PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL
Planning includes the consideration of all input variables so that the predetermined output goals can be achieved. Control means to take a remedial action to prevent the variation of actual output from the desired one.
Production Planning is a pre-production activity that involves determination of optimal production schedule, sequence of operation, economic batch quantity, optimal job machine assignment and dispatching priorities for sequencing of jobs. It also involves the determination and evaluation of the other inputs such as manpower and money.
Control is a complementary activity to the production planning, which keeps track of the operations that are being performed during the production phase.
Production Planning implies formulation, coordination and determination of activities in a manufacturing system necessary for the accomplishment of desired objectives. Production Control is the process of maintaining a balance between various activities evolved during production planning providing most effective and efficient utilization of resources.
Process of Production Planning: ► Defining Objectives ► Setting priorities to attain the objectives ► Analyzing the internal, external environment ► Determining attainable targets ► Determining the inputs required for achieving the targets.
Functions of Production Planning: Production Selection and Design: ► Ensure that the suitable kind of product is selected which fulfils the market demands. ► Ensures that design of the product is according to the customer requirements. Process Selection and Planning: ► To select the appropriate process that includes selection of right kind of technology, machines, material handling systems and automation for the production of a product. ► Allows you to perform efficient process planning. Facility Location: ► Helps to choose a proper location for a plant in order to minimize the costs
Facility Layout and Materials Handling: ► To facilitate the transfer of material and processing of a product in the most efficient manner through the shortest possible distance with minimum time wastage. Capacity Planning: ► Helps to determine how much resource should be kept to meet the current market demand. Procedure Planning: ► Allows you to ensure that the product being produced as per the specified quality standard. Estimating: ► To determine the quantity of the products and cost associated in the production of the required quantity of product with the help of sales
Routing: ► Helps determine the proper sequence of operations involved in the production process to meet the production objectives. ► Process of determining operation sequence is known as routing. ► For performing routing, a route sheet is prepared. ► Following information is stored in a route sheet: ► Required operations and their proper sequence ► Machine to production requirements ► Approximate set up time and operation time required per piece of product. ► Tools and fixtures required for manufacturing the products. ► Raw material specifications
Scheduling: ► Helps in laying down time required for manufacturing a product and time required for a product to move form one machine to other. ► Following are the objectives: ► Avoid improper utilization of time among departments and work centers ► Optimum utilization of labor and the output is produced within the prescribe time. Loading: ► Helps determine which job should be assigned to which machine to obtain maximum and desired output.
Functions of Production Control: Success of an enterprise greatly depends on the performance of its production control department. ► Provision of raw material, equipment, machines and labor. ► To organize production schedule in conformity with the demand forecasts. ► Resources are used in the best possible manner in such a way that the cost of production is minimized and delivery date is maintained. ► To ensure regular and timely supply of raw material at the desired place and of prescribed quality and quantity to avoid delays in production. ► To perform inspection of semi-finished and finished goods and use quality control. ► It is responsible for product design and development.
Importance of Production Control: ► Reduces cost of production by minimizing wastage of material and economic utilization of resources. ► Leads to lower investment by means of efficient and balanced utilization of resources. ► Promotes employee morale by avoiding all sorts of bottlenecks. ► Enhances customer satisfaction and confidence.
Objectives of Production Planning and Control: ► Effectiveness : production of right of goods ► Maximizing output : production of maximum goods ► Quality control : meet quality specifications ► Minimizing throughput time: reducing waiting time and idle time ► Capacity Utilization: manpower and machine is fully utilized ► Minimizing cost : cost of producing goods is minimized. ► Maximizing Profit: maximize profit with minimize cost ► Minimizing throughput: minimum time to production cycle ► Maintaining Inventory level: optimum level of stock is maintained
► ► Maintaining the performance: proper standards are maintained by comparing the actual results with the planned results. ► Capacity planning: proper planning for the future requirements ► Reducing bottlenecks: bottlenecks are removed from all the stages of production. ► Preparing production schedules: timely production is made ► Establishing routes and schedules: optimum utilization of materials, labor and equipments by preparing schedules for work.
