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FIELD BUS CONCEPT &

DESIGN
By
R.V.Lakshmi
On 28th Jan 2005

FIELD BUS

Overview
Advantages
Various Field bus configurations
Comparisons

Over view

What is Field bus?


Fieldbus is a digital, two-way, multi
drop communication link among
intelligent control devices
Two way communication reading
from and writing to the end device

Advantages

Multi-drop capability means substantial


savings in cabling costs
Trouble shooting, calibration made easier
because of two-way communication
Some controls may be transferred to field
Open communication system

Vendor independent operation of different


types of process devices on one bus

Advantages

Easier Installation
Central configuration, so simple
start-up
Higher plant security and availability
due to better process values
Easier maintenance and reduced
frequency of maintenance resulting
in cost saving

Field bus

Medium of communication

Copper cable
Fibre optic link
Wireless

Serial bit transmission

Various configurations

Foundation Field bus


Profibus
DeviceNet
AS-I
HART

Intrinsic safety
requirement

Network components

Field devices
Cables
Segment couplers
Bus terminators

Intrinsic safety
requirement

Pre-defined Limits of

Voltage
Current
Output
Inductance
Capacitance

No need of individual intrinsic safety


calculations

Communication types

Cyclic (periodic data gathering)


Acyclic access to devices for

diagnostics
maintenance

Foundation Field Bus

By Field bus foundation


Open Architecture (many suppliers)
Information integration (Field devices,
PLCs, dataservers, workstations)
Reduced loading on control room
equipment due to distribution of control
& I/O functions to field devices.
Self-test features
For IS applications also

Foundation field bus


Twisted pair or fibre optic cables
(Trunk and spur cables)
Bus speed is 31kbps max distance
1900m (H1 bus)
MIS, ERP information access

Field bus power supplies

Off the shelf power supplies not


recommended to be used
Fieldbus standards require this to
include conditioning components so
that the characteristics of the power
supply do not interfere with the
fieldbus communications at 31.25
kbits/s, to a ensure good quality, robust
signal.

Typical field bus


installation using Tree
topology
Control room

Field

Field device

Spur

Trunk

Power
supply

Conditioner

T
Wiring block

Host
Control
System

Terminator

FISCO concept

Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept


Up to 265 mA current available in field
Can support up to 16 devices assuming
each draws 15mA standing current
Power supply, fieldbus cable and field
instruments must comply with the
FISCO requirements as published in IEC
technical specification 60079-27

FISCO design
Control system

24Vdc
24Vdc

FISCO power supply


CONTROL ROOM
FIELD
Field wiring hub
Intrinsically safe

Intrinsically safe FISCO Fieldbus devices

Zone 1
Division 1

PROFIBUS

PROFIBUS PA & DP
By Siemens
Uses Field bus standards
RS-485 standard
Bus powering of field devices using
signal cables
For intrinsically safe applications also
Twisted pair or fiber optic cables

PROFIBUS Architecture
Personal
Computer

Controller

PROFIBUS-DP

PROFIBUS-PA

PROFIBUS DP & PA
application

protocol

physical
layer

PROFIBUS-DP
Decentral Periphery

PROFIBUS-PA
Process Automation

Common DPV1 Protocol:


fast cyclic services
acyclic services for operation
two defined master classes
RS 485
9600 ... 12 M Bit/s

IEC 61158-2
31.25 k Bit/s

PROFIBUS PA IS
ARCHITECTURE
PROFIBUS-DP RS 485
PROFIBUS-PA
IEC 61158-2

No. of nodes

1-10

Max. spur length

30 m

PROFIBUS-DP

Line topology

PROFIBUS-DP

T
Repeater

PROFIBUS-DP

PROFIBUS-DP

Physical transmission via RS 485


2-wire cable, twisted, shielded
Max. 32 nodes per segment
Max. 1200m line length per segment
Max. 4 segments connected via repeater
Max. 126 addresses possible
Alternatively fibre optical cable

A separate power supply is necessary!

AS-Interface (AS-i)

By AS-I consortium
Actuator-Sensor interface
For binary devices
Proximity sensors, limit switches,
valves
Master-slave configuration
31 slaves per master

HART

Master-slave communication
protocol
FSK (Frequency shift keying)
principle
Superimposed on 4-20mA DC signal.
Two masters-DCS & Hand- held
configurator / PC

Difference in DCS when


fieldbus is used for field
devices

Field I/O cards like AI, AO cards


need not be used
Only fieldbus interface cards need
to be used
Space occupied by DCS is
significantly lesser than with
conventional DCS architecture
Hence Cost and space saving

Application example

Brewery

PLC Cabinet for plant section


of 12 buffer tanks
Previous installation
for identically section
with 4-20 mA instrumentation

3 racks for
Siemens
SIMATIC S5
40 analog and
digital I/O cards
2 fiber optical
links to
higher level

1 rack for
Siemens
SIMATIC S5

4 DP Mastercards
IM 308 C
2 P+F Segment
coupler
2 fiber optical
links

New installation with


PROFIBUS-PA instrumentation