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Session 27


 Definition:
 Advertising is any paid form of non-personal
presentation by an identified sponsor.

► Advertising is handled by someone in sales

or marketing department.

► Large Companies set up its own departments.

► Most Companies use an outside agency.
 Five M’s of Advertising

Message generation
Message evaluation and selection
MONEY Social-responsibility review

MISSION Factors to Consider

Stages in PLC
Sales Goals Market Share and consumer base
Advertising Objectives Competition and clutter Communication impact
Advertising frequency Sales Impact
Product Substitutability


Reach, frequency, impact, media types, Specific media vehicles Media timing Geographical media
2 . M – Mission
 ( Advertising Objectives )

Position the offering: Advertisements are used

for positioning products in the target audience.

1. Product characteristics and customer
2. Price-Quality
3. Product use
4. Product user
5. Product class
6. Symbols
7. Competition

Creating Awareness :

► Creating Awareness helps to legitimate a

company, its products and its
representatives to customers.
► Advertising improves acceptance of
products and salespeople.

Stimulate trial :
 Advertising that stimulates trial
increases the diffusion rte of product among
the target audience.

 Remind and reinforce :
► To remind consumers of the brand’s existence
and reinforce its image.
► The objective of advertising is to maintain
top of the mind awareness and favourable
 Provide support for sales force :
► Advertising provides support to sales force
by identifying warm prospects and
communicating with otherwise unreachable
members of a decision making unit.
 Corrections misconceptions :
► Companies or brands that may have got
tarnished due to negative publicity can be
resuscitate by advertising.

 Deciding the Advertising Objectives

Methods :

 1. AIDA , the Four - Stage Model

 Attention - Attract Attention
 Interest - Gain Interest
 Desire - Arouse a Desire
 Action - result in Action

 2. The Five - Stage Model

 Awareness
 Interest
 Evaluation
 Trial
 Adoption

 The Six - Stage Model
 Awareness - knowledge
 Knowledge - knowledge
 Liking - emotions
 Preference - emotions
 Conviction - action
 Purchase - action

 D efining A dvertising G oals
for M easuring A dvertising

 Advertising Objectives can be set around

► Behavioral constructs: generating trial

purchases and store visits.
►Attitude: attitude change.
►Awareness: creating awareness of new products
/ brands and new ideas.
► Product Positioning and brand building

 2. M - ( MONEY )
 Advertising Spend
► Percentage of Sales Method
► Affordability Method
► Matching Competition
► Objective and task Method
► Regression analysis
► Adaptive Control Model
► Compromise
Percentage of sales method

 Disadvantages

► Method is easy to ► Discourages

apply costly
► Budget is advertising
specified ► Decline in
percentage of advertising
current or expenditure
expected sales when sales
revenue. decline.

 Affordability Method :
► Executive judgment decides , the
amount to be spent on
advertising .

 Matching Competition :
► Some companies match expenditures or
use a similar percentage of sales
figure as their major
competitors .

► Matching expenditure assumes that

the competition have arrived at
the correct level of expenditure
and ignores market opportunities
and communication objectives of
the company .

 Objective and task method :

► The advertising budget depends on

the communication objectives and
costs of tasks required to
achieve them .

► If the objective is to increase the
awareness of a brand name form
30 % to 40 %, the costs of
developing the necessary campaign
and using appropriate media ( TV ,
print ) would be made .

 Regression Analysis :

► Regression analysis is done based on

historical data – either time series
data or cross-sectional data.

► Time series data are records of
advertising expenditure and sales for
a specific period over different
 Adaptive Control Model :

► A sales response curve and locates an

optimal level of ad expenditure.

► Firm will now experiment with advertising
at non-optimal levels in selected test

► The new information coming out of the
experimental marketing is added to the
sales response function.
 Compromise :

► In actual practice, marketing executives

usually blend some well-accepted
methods and arrive at a compromise

► The budget decision is closely linked to

the advertising objectives, the media
decision and the copy decision.

► Decision making is an integrated process.
Effective advertisement requires a lot of

research about competitors offerings

and the target customer.
An understanding of the advertising
platform should be made.
 Advertising platform – unique selling

Brand Personality is the message that the

advertisement seeks to convey.

 Personality includes – brand name, symbols,
advertising style, packaging, price and the
nature of the product.
 Personality of a mass brand may convey
sophistication and upper classness which
may not necessarily correspond with the
type of people who buy the brand.

The Marketer who builds the most sharply

defined image of his brand wins the

maximum market share.
Multinational companies will have to consider

their strategy of standardizing advertising


Strong brand is built by addressing itself to

differences between segments.

When marketers are selling parity products,

make the message clearer, more honest and

more informative than the competitors.

