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Thermal Waste

Treatment
Name : MUHAMMAD NAQUIB BIN ADZMAN
2011913257
MUHAMMAD NADZMI BIN RAMLAN
2011580283
MUHAMMAD AFIQ BIN IBRAHIM
2011360507
EH2218B

INTRODUCTION
THERMAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

What We Dont Realize


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
Basically the waste collect by local authority
Comprise mostly of household waste
Also include some commercial and
industrial waste
Becoming a problem for authorities
Due to the fact landfill is becoming less
Also landfill does not recover energy

The Reality

Technology Advancement to
Overcome This Matter
Advanced Thermal Treatment (ATT) is the
new technology.
Exclude
incineration which has been
considered mature and well established
technology.
ATT is principally Pyrolysis & Gasification
Designed to recover energy either heat,
electricity or fuel.

INCINERATION

HISTORY
The first incinerators for waste disposal were built
inNottinghambyManlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd.in 1874 to a design patented
byAlbert Fryer. They were originally known asdestructors

The first US incinerator was built in 1885 onGovernors Island


in New York, NY

The first incineration facility was built in 1905 in Czech Republic in Brno

DEFINITION
Incinerationis awaste treatment
process that involves the
combustion of organic substances
contained in waste materials.
Incinerator can be understood more
precisely as a furnace where waste
is burnt

In the past..
In some countries, incinerators built just a few

decades ago often did not include amaterials


separation.
In past, incineration was conducted with out
separating materials thus causing harm to
environment. This un-separated waste was not
free from bulky and recyclable materials.
These facilities tended to risk the health of the
plant workers and the local environment due to
inadequate levels of gas cleaning and
combustion process control.
Most of such plants and incinerations never

Current Incineration
Technology
Incineration

and coupled with other hightemperature waste treatment systems are


described as "thermal treatment
Incineration of waste materials converts
the waste intoash,flue gas, particles and
heat
These products are later used for
generation of electricity
The gases, flue gases are first treated for
eradication of pollutants before going in
to atmosphere.

continued..
Among waste-to-energy technologies,

incineration stands taller


Other technologies are gasification, anaerobic
digestion and Pyrolysis
Incineration reduces the mass of the waste
from 95 to 96 percent
This reduction depends upon the recovery
degree and composition of materials
Does not replace the need for landfilling but it
reduced the amount to be thrown in it

MODERN INCINERATOR
Modern incinerators are equipped
with pollution improvement
systems, which play their part in
cleaning up the Flue gas and such
toxicants

TYPE OF INCINERATOR

MOVING GRATE

The incineration plant used for treating MSW is


moving grate.

This grate is capable for hauling waste from


combustion chamber to give way for complete
and effective combustion

A single moving grate boiler can handle up to


35 metric tons (39 short tons) of waste per
hour, and can operate 8,000hours per year
with only one scheduled stop for inspection and
maintenance of about one month's duration

HOW IT WORK?

Advantage & Disadvantage


Advantages

Disadvantages

Volume and weight reduced


(approx. 90% vol. and 75% wt
reduction)

Skilled operators are required


(particularly for boiler operations)

Waste reduction is immediate, no


long term residency required

Some material require


supplemental fuel

Incineration can be done at


generation site

Some materials are


noncombustible

Small disposal area required

Public disapproval

Air discharges can be controlled

High capital cost

Ash residue is usually nonputrescible, sterile, inert


Cost can be offset by heat
recovery/ sale of energy

PYROLYSIS
A Method of Thermal Waste Treatment

What is it?

Basic Concept

The Process

What Basically Happen?


The
pyrolysis
process
consists
of
both
simultaneous and successive reactions when
organic material is heated in a non-reactive
atmosphere.
Long chains of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
compounds in biomass break down into smaller
molecules in the form of gases, condensable
vapours (tars and oils) and solid charcoal under
pyrolysis conditions.

Waste Treated by
Pyrolysis

Video of Pyrolysis Process

Types of Pyrolysis

Takes several hours to


complete
Bio-Char as main
product

Takes 2 seconds
Flash Pyrolysis
Most Widely Used
Temperatures
between 300 550
Celsius
Char accumulates
quickly
Commonly yield 60%
bio-oil
Must be removed
frequently

Utilization of Pyrolysis
Products

Uses Of;
Bio-Oil:
1. Not suitable for direct use in standard internal
combustion engines.
2. The oil can be upgraded to either a special
engine fuel or through gasification processes to a
syngas and then bio-diesel.
3. Bio-oil is also a vital source for a wide range of
organic compounds and speciality chemicals.

Uses Of;
Syn-Gas
1. Short for Synthetic Gas
2. Derived from pyrolysis. This syn-gas is volatile
making it an ideal fuel source
3. Made up of carbon monoxide, and hydrogen
(85%) with smaller amounts of carbon dioxide
and methane.
4. Has around half of the energy of natural gas,so it
can be used as a fuel to generate electricity or
steam.
5. Immediate combustion of the syngas eliminates
most of the noxious elements, resulting in clean
emissions.

Uses Of;
Bio-Char
1. As coal replacement in certain combustion
process
2. Used in agriculture for soil amendment
3. It is highly absorbent and therefore increases the
soils ability to retain water, nutrients and
agricultural chemicals, preventing water
contamination and soil erosion.

Pros & Cons


Advantages

Disadvantages

Can be performed at
relatively small scale and at
remote locations

Very dependent on the


moisture content of the
feedstock

Can be done at remote


locations which can reduce
transport and handling
costs.

At lower water levels there is


a risk that the process only
produces dust instead of oil.

Wide range of biomass


feedstock can be used in
pyrolysis processes

High-moisture waste
streams require drying
before subjecting to
pyrolysis.

High efficiency and good


environmental performance
characteristics

At higher moisture contents,


high levels of water are
produced

GASIFICATION

History Development of Gasification

How it works?

Involve the reaction of carbonaceous


feedstock with an oxygen-containing
reagent (oxygen, air, steam or carbon
dioxide)
Common temperature: 800C
Used partial oxidation-oxygen is added
but the amounts are not sufficient to
allow the fuel to be completely oxidized
and full combustion to occur.

Main Product of
Gasification

Carbon
monoxide

Hydrogen

Methane

The Process of
Gasification

Application of Syngas

Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages

Disadvantages

Fuel syngas generated by gasification Syngas is toxic and potentially


is easier to handle, meter, control and explosive, its presence raises major
burn than solid MSW
security concerns and requires a
reliable control equipment

Can be designed for a small-medium


scale (up to about 120 kt/year)
Syngas can be used, after proper
treatment, to generate highly-quality
fuels (diesel fuel, gasoline or
hydrogen)

The required syngas conditioning and


cleaning is today costly