an introduction to heat transfer

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an introduction to heat transfer

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You are on page 1of 44

HEAT TRANSFER

Introduction

Heat transfer is the study of thermal energy (heat)

flows

Heat always flows from hot to cold

Examples are ubiquitous:

home heating/cooling systems

refrigerators, ovens, appliances

automobiles, power plants, the sun, etc.

To determine:

overall heat transfer coefficient

- e.g., for a car radiator

highest (or lowest) temperature

e.g., in a gas turbine

temperature distribution (related to thermal

stress) - e.g., in the walls of a spacecraft

temperature response in time dependent

heating/cooling problems - e.g., how long does it

take to cool down a case of soda?

3

HEAT TRANSFER

HEAT - Energy in transit

TEMPERATURE heat measured as a

property

HEAT TRANSFER science involving the

study of principles that govern and the

methods that determine the rate of heat

transfer

4

Temperature vs Heat

Temperature

Measurement of

average kinetic

energy of

molecules in a

substance

Measurement of

internal thermal

energy

Heat

Thermal energy

that is transmitted

from one object to

another

Energy in transit

APPLICATIONS

Chemical engineering process equipment,

chemical plants

Mechanical engineering boilers, heat

exchangers, turbines, internal

combustion engines

Nuclear engineering removal of heat

generated by nuclear fission,

design of nuclear rods

Electrical engineering cooling system for

generators, motors, chips,

transformers

6

APPLICATIONS

Metallurgical engineering furnaces, heat

treatment

Civil engineering design of suspension

bridges, insulation of buildings,

air conditioning

Cryogenic engineering production, storage,

transportation of cryogenic

liquids

Aeronautical engineering design of space

crafts, missiles, rockets

7

Steam Boiler

9

10

insulators

conductors

11

12

Thermal Expansion

A metal ball has a diameter that is slightly greater

than the diameter of a hole that has been cut into

a metal plate. The coefficient of linear expansion

for the metal in the ball is greater than that for the

plate. Which one (or more) of the following

procedures can be used to make the ball pass

through the hole?

A: raise the temperatures of the ball and plate by

the same amount

B: lower the temperatures of the ball and plate by

the same amount

C: heat the ball and cool the plate

D: cool the ball and heat the plate

13

Thermal Expansion

Answer: B and D

Since the coefficient of linear expansion of

the ball is greater than the plate, it will

shrink more per change in temperature as

the temperature of both is lowered. Also,

by cooling the ball you will decrease its

size and by heating the plate you will

increase the size of the hole.

14

Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion is

a property of the

material

different materials

expand differently

Engineers need to

take this into account

in their designs:

expansion joints in

bridges

bi-metal strip

15

Thermal Expansion

This is how

thermostats workbimetallic strips in

refrigerators, ovens,

etc. open and close a

switch as the

bimetallic strip bends

one way or the other

due to temp changes

16

Mode

Transfer Mechanism

Conduction

random

molecular motion

Convection

random

molecular motion plus

bulk motion

Radiation

Energy transfer by

electromagnetic

waves

Rate of Transfer

Q cond , wall

dT

kA

dx

4

Q rad AS (TS4 Tsurr

)

17

Conduction is the transfer of heat by

molecular interaction

In a gas, molecular velocity depends on

temperature

hot, energetic molecules collide with

neighbors, increasing their speed

structure vibrate

18

PLANE WALLS

Heat transfer

- temperature gradient

- not in the direction where no

change in temperature

- normal to the wall surface

- no significant heat transfer in other

directions

- If T in and outside remain constant

19

rate of

heat transfer

into the wall

Q in Q out

dE wall

dt

dE wall

0

dt

rate of

heat transfer

=

out of the wall

rate of change

of the energy

of the wall

temperature of the wall with time at any point

The rate of heat transfer through the wall is constant

20

CONDUCTION

Q cond , wall

dT

kA

dx

Q cond , wall

dT

dx

(W)

constant also

with x. Temperature distribution in the wall

under steady conditions is a straight line.

x 0

T2

cond , wall

Q cond , wall

dx kAdT

T T1

T1 T2

kA

L

21

Convection is movement of heat with a fluid

E.g., when cold air sweeps past a warm

body, it draws away warm air near the body

and replaces it with cold air

T

q

Tbody

q h (Tbody T ) h T

h

22

CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER RATE

(W)

coefficient

Q conv

Rconv

TS T

Rconv

1

hAS

Rconv

(0C / W)

23

Thermal radiation is emission of energy as

electromagnetic waves

Intensity depends on body temperature and

surface characteristics

Important mode of heat transfer at high

temperatures and natural convection problems

Examples:

toaster, grill, broiler

fireplace

sunshine

24

RADIATION

4

Q rad AS (TS4 Tsurr

)