 An advertising message translates the
platform into words, symbols and
illustrations, which are attractive and
meaningful to target audience.
Readers see

1. Picture or illustration
2. Headline
 Aadi Sales 50% offer
 5.99% interest rate on finance
 1 + 4 Offer, Pay for 1 and get 4)
3. Body copy (conditions)
 Picture must be strong enough to draw
 Headline must reinforce the picture and lead
the person to read the copy.

Print ads
 Advantages  Disadvantages

 Effective product information  Visual images in print media

can be communicated to makes it difficult to provide
user and usage imagery. dynamic presentation or
 Larger ads gain more demonstrations.
attention  Poor reproduction quality and
 Elements like ad size, color, short shelf life can diminish
illustration affect a print’s their impact.
impact.  Used for local – especially
 retailers.
Print Advertisement

 Illustration at the top, followed by the

headline and the copy after the headline.

 Overuse of colors may distract consumers

 Advertisement should contain a headline
which might promise a benefit, deliver
news, offer a service

 LongHeadline has better chances of being read

than a shorter headline.

 Headline or the illustration should contain the
brand name noticeably, which must
subsequently be repeated as many times as
possible in the advertisement.

 Message (Benefit) should be important to the
target audience.

 Message should be couched in the

customer’s language and not the
language of the advertiser.
 Illustration should sell the product benefits
by using pictures.
 In body copy, long paragraphs and
sentences should be avoided, whit space
should be used to avoid it looking too
heavy to read.

Print ads should be in black colored

letters on a white space, and not
the other way around.
Use of capitals and odd fonts
obstructs reading.

radio ads
 Advantages  Disadvantages

 Stations are very targeted,  Lack of visual images and the

ads are relatively relatively passive nature of
inexpensive to product and the consumer processing
place, and short closings that results.
allow for quick response. 

 Companies achieve balance

between broad and
localized market coverage.
 Ads can be creative

TV Commercials are of short duration.

Mostly communicate only one major selling

TV advertising uses one of the three approaches:

1. Suggests a reason for the customer to buy.

2. No over benefit is mentioned. Intention is to
involve the viewer by telling a story.
3. Appeal attempt to register the brand as
significant in the market.
Humorous advertisements – funny
 Example : Boomer

 Slice of life advertisements – actor argues

with another about the merits of a
product. These advertisements are
 Example : Tata Sky Dish (160 channels,
only 440 Rs.)

 Testimonial advertisements – loyal users of the
product testifying to its virtues when they do
not know that they are being filmed.
 Example : Bathroom cleaner

 Product demonstration – able to persuade

 Example : Vim one drop is enough
Advertisements that are compared

 Example: Horlicks and Complan

Advertisements that provide solutions

 Example: Mr. Muscle for cleaning

kitchen room and dirt places
Pitchman admire the merits of the
product – announcing new products.


Some Advertisements a “character” is

used to sell the product for a long time.
Characters are above average in their
ability to change brand preference.
Advertisements which contain “news”

Emotions in an advertisement.

 Example : Brooke Bond 3 Roses

Testimonials by celebrities

Cartoons sells products of children

Musicals: Customers tune in to the music

so intently that they tune out the

advertised product.
 Example : TITAN
Brand Name:

Brand name should appear within first ten

seconds of the advertisement. And should

be repeated as often as possible.
To repeat brand name we can do, like
spelling brand name with accompanying
music or playing a jingle with the brand
name featuring in it prominently.
It is possible to do with irritating the viewer.

Advertisements which end by showing the

package are more effective in changing

Brand preference.
Appetizing Food:

More tempting the product looks the more it

Close Ups:

A Close up of the product is a good idea. The

closer a look the viewers, the more they

desire it.
Emphatic opening:

If an Advertisement grabs attention in the

first frame with a visual surprise, it has a

better chance of holding the viewer.
Avoid visual dullness:

Viewer will pay attention if he sees something

that he has never seen before.


Scenes without confusing the viewers.

Product in use:

It is useful to show the product being


Advertisement should state its message

very clearly.

Scenes without confusing the viewers.

Product in use:

It is useful to show the product being


Advertisement should state its message

very clearly.
 How does Advertising persuade the
 Should provide the information that is
interest to the audience
Information may give them new
information, or it may support the
information they already have
It may attempt to alter their existing
views and beliefs.
That the audience see the
advertisement and interpret it in a
way favourable to the advertiser.
The Advertisement should influence
the Audience
Factors in an Ad that Bring about

