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Module 9

Basic Router
Version 3.1


The Routing Table and show ip route
• Routers build routing tables to:
– list available routes for forwarding data
– select the best path to a destination
• show ip route displays routing table information about
all known networks and subnetworks

Version 3.1


it looks for the prefix 192.168.4. •If RTA receives a packet destined for 10. •RTA then forwards the packet out an interface (Ethernet0) based on the routing table entry. it sends that packet out Serial 0 Version in its table.4.3.5.Example Routing Table •When RTA receives a packet destined for 192.21.1 3 .

Example Routing Table •4 routes – directly connected •The router will drop any packet destined for a network not listed in the routing table •So what do you do with those packets that this router doesn’t have a route to? Version 3.1 4 .

dynamically Version 3.1 5 .Adding Routes • Static routing – Manually entered by the administrator: • more secure • low processor overhead • have precise control of path selection • Dynamic routing – router learns route from other routers.

0.Gateway of Last Resort (Default Static Route) Two ways to statically configure default routes: • From global configuration mode – ip route 0.1 6 .0.0 [next-hop interface|exit-interface] • From router configuration mode – ip default network [network number] Version 3.

ip default-network Version 3.1 7 .

ip route Version 3.1 8 .

• Layer 3 address is always used in routing.Routing Processes • Remember that the IP source and destination do not change in the packet.we are always talking about network addressing Version 3. but the MAC addresses do change. but the MAC address has to change because the data is framed as it moves out on the data link layer. • The packet is forwarded based on the MAC address of the next hop. Source to destination --.1 9 .

• The smaller the metric number. • The metric is a value that measures the desirability of a route. Version 3.Route Metrics • Routing protocols use metrics to determine the best route to a destination. the better the path.1 10 .

1 11 .M E T R I C S Version 3.

the greater the flexibility to tailor network operations to meet specific needs.6 Version 3.Route Metrics • The more factors that make up a metric. IGRP uses the static factors bandwidth and delay to calculate a metric value (so bandwidth and delay can actually be entered by the administrator). load and reliability. • By default. • IGRP may also be configured to include the dynamic factors. • Remember.1 12 . in the metric calculation. IGRP uses the metric • Metric = bandwidth + delay Be sure to do the Interactive Media Activity in 9.1.

Troubleshooting Version 3.1 13 .

1 14 . and straight-through cables correctly) Transceiver problems DCE cable problems DTE cable problems Devices turned off Version 3.Testing by OSI Layers • Layer 1 – check obvious first (lights on a NIC) – – – – – – – – – Broken cables Disconnected cables Cables connected to the wrong ports Intermittent cable connection Wrong cables used for the task at hand (must use rollovers. crossover cables.

Testing by OSI Layers • Layer 2 errors: – Improperly configured serial interfaces – Improperly configured Ethernet interfaces – Improper encapsulation set (HDLC is default for serial interfaces) – Improper clockrate settings on serial interfaces – Network interface card (NIC) problems Version 3.1 15 .

Testing by OSI Layers • Layer 3 errors: – Routing protocol not enabled – Wrong routing protocol enabled – Incorrect IP addresses – Incorrect subnet masks Version 3.1 16 .

ping Utility (Layer 3 testing) Maybe the host isn’t available Version 3.1 17 .

1 18 . Version 3.Telnet application (Layer 7 testing) • Actually verifies all seven layers of the OSI • If telnet is not working. then that means that there are upper-layer application layer problems.

•If the interface is up and the line protocol is interfaces serial •Used to discover Layer 1 & Layer 2 problems with the router •When the line is down. because there is no useable media for the Layer 2 protocol. a Layer 2 problem exists (no keepalives. no clock rate.1 19 . the protocol is always down. encap different) •You would never see serial 0/0 is down. line protocol is up Version 3.

However. The line status is triggered by a Carrier Detect signal. triggered by keepalive frames. the line protocol. refers to the data link framing. and refers to the physical layer status. Version interfaces serial Interpreting the Show Interfaces Serial Command One of the most important elements of the show interfaces serial command output is the display of the line and data link protocol status.1 20 .

show interfaces serial Know all of these! Version 3.1 21 .

show ip protocols The show ip protocols command shows the following: • Sources of routing updates • The networks being advertised • Update timer values – Ex. If a network is not being included in the routing updates and should be. an administrator could issue this command to see which networks are being advertised Version 3.1 22 .

debug • Be Careful!!! • Debug will give you live. but be more specific. like – debug ip rip (only live info on rip routing ip) • To turn off debug. use undebug all or u all Version 3.1 23 . • Therefore it will use processor time that may disrupt normal router operation • Especially should not use “debug all”. changing information.