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Motivation

nirutsaahaat daivam patati


(Chaanakya Sutra: 185)

It is de-motivation that leads to


bad luck

Why People Leave


(top five reasons based on modern
research)

It doesn't feel good around here


They wouldn't miss me if I were gone
I don't get the support I need to get my
job done
There's no opportunity for advancement
Compensation is the last reason (among
top five reasons) people most leave

What Motivate or Demotivate:


Frameworks

Hierarchy of needs: Maslow


Hygiene and Motivators: Herzberg
Theory X and Y: McGregor
Needs: McClelland
Self-Determination Theory - Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Job Engagement
Goal Setting - MBO: challenge and feedback
Reinforcement: Skinner
Equity Theory Organisational Justice - Distributive,
Procedural, Interactional; Why people quit
Expectancy Theory: Vroom
Job Design: JCM by Heckman & Oldham skill variety,
task identity, task significance, autonnomy, feedback
Acquire, Bond, Comprehend, Defend (ABCD): Nohria &
others

Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) by Hackman & Oldham:-

Core Job
Characteristics

Intervening
Variables
Experienced
Psychological
States

Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance

Experienced
Meaningfulness of work
Performed

Independent
Variables

Dependent
Variables
Outcomes
High Intrinsic Motivation
High Quality of work
Performance

Autonomy

Experienced ResponsibilityHigh satisfaction from work /


Job Involvement
Feedback(from job itself)
Experienced Knowledge
Low Tardiness, Turnover,
of Result of work
Absenteeism

Growth Need Strength


Moderator Variable
Motivating Potential Score (MPS)

Skill variety Task Identity task significan ce


x Autonomy x Feedback
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Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation

High n. Ach. (I)


Opportunity (F)

Individual
Effort (A)

Ability (G)

Individual
Performance (B)

Objective
performance
evaluation
system (H)

Equity
Compariso
n
O : O
IA
IB
(K)
Organizational Individual
Rewards (C)
Goals (D)

Performance
evaluation
Criteria (L)

Reinforcement (J)

Dominant Need (H)

Goal directed behaviour (E)

A B C D = Expectancy Model of Vroom


D E A = Goal Setting Theory
C D (Via H) = ERG Theory of Alderfer
A I D = n. Ach. of McClelland
C K
= Theory of Equity
C J B = Reinforcement Theory

Individual Decision Making:


Heuristics and Biases Prospect Theory
(Kahneman & Tversky)

Heuristics and Biases

Availability
Representativeness
Anchoring
Confirmation Bias
Hindsight Bias
Judgemental Biases

Prospect Theory & the Value Function


Value +
Value Function
A
Losses

Gains
Reference Point
B
Value
-

Bias Strategies

Availability:
Check assumptions; avoid being swayed by memorable distortions.
Try to get statistics. Dont rely on your memory if you dont have to.
If you dont have direct statistics, try to build up an estimate with
indirect statistics and other data.
Representativeness:
Dont ignore relevant data, consider base rates explicitly.
Dont confuse one type of probability with another. (Probability that
an arts manager would be like Mark with the probability that
someone like Mark would be an arts manager.)
Anchoring:
Always view the problem from different perspectives, using alternate
starting points and approaches. Then reconcile the differences.
Think about the problem on your own first (to avoid being anchored
by their perceptions.)
Seek opinions from a wide variety of people to push your mind in
new directions. (Dont share your estimates or youll anchor them.)

Bias Strategies (2)

Confirmation trap:
Get someone you respect to play devils advocate to
argue against the decision you are making (or build
these arguments yourself)
Be honest about your motives. Are you really gathering
evidence to inform your choice or justify it.
Expose yourself to conflicting information. Dont go soft
on the disconfirming evidence.
When seeking advice, dont ask leading questions.
Overconfidence:
Try to challenge your own extreme figures. Try hard to
imagine how they might be exceeded.
Challenge an experts estimates in a similar manner.
Substitute facts for opinion whenever possible.

10

Decision Making and


Ethics

We Teach (can it be taught?) and Train in BSchools on Morals and Ethics in Corporate
Sector

Skills to be married with values (skill strong-value strong)


Speed is required, but before that, direction is important
Values are necessary input for nurtured bottom-line
Survival index given due weight to ethical practices
Different schools have different emphasis at different time
In USA two decades back, about 80% of large US
corporations had formal ethics program; now it is almost
100%
Changing profiles of participants in training programs in
last two decades

Meaning
Moral Reasoning: Process by which we transform
our values and beliefs into action;
Values: Convictions guiding or motivating
attitudes and actions; two types of values:
Terminal and Instrumental;
Beliefs: Being convinced with;
Attitudes: Evaluative statements towards
persons, events, and objects;
Ethics: Standards or conduct those indicate how
one should behave based on moral duties and
virtues arising from principles about right and
wrong;
Ethos: Essential character and spirit of a culture.

Making Ethical Decisions


Ethics: Standards of conduct that indicate
how one should behave based on moral
duties and virtues arising from principles
about right and wrong.
Three criteria:
Utilitarian
Rights
Justice

Factors influencing ethical decision


making
Stages of Moral Development
Who stick to ethical behaviour

Ethical behaviour is related to self-esteem. People who


feel good about themselves have what it takes to
withstand outside pressure and to do what is right
rather than do what is merely expedient, popular, or
lucrative (Blanchard and Peal, l988).

Organisational Environment
Locus of Control

Stages of Moral
Development
Sticking to rules to avoid physical punishment
Following rules only when it is in your immediate
interest
Living up to what is expected by people close to
you
Maintaining conventional order by fulfilling
obligations to which you have agreed
Valuing rights of others, and upholding values
and rights regardless of the majoritys opinion
Following self-chosen ethical principles even if
they violate law

Testing Ethics of Your Decision

1. Does it violate the obvious Shallnots

2. Will anyone get hurt?

3. How would you feel if your decision


were
reported on front page of
your newspaper?

4. What if you did it 100 times?

5. How would you feel if someone did if


to you?