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UNIT OPERATIONS II:

HEAT TRANSFER

Introduction
Heat transfer is the study of thermal energy (heat)
flows
Heat always flows from hot to cold
Examples are ubiquitous:

heat flows in the body


home heating/cooling systems
refrigerators, ovens, appliances
automobiles, power plants, the sun, etc.

Typical Design Problems


To determine:
overall heat transfer coefficient
- e.g., for a car radiator
highest (or lowest) temperature
e.g., in a gas turbine
temperature distribution (related to thermal
stress) - e.g., in the walls of a spacecraft
temperature response in time dependent
heating/cooling problems - e.g., how long does it
take to cool down a case of soda?
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HEAT TRANSFER
HEAT - Energy in transit
TEMPERATURE heat measured as a
property
HEAT TRANSFER science involving the
study of principles that govern and the
methods that determine the rate of heat
transfer
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Temperature vs Heat

Temperature
Measurement of
average kinetic
energy of
molecules in a
substance
Measurement of
internal thermal
energy

Heat
Thermal energy
that is transmitted
from one object to
another
Energy in transit

APPLICATIONS
Chemical engineering process equipment,
chemical plants
Mechanical engineering boilers, heat
exchangers, turbines, internal
combustion engines
Nuclear engineering removal of heat
generated by nuclear fission,
design of nuclear rods
Electrical engineering cooling system for
generators, motors, chips,
transformers
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APPLICATIONS
Metallurgical engineering furnaces, heat
treatment
Civil engineering design of suspension
bridges, insulation of buildings,
air conditioning
Cryogenic engineering production, storage,
transportation of cryogenic
liquids
Aeronautical engineering design of space
crafts, missiles, rockets
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Nuclear Power Plant

Steam Boiler
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Ski Dubai: largest indoor ski resorts in the world

Hydropolis: world's first underwater luxury resort

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insulators

conductors

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Thermal Expansion
A metal ball has a diameter that is slightly greater
than the diameter of a hole that has been cut into
a metal plate. The coefficient of linear expansion
for the metal in the ball is greater than that for the
plate. Which one (or more) of the following
procedures can be used to make the ball pass
through the hole?
A: raise the temperatures of the ball and plate by
the same amount
B: lower the temperatures of the ball and plate by
the same amount
C: heat the ball and cool the plate
D: cool the ball and heat the plate
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Thermal Expansion
Answer: B and D
Since the coefficient of linear expansion of
the ball is greater than the plate, it will
shrink more per change in temperature as
the temperature of both is lowered. Also,
by cooling the ball you will decrease its
size and by heating the plate you will
increase the size of the hole.
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Thermal Expansion
Thermal expansion is
a property of the
material
different materials
expand differently
Engineers need to
take this into account
in their designs:
expansion joints in
bridges
bi-metal strip
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Thermal Expansion
This is how
thermostats workbimetallic strips in
refrigerators, ovens,
etc. open and close a
switch as the
bimetallic strip bends
one way or the other
due to temp changes
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MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER


Mode

Transfer Mechanism

Conduction

Diffusion of energy due to


random
molecular motion

Convection

Diffusion of energy due to


random
molecular motion plus
bulk motion

Radiation

Energy transfer by
electromagnetic
waves

Rate of Transfer

Q cond , wall

dT
kA
dx

Q conv hAS (TS T )

4
Q rad AS (TS4 Tsurr
)

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Conduction Heat Transfer


Conduction is the transfer of heat by
molecular interaction
In a gas, molecular velocity depends on
temperature
hot, energetic molecules collide with
neighbors, increasing their speed

In solids, the molecules and the lattice


structure vibrate
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STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION IN


PLANE WALLS
Heat transfer
- temperature gradient
- not in the direction where no
change in temperature
- normal to the wall surface
- no significant heat transfer in other
directions
- If T in and outside remain constant

Steady and one-dimensional


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Energy balance for the wall


rate of
heat transfer
into the wall

Q in Q out

dE wall

dt

dE wall
0
dt

rate of
heat transfer
=
out of the wall

Q cond , wall cons

rate of change
of the energy
of the wall

If there is no heat generation

steady operation; since there is no change in the


temperature of the wall with time at any point
The rate of heat transfer through the wall is constant
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FOURIERS LAW OF HEAT


CONDUCTION

Q cond , wall

dT
kA
dx

Q cond , wall
dT

dx

(W)

and A constant, then


constant also

Temperature through the wall varies linearly


with x. Temperature distribution in the wall
under steady conditions is a straight line.

x 0

T2

cond , wall

Q cond , wall

dx kAdT
T T1

T1 T2
kA
L
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Convection Heat Transfer


Convection is movement of heat with a fluid
E.g., when cold air sweeps past a warm
body, it draws away warm air near the body
and replaces it with cold air
T

q
Tbody

q h (Tbody T ) h T
h

average heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-K)

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NEWTONS LAW OF COOLING FOR


CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER RATE

Q conv hAS (TS T )

(W)

Convection heat transfer


coefficient

Q conv

Rconv

TS T

Rconv
1

hAS

Rconv

(0C / W)

Convection resistance of surface


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Radiation Heat Transfer


Thermal radiation is emission of energy as
electromagnetic waves
Intensity depends on body temperature and
surface characteristics
Important mode of heat transfer at high
temperatures and natural convection problems
Examples:
toaster, grill, broiler
fireplace
sunshine

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RADIATION

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Q rad AS (TS4 Tsurr
)

