1. What types of leaders emerged? 2. Who were leaders? 3. What leader behaviors were exhibited? 4.

What occurred that helped you solve the problem? 5. What occurred that hindered you solving the problem? 6. What did you learn about yourself? 7. What did you learn about leadership?

I. Trait theories II. Behavioral styles theories III. Contingency theories

I. Trait theories
Your born with it or not
– Schwartzkopf book labeled needed traits for an effective leader: intelligence, task knowledge, dominance, self-confidence, honesty

II. Behavioral Styles Theories
Leaders made not born Autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire Ohio State Studies: Two relevant leader dimensions of Initiating Structure and Consideration for Others Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid: Concern for Production and Concern for People Charismatic, Transactional, Transformational, Symbolic (culture)

- Transformational Leader Behavior – 1. articulating a vision; 2. providing a role model; 3. communicating high performance expectations; 4. providing individualized support; 5. fostering the acceptance of group goals; 6. providing intellectual stimulation - Transactional Leader Behavior – contingent reward behavior - Agreeableness – good-natured, cooperative, and trusting - Extraversion – sociable, talkative, assertive - Positive Affectivity – people high in this have a tendency to have an overall sense of well-being and be positively engaged in the world around them in terms of achievement and interpersonal relations - Emotion Recognition – ability to accurately assess how followers actually feel, to be sensitive to followers’ needs, to show empathy to followers

III. Contingency theories

Fiedler’s model: Leader effectiveness is contingent on match between leader style and situational control. The leader’s style is fixed, so match them to each situation. Path-Goal theory: Use Directive, Supportive, or Achievement-Oriented leadership depending on situation. Leaders can adapt style to each situation. Situational Leadership/Life Cycle theory: Effective leadership results from leader’s style and follower’s readiness

Situational Leadership Model

Maturity Level
Moderate 4 High 3 2


1 Low

Telling, A- high structure, low consideration Selling, B- high structure, high consideration Participating, C- high consideration, low structure Delegating, D-low consideration, low structure

IV. The Leadership Challenge by Kouzes and Posner

Ten Commitments of Leadership
Challenging the Process 1. 2. Inspiring a Shared Vision 3. 4. Enabling Others to Act 5. 6.

Search out challenging opportunities to change, grow, innovate, and improve. Experiment, take risks, and learn from the accompanying mistakes. Envision an uplifting and ennobling future. Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to their values, interests, hopes, and dreams. Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust. Strengthen people by giving power away, providing choice, developing competence, assigning critical tasks, and offering visible support. Set the example by behaving in ways that are consistent with shared value. Achieve small wins that promote consistent progress and build commitment. Recognize individual contributions to the success of every project.

Modeling the Way

7. 8.

Encouraging the Heart


10. Celebrate team accomplishments regularly.

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