Geothermal Heat Pumps

A Proven Renewable Energy Technology by Greg Tinkler Redding Linden Burr Consulting Engineers

While Earth travels through Space…

…it Absorbs Energy from the Sun

This natural Energy Collection and Storage System captures nearly 50% of the Solar Energy falling on Earth…

…thus maintaining a nearly Constant Temperature throughout the year just below the surface

Water is an incredibly efficient medium for transporting Thermal Energy

Geothermal Heat Pump Systems combine Sun, Earth, and Water using proven technology…

… to create “the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space-conditioning system”
(according to U.S. EPA 1993)

Geothermal Heat Pump Basic Principles

The Earth is the Source of Heat in Winter…
Outdoor air design temperature: 5°F in winter 72°F
Insulating layer of earth


A geothermal heat pump takes heat from the earth during winter and transfers it into the building

…and an Efficient Place to Reject Heat in Summer…
Outdoor air design temperature: 100°F in summer 74°F
Insulating layer of earth


A geothermal heat pump cools the building in summer by rejecting heat into the earth

…using Heat Pump Technology
A geothermal heat pump is connected to a sealed water piping loop buried in the earth near the building Insulating layer of earth When water exiting the heat pump is pumped through the ground loop, it is naturally warmed (or cooled) by the earth surrounding it

Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency
One unit of energy from the grid

Yields: 5 units of energy for the building

Plus: 4 units of energy from the earth

500% Efficient

Geothermal Heat Pumps Exchange Heat between Air and Water
$1 Worth of Electricity to Operate the Compressor and Fan Moves $4 Worth of Heat from the Water Delivering $5 Worth of Heat into the Air Heating Mode Shown
Air Out 100 F Water In 50 F Water Out 44 F



Air Coil Expans ion Valve Water Coil

Heat can be “pumped uphill” meaning delivered at a higher temperature than the source

Revers ing Valve

Com pr essor

Air In 70 F

Geothermal Heat Pumps Heat or Cool on Demand and also Produce Hot Water
Air Out 58 F Water In 70 F Water Out 80 F


Air Coil

Operates on the Same Principle as a Refrigerator Cooling Mode Shown

Expansion Valv e

Water Coil

Rev ersing Valv e

Hot water is produced whenever the unit is operating

Compressor Air In 80 F HW In 90 F HW Out 120 F


Heat Pumps Are All Around Us…
Air conditioners and airsource heat pumps transfer heat from inside houses to the air outside HEAT HEAT


Refrigerators transfer heat from food into the kitchen

Geothermal Heat Pumps

Self-contained heating, cooling and hot water

Geothermal Heat Pump Installation Methods

Vertical Closed-Loop
A pair of pipes with a special U-bend assembly at the bottom is placed into bore holes from 100 to 400 feet deep

Horizontal Closed-Loop
A piping array is installed in trenches cut 3 to 5 feet deep and hundreds of feet in length

Surface Water Closed-Loop
A piping array is submerged in a pond or lake at least 8 feet deep

Ground Water Open-Loop
Well water from an underground aquifer is pumped through the geothermal heat pump and then returned to the aquifer or discharged to the surface

Vertical Closed-Loop Installation


Pipe Loop Insertion

Heat Fusing Inside Connection

Geothermal systems are at work in thousands of buildings throughout the world
The Oklahoma State Capitol uses over 600 geothermal heat pumps

Geothermal Hybrid System - Winter
Heat Pump

Water Pump

Cooling Tower (OFF)

Earth Loops

Geothermal Hybrid System - Summer
Heat Pump

Water Pump

Cooling Tower (ON)

Earth Loops

Importance of Buildings Sector
43% of U.S. Carbon Emissions
Industry 377 MMTC (25%) Transportation 482 MMTC (32%) Buildings 658 MMTC (43%)

39% of U.S. Primary Energy Consumption

71% of U.S. Electricity Global Pressures 53% of U.S. Natural Gas

1970-2020 (Exxon Mobile Projection)

Electric Utility Perspective

Garrett Office Buildings Edmond, Oklahoma

Conventional Variable Air Volume (VAV) Building 15,000 Sq. Ft.

Geothermal Building 20,000 Sq. Ft.

Garrett Office Buildings
Annual Energy and HVAC Maintenance Costs 2006-2007



55% Operational Cost Savings
Total Electricity Gas Maintenance

$ per Square Foot




VAV System Geotherm al

Garrett Office Buildings
Annual Energy Use 2006-2007



47% Site Energy Savings
Total Electricity Gas

60 kBtu per Square Foot






VAV System Geotherm al

Garrett Office Buildings
Annual CO2 Emissions 2006-2007


28% Carbon Emissions Reduction


Lbs. CO2 Equivalent per Square Foot


Gas 35 Electricity



20 VAV System Geotherm al

Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Energy Use

10 9 8 7 kBtu per Square Foot 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Jul-06 Aug-06 Sep-06 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07

VAV System Geothermal

Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Peak Demand
6.0 5.5


Watts per Square Foot



VAV System Geothermal




2.0 Jul-06 Aug-06 Sep-06 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07

Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Electricity Supply Load Factor


Load Factor


VAV System Geothermal


20 Jul-06 Aug-06 Sep-06 Oct-06 Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07

Geothermal Perf in FL Schools
3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Cost per Square Foot Arnold Mosley Bozeman Bay Haven Washington Arnold $0.91 Bozeman $2.27 Mosley $1.68

Bay Haven $0.73






0 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 June May Apr Mar Feb Jan Dec Nov Oct Sept Aug July




Bay Haven


•Washington Co. – Includes Rouhlac Middle School & Chipley High School Open Geo System

•Mosley High School - Gas Boiler/Chiller System (Updated w/ new equipment 1996) •Bay Haven Charter School – Closed Geo System •Bozeman Learning Center-All Electric-Gulf Coast Co-Op

* Arnold High School - Closed Loop Geothermal System (completed Aug, 2000)

Our Planet Is Under Assault From Many Forces Our Planet is under Assault from many Forces

There Are Many Solutions

There are Many Solutions

Geothermal Heat Pumps are one of the Most Effective and Deployable…

… producing the lowest carbon dioxide emissions, including all source effects, of all available space-conditioning technologies
(EPA, 1993)

The payback on Geothermal Systems is many times faster than solar PV

Using a Single Geothermal Heat Pump is Equivalent to Planting an Acre of Trees

Using A Single Geothermal Heat Pump Is Equivalent to Taking Two Cars off the Road

Since their introduction in the 1980’s, nearly 1 million Geothermal Heat Pumps have been installed in the United States This is the equivalent to planting 1 million acres of trees, and of taking Two Million cars off the road