Q rad hrad AS (TS Tsurr )

Rrad

TS Tsurr
Rrad

hrad AS

hrad

Qrad

AS (TS Tsurr )

hcombined hconv hrad


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ONE DIMENSIONAL STEADY HEAT


FLOW
Rate of
heat convection

into the wall

Rate of

Rate of

Q h1 A(T1 T1 ) kA

heat conduction

through the wall

heat convection
from the wall

T1 T2
h2 A(T2 T 2 )
L

T1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T 2
Q

1 / h1 A
L / kA
1 / h2 A adding the numerators and denominators

T T T T2 T2 T 2
Q 1 1 1

Rconv ,1
Rwall
Rconv , 2

T1 T 2
Q
Rtotal

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THERMAL RESISTANCE NETWORK

The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through a plane wall
subjected to convection on both sides and the electrical analogy
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THERMAL RESISTANCE

Q cond , wall
Rwall

T1 T2

Rwall

L
kA

(W)

(0C / W)

Depends on the geometry


and the thermal properties
of the medium

V V2
I 1
Re

Re

Re L

Electrical resistance

eA

V1 V2 Voltage difference

across the resistance

Electrical
conductivity
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through a two-layer plane

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THERMAL RESISTANCE
NETWORKS

Q Q1 Q 2

1
Rtotal

Rtotal

T1 T2 T1 T2
1
1

(T1 T2 )( )
R1
R2
R1 R2

T1 T2
Rtotal

1
1

R1 R2

R1 R2

R1 R2

Resistances are parallel

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COMBINED SERIES-PARALLEL
ARRANGEMENT
T1 T
Q
Rtotal

L1
R1
k1 A1
Rtotal R12 R3 Rconv

L3
R3
k 3 A3

L2
R2
k 2 A2
R1 R2

R3 Rconv
R1 R2

Rconv

hA3

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Total Thermal Resistance

Q UAT

UA

1
Rtotal

T1 T 2
Q
Rtotal

Rtotal Rconv ,1 Rwall ,1 Rwall , 2 Rconv , 2


Rtotal

L1
L2
1
1

h1 A k1 A k 2 A h2 A

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Conduction Example
Compute the heat transfer through the wall
of a home:
Tout = 20 F

Tout = 68 F
Although slight, you
can see the thermal
bridging effect
through the studs

2x6 stud
k=0.15 W/m2-K
sheetrock
k=0.4 W/m2-K

shingles
k=0.15 W/m2-K
fiberglas
sheathing
insulation
2
k=0.15 W/m -K k=0.004 W/m2-K

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Thermal Contact Resistance

Q Q contact Q gap

Q hc ATint erface

Q/ A
hc
Tint erface

(W/m2 0C)

hC: thermal contact conductance

1 Tint erface
Rc

hc
Q/ A

(m2 0C/ W)
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Thermal Contact Resistance


Thermal contact resistance is inverse of
thermal contact conduction,
Depends on
Surface roughness,
Material properties,
Temperature and pressure at interface,
Type of fluid trapped at interface
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Effect of metallic
coatings on
thermal contact
conductance

For soft metals with


smoot surfaces at
high pressures
Thermal contact
conductance

Thermal contact
resistance
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HEAT CONDUCTION IN CYLINDERS


AND SPHERES
Steady-state heat conduction

Heat is lost from a hotwater pipe to the air outside


in the radial direction.
Heat transfer from a long
pipe is one dimensional

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A LONG CYLINDERICAL PIPE

Q cond ,cyl

constant

Fouriers law of conduction

Q cond ,cyl

dT
kA
dr

r2

Q cond ,cyl

r r1

T2

dr kdT
T T1

A 2rL

Q cond ,cyl

T1 T2
2Lk
ln(r2 / r1 )

Q cond ,cyl

T1 T2

Rcyl

Rcyl

ln(r2 / r1 )
2Lk
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FOR SPHERES
Q cond , sph

T1 T2

Rsph

Rsph

r2 r1

4r1 r2 k

A 4r 2

T1 T
Q
Rtotal

including convection

Rtotal

r2 r1
1

4r1r2 k 4r22 h2

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CRITICAL RADIUS OF INSULATION


CYLINDER

T1 T
T1 T
Q

1
Rins Rconv ln(r2 / r1 )

2Lk
h(2r2 L)

d Q/ dr2 0
show

rcr ,cylinder

Thermal conductivity
External convection heat
transfer coefficient
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CHOSING INSULATION THICKNESS

r2 rcr
r2 rcr

max

r2 rcr
Before insulation check
for critical radius

rcr , sphere

2k

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HEAT TRANSFER FROM FINNED


SURFACES

Q conv hAS (TS T )


Two ways of increasing

- increase h
- increase As

By adding fins
(Car radiators)

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Energy Balance on Volume Element


(fin)
rate of heat
conduction into
the element at x

rate of heat
conduction from
the element at
x+x

Q cond , x Q cond , x x Q conv

Q conv h( px)(TS T )

x 0

Q cond , x x Q cond , x
x

rate of heat
convection from
the element

hp(T T ) 0

dQ cond
hp (T T ) 0
dx
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Q cond

(fin)

dT
kAc
dx

d
dT
kAc
hp (T T ) 0
dx
dx

d 2
2

a
0
2
dx

hp
a
kAC
2

At constant AC and k
Solution is;

T T
Boundary condition x = 0

( x) C1e C 2 e
ax

ax

b Tb T
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