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ensure quality goods in required quantities in the required delivery schedule. ensure production of quality products. establish routes and schedules for work that will ensure optimum utilization of resources. provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in accordance with these plans. minimize the product though-put time or production cycle time. maintain optimum inventory levels. maintain flexibility in manufacturing operations. co-ordinate between labor and machines and various supporting departments. plan for plant capacities for future
► Determining the nature and amount of various input factors to manufacture the desired output. ► To co-ordinate labor, machines and equipment in the most effective and economic manner. ► Establishing targets and checking these against performance. ► Ensuring smooth flow of material by eliminating bottlenecks, if any, in production. ► Utilization of under employed resources. ► To manufacture the desired output of right quality and quantity at right time.
PLANNING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT
R & D Department (Product Design)
Industrial Engineering Department
Production Planning & Control Department
Purchase Dept. and Stores Dept.
Manufacturing Departments Inspection & Quality Control -Fabrication -Assembly Assembled Products
Final Inspection & Acceptance testing
Packing & dispatching of finished goods
Distribution to customer through channels of distribution
Phases of Planning and Control Function: 1. Planning Phase n Preplanning: Product planning, development, demand forecasting, resource planning, facilities planning n Active Planning: planning for quantity, determination of product-mix, routing, scheduling, material planning, process planning 2. Action Phase: Execution or implementation 3. Control Phase: n material control n tool control n inventory control
Production planning and control in Job Production: n When the order is to be executed only once, there is either scope for improvement of production techniques by introducing intricate method studies, special tools or jigs and fixtures. n If the order is to be repeated, jigs & fixtures, tools as well as specially designed inspecting gauges should be carefully considered to reduce the manufacturing cycle time.
Characteristics of Planning and Control for Job Production: 1 Every job order is of different nature and have different sequence of operations. 2 Specific job orders are assigned to different work stations as per availability of capacity. 3 Production schedules drawn depend on the relative priority assigned to various job orders. 4 Scheduling is dependent on assessment of production times and estimating is based on judgement.
Production planning and control in Batch Production: n Batch production is the manufacture of a number of identical articles either to meet a specific order or to satisfy continuous demand. n The decisions regarding tooling and jigs and fixtures are dependent on the quantities involved in the production batch.
Characteristics of Planning and Control for Batch production: 1 Planning and control become more simplified as quantities increase and as manufacture becomes more regular. 2 Before issuing manufacturing orders, need for raw materials, overloading and under loading of particular machines must be anticipated. 3 Several orders are handled simultaneously in different work centers scheduling and follow up becomes a difficult task. 4 Dispatching has to be done efficiently to avoid delays and bottlenecks in the production process.
Production planning and control in continuous Production (mass and flow production): n Mass Production, a large no. of identical articles is produced, but inspite of advanced mechanization and tooling, the equipment need not be specially designed for the component to be manufactured. n Flow Production: Plant and equipment and layout have been primarily designed to manufacture a particular product.
Characteristics of Planning and Control for continuous production: 1 Extensive effort is required for detailed planning before production status but both scheduling and control need not be elaborate usually. 2 Output is either limited by available capacity or regulated within given limits to conform to production targets on periodic sales forecasts.
Production planning and control in Process Industry: n Production Planning and Control in process industry is relatively simple. Routing is automatic and uniform. Standard processes and specialized equipments are used. AS the products are standardized and goods are produced to stock and sell, scheduling is easy. Departmental schedules are derived from master production schedules. n PPC in process industry is to maintain a continuous and uniform flow of work at the predetermined rate in order to utilize the plant and equipment fully and to complete the production in time.
Characteristics of PPC in Process Industry: I Sound organizational structure with mechanism for . proper delegation of authority and fixation of responsibility at all levels. I Information feed back system should provide I . reliable and up-to-date information to all persons carrying out PPC functions. I. Trained personnel for using the special tools, I I equipments and manufacturing processes. I . Flexibility to accommodate changes and bottle V necks such as shortage of materials, mix and inventory turnover. V . Accurate assessment of manufacturing lead times and procurement lead times.
Production Planning and Production Control
Production Planning Production Control
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