PLANT LAYOUT

session 8

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► House wife must arrange her kitchen. ► Retailer must arrange his counter and display the products. ► Office management position the desks, tables and other equipment. ► Organizations arrange their facilities, department within the factory, stores etc to achieve smooth flow

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Layout identically involves the allocation of space and the arrangement of equipment in such a manner that overall operating costs are minimized.

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Plant Layout is the method of allocating machines and equipment, various production processes and other necessary services involved in transformation process of a product with the available space of the factory so as to perform various operations in the most efficient and convenient manner providing output of high quality and minimum cost.

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Objectives of Plant Layout ► economies in materials, facilitate manufacturing process ► proper and efficient utilization of available floor space. ► To ensure that work proceeds from one point to another point ► Provision of better supervision and control. ► Careful planning to avoid frequent changes in layout. ► Meet the quality and capacity requirement. ► Provide efficient material handling system. ► To suggest improvements in production process and work methods.

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Types of 1. 2. 3.

Layout Product Layout Functional or Process Layout Stationary Layout

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Product Layout ► The postion of a particular machine is determined at some definite stage where the machine is required to perform some operatin from a sequence of operations designed to manufacture the product. ► Once a machine is in line, it cannot perform any operation which is not designated in the sequence of operations.

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Product Layout:

INPUT

OUTPUT

Storage

Machine A

Machine B

Machine C

Storage

Product Layout Disadvantages

Advantages

oth and regular flow of

material and finished goods. labor by minimizing waster.

onomy in materials and

ssing time

erial Handling

bor procurement and ng requirement.

►Plant layout is of inflexible nature ► ►Vulnerability to production line shut ► ►Supervision is more diffi ►Requires heavy capital investment.

ection is more production. tion control d for buffer stock

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Functional Layout ► All operations of similar nature are grouped together in the same department or part of the factory. ► Machines performing same type of operations are installed at one place. ► Example: furniture, Kitchen

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Functional Layout:
INPUT INPUT

P1

P2

Machine A Machine D Machine B

Machine C

OUTPUT

Functional Layout Disadvantages

Advantages

r output of smaller quantities and with varying specifications. ► can material e specific operationMore be used. handling of the system works independently. ►Longer Processing time roduction facilitiesRequires substantial production planning and control ► ►Requires more floor space. s not disrupt production schedules. ►Inspection is ore frequent and costlier. ►Requires highly skilled labor creating difficulty in ment ixed costs to total costs.

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Stationary Layout ► This type of layout is used where Semifinished goods are of such a size and weight that their movement from one place to othe other is not possible. ► Men, equipment and the raw material is moved to a place where all the manufacturing activities are carried out. ► Example: Ship-building

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Stationary Layout: INPUT
INPUT

Men

Raw material

Building Construction (Immovable product)
OUTPUT

INPUT

Machinary

Stationary Layout Disadvantages

Advantages

f frequent adjustments Heavy with sophisticated equipment the process. ► both and respect to product and cannot be used i ► ployed and remain busy This layout is suitable for one work or the other.p ► throughtout the process in some special type of

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Techniques of Plant Layout: Information required for proper planning ► Type and quantity of labor required. ► Dimensional plant of the space ► Volume of work (present and future) ► Description fo the operations, their sequence ► Nature of machines to perform operations ► Amount of material, buffer stock required at each workstation. ► Size of finished and semi-finished products inventory. ► Kind of communications and fire-exits. ► Special requirements to fulfil the local bye-

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Plant Layout tools: Information required for proper planning I Process Charts . i Operations Process Charts . i Flow process Chart i . I Process Flow Diagrams I . I. Machine data cards I I I . Visualization of Layout V i Two-dimenstional plan . i Three-dimenstional Plan i .

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Features of good Plant Layout: I Sufficient space for the worker as well as for . the equipment. I Provide adequate safety and security to I . workers against accidents. I. Sufficient gang-way space for materials, I I workers and semi–finished goods. I . Arrangement of machines and equipment should V be such that minimmum material handling is necessary for low cost processing. V . Stores not far from the place of operations. V I Supervision, co-ordination and control of the . activity should be effectively and easily executed. V I Sufficient scope for making adjustments and I . modifications whenever need arises.

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