Audience Persuasion
1.The source of the endorser
 The Credibility of the Source
 Likeability/Attractiveness of the
 The source’s approach to the views
and disposition of the audience
The Credibility of the Source
 Factors such as level of expertise,
trustworthiness, culture, age
and educational level usually
decide the source’s credibility
with the audience.
Likeability/Attractiveness of the
 If the audience likes the source, it
certainly is a plus point in the
successful delivery to the
 The source’s approach to the views
and disposition of the audience
 Advertisements Using Celebrities as
Source /Endorser
 Amitabh Bachchan was used as the source
for ICICI Bank’s campaigns
 Gwalior – Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi
 Sachin Tendulkar – Visa, Pepsi, Philips
 Colgate – sunil shetty
 Mayur suiting's – Sharukh Khan
 Lux – film stars
 2. Message
 Message Sidedness
 Order of Presentation
 Climax Order
 Anti – Climax Order
 Pyramidal Order
 Message Conclusion
 2. Message
 Message Sidedness:
 Should we present only one side of an
argument in an advertisement
or both sides of an argument?
 Order of Presentation:
 Presentation of the argument – where exactly
should be placed.
 Climax Order:
 When the audience already possesses a high
degree of interest in the material that is
 Anti-Climax Order:
 When the audience interest in the material
being presented in low.
 Pyramidal Order:
 Material in the middle of the message gets the
least attention and in effect it is the least
 Message Conclusion:
 Answer to the question will depend
upon the particular context
relating the product.
 If curiosity cannot be aroused in the
audience, compete messages are
more appropriate.
 Message Appeal:
 Rational Appeals
 Example: Sundrop – ITC used rational appeal
in its campaigns for sundrop, its super-
refined oil.
 New Sundrop super-refined oil offers not just
one, but four important its natural flavor.
 Easy food-absorption
 Energy
 Heart-care
 vitamins A, D and E

 Zodiac – highlighted the product
features one by one and tried to
convince the audience why Zodiac
is the best shirt.
 Brand to Brand Comparison – New
Pepsodent was that it is 102 percent
superior to Colgate Dental Cream.
 Emotional Appeal:
 Example: Jenson & Nicholson –
 Love At First Sight, Love Ever After
 Colours Are Like Love ………..
 Jenson & Nicholson Colours ………..
 Excitingly ……..
 Beautifully ……….
 Give Your Home This Wonderful Romance
 Through J & N Colours ……..
 Humour Appeal:
 Example: Newsweek
 “If your advertising doesn’t work in
Time magazine, change your
advertising agency”

 Headline of a subsequent ad for Newsweek

 “If your advertising doesn’t work in
Time magazine, don’t change your
agency place it in Newsweek”
 Fear Appeal:
 Example: United India Assurance and
Max New York Life
 The message tries to evoke feelings of
fear or anxiety in the minds of the
 Ad follows like this.
 Today ….. A picture of Safety
 Tomorrow… An invitation of disaster
 Your Protection is our concern
 Take Cover Under United India
 Keep Messge Simple and Short
 Testing the Copy
 Laboratory Methods
 Simulated environment
 Real/Natural environment, market tests
 DAR Test – Day After Recall technique

 Audio/visual/audio-visual/electronic




Cassettes-audio and video


 Print Media


Trade Journals

Direct Mail
 Commonly used Outdoor Media Vehicles
 Hoardings

 Posters

 Neon Signs and other illuminations

 Transit advertising (Railways and other

 Fairs and exhibitions

 Amusement parks

 Dance, drama and puppet shows

 Loudspeaker announcements

 Balloons and sky writings

 Media Characteristics
 Exposure
 Reach and Frequency
 Weighing Reach and Frequency
against Cost
 Measuring TV viewership

 Media Characteristics
 Exposure:
 How many exposures of a message are
required to take a typical member
of the target group through all the
stages of the purchase process.
 Initial exposure may create a curiosity
 Next exposure may perhaps create some
 Some more exposures at well-planned
intervals may result in a desire to
 Media Characteristics
 Reach and Frequency:
 How many exposures can be purchased
for an already-decided budget?
 Which media/media vehicle offers the
best buy?
 Reach: denotes the total no. of persons
exposed to the given media vehicle
at least once during the period of
under reference.
 Frequency: denotes the no. of times the
audience is exposed to the media
vehicle during this period.
 Media Characteristics
 Weighing Reach and Frequency
Against Cost:
 Newspaper – rates per line or column
 Magazines – per page or half page
 Radio and Televisions – time slots of 10
seconds, 20 seconds etc.
 Media Schedule
 Media category: TV, magazines
 Media vehicles: Starplus in TV
 Business India – Magazines
 Economic Times - Newspaper
 Programme choice
 Kaun Banega Crore pati
 Number of insertions
 no. of planned insertions
 The details:
 size specifications, location etc.

 Media Schedule
 Timing:
 Continuous approach
 Pulsing approach
 Flighting approach
 Sales vs communication – if sales is objective
 Awareness vscommunication – if creating
awareness is the objective
 Positioning vs communication – If positioning
of the brand into the segment customers.