Rrad

TS Tsurr

Rrad

hrad AS

hrad

Qrad

AS (TS Tsurr )

25

FLOW

Rate of

heat convection

Rate of

Rate of

Q h1 A(T1 T1 ) kA

heat conduction

heat convection

from the wall

T1 T2

h2 A(T2 T 2 )

L

T1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T 2

Q

1 / h1 A

L / kA

1 / h2 A adding the numerators and denominators

T T T T2 T2 T 2

Q 1 1 1

Rconv ,1

Rwall

Rconv , 2

T1 T 2

Q

Rtotal

26

The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through a plane wall

subjected to convection on both sides and the electrical analogy

27

THERMAL RESISTANCE

Q cond , wall

Rwall

T1 T2

Rwall

L

kA

(W)

(0C / W)

and the thermal properties

of the medium

V V2

I 1

Re

Re

Re L

Electrical resistance

eA

V1 V2 Voltage difference

Electrical

conductivity

28

29

THERMAL RESISTANCE

NETWORKS

Q Q1 Q 2

1

Rtotal

Rtotal

T1 T2 T1 T2

1

1

(T1 T2 )( )

R1

R2

R1 R2

T1 T2

Rtotal

1

1

R1 R2

R1 R2

R1 R2

30

COMBINED SERIES-PARALLEL

ARRANGEMENT

T1 T

Q

Rtotal

L1

R1

k1 A1

Rtotal R12 R3 Rconv

L3

R3

k 3 A3

L2

R2

k 2 A2

R1 R2

R3 Rconv

R1 R2

Rconv

hA3

31

Q UAT

UA

1

Rtotal

T1 T 2

Q

Rtotal

Rtotal

L1

L2

1

1

h1 A k1 A k 2 A h2 A

32

Conduction Example

Compute the heat transfer through the wall

of a home:

Tout = 20 F

Tout = 68 F

Although slight, you

can see the thermal

bridging effect

through the studs

2x6 stud

k=0.15 W/m2-K

sheetrock

k=0.4 W/m2-K

shingles

k=0.15 W/m2-K

fiberglas

sheathing

insulation

2

k=0.15 W/m -K k=0.004 W/m2-K

33

Q Q contact Q gap

Q hc ATint erface

Q/ A

hc

Tint erface

(W/m2 0C)

1 Tint erface

Rc

hc

Q/ A

(m2 0C/ W)

34

Thermal contact resistance is inverse of

thermal contact conduction,

Depends on

Surface roughness,

Material properties,

Temperature and pressure at interface,

Type of fluid trapped at interface

35

Effect of metallic

coatings on

thermal contact

conductance

smoot surfaces at

high pressures

Thermal contact

conductance

Thermal contact

resistance

36

AND SPHERES

Steady-state heat conduction

in the radial direction.

Heat transfer from a long

pipe is one dimensional

37

Q cond ,cyl

constant

Q cond ,cyl

dT

kA

dr

r2

Q cond ,cyl

r r1

T2

dr kdT

T T1

A 2rL

Q cond ,cyl

T1 T2

2Lk

ln(r2 / r1 )

Q cond ,cyl

T1 T2

Rcyl

Rcyl

ln(r2 / r1 )

2Lk

38

FOR SPHERES

Q cond , sph

T1 T2

Rsph

Rsph

r2 r1

4r1 r2 k

A 4r 2

T1 T

Q

Rtotal

including convection

Rtotal

r2 r1

1

4r1r2 k 4r22 h2

39

CYLINDER

T1 T

T1 T

Q

1

Rins Rconv ln(r2 / r1 )

2Lk

h(2r2 L)

d Q/ dr2 0

show

rcr ,cylinder

Thermal conductivity

External convection heat

transfer coefficient

40

r2 rcr

r2 rcr

max

r2 rcr

Before insulation check

for critical radius

rcr , sphere

2k

41

SURFACES

Two ways of increasing

- increase h

- increase As

By adding fins

(Car radiators)

42

(fin)

rate of heat

conduction into

the element at x

rate of heat

conduction from

the element at

x+x

Q conv h( px)(TS T )

x 0

Q cond , x x Q cond , x

x

rate of heat

convection from

the element

hp(T T ) 0

dQ cond

hp (T T ) 0

dx

43

Q cond

(fin)

dT

kAc

dx

d

dT

kAc

hp (T T ) 0

dx

dx

d 2

2

a

0

2

dx

hp

a

kAC

2

At constant AC and k

Solution is;

T T

Boundary condition x = 0

( x) C1e C 2 e

ax

ax

b Tb T

44

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