closures. This lead us to the following definition.

 Definition: A topological space (X , τ ) is said to be

connected space if it is impossible to find non-empty separated subsets A and B such that X = A ∪ B. i.e.if ∄ A ≠ ∅, B ≠ ∅ and A ∩B = ∅,A ∩ B = ∅ and A ∪ B = X. A space which is not connected is called disconnected space.

Connected Set: Let (X,τ ) be a topological space and A ⊆ X be a subset of X. Then A is called connected set if the subspace (A, τA) is connected space. A set which is not connected is called disconnected set. Remark: Singleton set and empty set are always connected 3 sets in every topological space.

Theorem: A topological space (X, τ ) is connected space iff ∅ and X are the only sets which are both open as well as closed. Theorem: A space (X, τ ) is disconnected iff ∃ A ≠ ∅ ,X and is open as well as closed set.
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Examples of connected spaces :

Every indiscrete space is connected space.  Co-finite topological space on infinite set is connected space.  Usual topological space is connected space.  p-inclusion topological space is connected space.  co-countable topological space on uncountable set X is connected space. 4

Examples of Disconnected spaces
Every discrete space containing more than one point is disconnected space.  Lower limit topological space on R, the set of real numbers is disconnected space.  Sub-space Q of R is disconnected space Remark : (1) Connectedness is not a Hereditary property For example : Usual topological space on R is connected space where as subspace Q on R is disconnected space (2) Disconnectedness is not a Hereditary property For example :Let X = Y ∪ { x } , where Y is non-empty set Then Discrete topological space on X is disconnected space But its sub-space X- Y , which is indiscrete space is connected space .

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 Connected and disconnected sets in a topological space
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Intervals and only Intervals are connected sets in usual topological space on R . In usual topological space on R , the sub-sets (i) Q (ii) Z (iii) N are disconnected sets.

Properties of Connected set:
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Union as well as intersection of two connected sets need not be connected set Subset as well as superset of connected set need not be connected Subset A of a subspace Y is a connected set in Y iff A is connected set in the whole space X . closure of a connected set is connected set If A is connected and A ⊆ B ⊆A , then B is connected 6 set

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Continuous image of a connected set is a connected set. Union of two connected sets having a common point is connected. The relation ∼ of connectedness in a topological space is an equivalence relation. i.e. For two points a , b of X , we define a ∼ b iff a and b are contained in some connected subset of X is an equivalence relation on X .

Some Important Theorems in connected space :  A topological space X is connected iff every continuous function f from X into the discrete two point space ({0, 1}, D ) is constant.  If ℱ be a family of connected sets such that ∩{ F : F ∈ ℱ }, ≠ ∅ , then ∪ { F : F ∈ ℱ } is connected set.  If E is a connected set in a topological space and E ⊆ A ∪ B, where A and B are separated sets, then either E ⊆ A or E ⊆ B.  If every two points of a set E are contained in some connected subset of E, then E is a connected set.  Arbitrary product of connected spaces is connected space
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Component in a topological space
Definition: A component E of a topological space is a maximal connected subset of X. Remark : From the definition, it is clear that a space X is connected iff it has only one component namely the whole space X.  Examples of components

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Let X = {a, b, c} and τ = { ∅, X, {c}, {a, b}} be a topology on X. Then components of X are {a, b} and {c}. Singleton sets in discrete topological space, are the only components. Singleton sets in Q , the subspace of usual topological space on R are components.
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Properties of components in a topological space
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Every non-empty connected set is contained in one and only one component Every component is closed Any two distinct components are separated sets Each point of X is contained in one and only one component. Components of topological space form a partition of X Some important Theorems in components: Every non-empty connected subset of X which is both open as well as closed is a component of X. Continuous image of component need not be component Component in a topological space need not an open set. Component in a totally disconnected space are singleton sets
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Locally connected spaces

Definition:A topological space X is said to be locally connected at a point x ∈X iff for every open nhd. U of x , ∃ a connected open nhd. K of x such that x ∈ K ⊆ U In other words X is locally connected at a point x iff the collection of all connected open nhds. of x forms a local base at x. A space (X, τ ) is said to be locally connected space iff it is locally connected at each of its points. Examples of Locally connected spaces: Discrete topological space is locally connected. Indiscrete topological space is locally connected Usual topological space is locally connected.
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   

Connectedness and locally connectedness are independent of each other
X be discrete topological space containing more than one point is locally connected which is not connected.  Let X = Y ∪ {P} , where P is a point (1,0) in plane and Y be the collection of all points on the line y = (1/n)x ; n∈ N . Clearly , X is a connected but it is not locally connected .  Properties of locally connected spaces  Component of a locally connected space is an open set.  Every open subspace of a locally connected space is locally connected.  Components of every open subspace of locally connected space X are open set.  Local connectedness is not a hereditary property.  Continuous open image of a locally connected space is locally 11

Pathwise Connectivity
Definition:(Path) Let a, b∈ X. Then a continuous mapping f : [0,1] -->X s.t. f (0) = a and f (1) = b is called a path from a to b.  The point a is called the initial R point and the point b is called the terminal point of the path f. Remark: If f is a path from a to b, then g:[ 0,1] X defined by g(x) = f(1-x) is a path from b to a .  Path connected space: A topological space X is called path connected iff every two points of X can be join by a path.  Path connected set A subset A of a topological space X is called path connected set iff for every two points a and b of A ∃ a path f : IX from a to b such that f (I) ⊆ A .  Examples of Path connected spaces:  Indiscrete space is path connected 12  The n-sphere s(n) = { x ∈ R(n+1): ∑ x(2) = 1 } is path connected

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Remark (1) Every pathwise connected set is connected. (2) Connected set need not be pathwise connected set  For Example : Let A = { ( 0 , y ) : -1 ≤ y ≤ 1 } and B = {(x,y) : y= sin(1/x) and 0 < x ≤ 1 } be subsets of R× R , here A and B are not separated sets and so A∪B is connected but there is no path from a point in A to a point in B.
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Some Important Theorems on Pathwise connected set Continuous image of pathwise connected set is pathwise connected set Product of two path connected spaces is path connected Union of two intersecting path connected sets in a space is path connected A space X which is connected and locally connected is path connected . 13

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