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02.

Intrinsic conduction in a
semiconductor crystal
At random motion of free electrons, with their associated
electric charge, in a semiconductor crystal which is at room
temperature is termed intrinsic conduction
In the Intrinsic conduction the random motion of free
electrons will produce a negatively charge particle whenever
it is captured in the crystal lattice
The location in the crystal lattice from where the electron
has migrated is termed a hole and that this will be
positively charge
At sufficiently high temperatures, thermal energy causes the
atoms in the lattice to vibrate; when sufficient kinetic energy
is present, some of the valence electrons break their bonds
with the lattice structure and become available as
conduction electrons. These free electrons enable current
flow in a semiconductor.

Atom is composed of three basic particles: the


electron, the proton and the neutron.
In the atomic lattice, the neutrons and protons form
the nucleus, while the electrons revolve around the
nucleus in a fix orbit. (Bohr models)
Copper (2,8,19,1) has a single valence electron which is
not permanently associated with particular atoms but
easily made to move freely from atom to atom.
If an outer electron receives energy from, ex., heat, it
can gain enough energy to overcome the force of
attraction of the protons and become a free electrons.
Ge (2,8,18,4) and Si (2,8,4) have four (4) electrons in the
outermost shell associated with other atoms by
covalent bond
For an undisturbed atom the number of electrons
equals the number of protons, making atoms
electrically neutral.

Doping process
The impurities added although only added to perhaps 1 part of a
million, can alter the band structure sufficiently to totally change the
electrical properties of a material.
A semiconductor material that has been subjected to this doping
process is called an extrinsic material.
Donor Impurity an impurity usually antimony, arsenic and
phosphorus which is added to a germanium or silicon semiconductor
material to increase the number of free electrons. (N-type material).
Acceptor Impurity - an impurity usually boron, gallium and indium
which is added to a germanium or silicon semiconductor material to
decrease the number of free electrons resulting in vacancy called
Hole (P-type material).
N-Type semiconductor a type of semiconductor material in which
there are an excess of electrons
P-Type semiconductor - a type of semiconductor material which has
been doped so that it has a net deficiency of free electrons, It
therefore conducts electricity through movement of holes.

TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
Negative Temperature Coefficient a property of
materials where in the resistance drops rapidly with
increasing temperatures. Example of theses materials:
Germanium, Silicon, mica
Positive temperature Coefficient resistance
increases with increasing temperature. Example of this
materials: copper, etc.

RESISTIVITY
Semiconductor - a material whose resistivity is midway
between that of a conductor and insulator, and whose resistivity
can be changed by light, an electric field or a magnetic field.
Resistivity - a measure of the ability of a material to resist
passage of an electric current through it or on its surface.
Bulk resistance is the actual resistance of a semiconductor
material as determined by the formula R=p l/A
Resistivity of Conductor= 10-6 -m
Resistivity of Semiconductor= 50 -m for Ge, 50x10 3 -m
for Si
Resistivity of insulator= 50x10 12 -m
Ohmic contact resistance the resistance introduced by
connecting the leads to the bulk material.

Problems-Calculation
1.

Using the value of resistivity, determine the resistance of a


silicon sample having an area of 1cm 2 and a length of 3cm.
2. Repeat problem 1 for copper whose length is 1cm and the
area is 4 cm2
3. The resistance of a certain copper power line is 100 at
200C. What is the resistance when the sun heats up the line up
to 38OC?
4. When 120 V is applied across a certain light bulb, a 0.5
Ampere current flows, causing the temperature of the
tungsten filament to increase to 26000C. What is the
resistance of the light bulb at the normal room temperature
of 200C?
5. A certain unenergized copper transformer winding has a
resistance of 30 at 200C. Under rated operation, however,
the resistance increases to 35. Find the temperature of
energized winding.