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Plotting on ternary diagrams 1

Method for plotting a


point with the
components:70% X,
20% Y, and 10% Z on
triangular diagrams.
For each component,
you always measure
from zero of that
component (opposite
side) toward the corner
of that component.
If done correctly, the
lines for all 3
components should
cross at the same point.

Plotting on ternary diagrams 2


The plotting position for
this point is:

X value = X/(X+Y+Z)
Y value = Y/(X+Y+Z)
Z value = Z/(X+Y+Z)
Where X, Y, and Z are
the numerical values of
the three plotted
components (e.g., weight
% of SiO2, Al2O3, and
FeO in a chemical
analysis, or Quartz,
Alkali feldspar, or
Plagioclase in a mode)
for this one point.

Plotting on ternary diagrams 3


Another method for
plotting a point with the
components: 70% X,
20% Y, and 10% Z on
triangular diagrams.
The X component line
is drawn at 70% X like
the previous two slides.
The second line is radial
from X to the position
between Y and Z
determined by:
Y/(Y+Z)
This is especially useful
for the IUGS
classification diagrams

Q (Quartz)

Classification of plutonic Rocks:


QAPF

Quartzolite
90

90

Quartz-rich
Granitoid

60

20

Quartz
Syenite

Syenite

10

(Foid)-bearing
Syenite

35

Quartz
Monzonite

Quartz
Monzodiorite

Monzonite
(Foid)-bearing
Monzonite

65 Monzodiorite

(Foid)-bearing
Monzodiorite

10

id)

(Foid)-bearing
Alkali Fs. Syenite

it
en
Sy

The prefix (Foid) refers to feldspathoid, a


variety of generally low-silica felsic
minerals like nepheline. DO NOT USE
THIS TERM! It is meant to be replaced
by the actual feldspathoid present, so a
nepheline-bearing monzodiorite would
be called a nepheline monzodiorite.

(Foid)
Monzosyenite

Ga
bb
ro

A (Alkalifeldspar

20

(Foid)
Monzodiorite

( Fo
id)

Alkali Fs.
Syenite

Alk
al

Alkali Fs.
Quartz Syenite

Granodiorite

Granite

lite
na
To

i Fe
ldsp
ar G
ran
i te

60

(Fo

A classification scheme for


coarse-grained igneous
rocks that have more than
10% (quartz + feldspar +
feldspathoids). The odd
names are mostly from the
ancient history of natural
science.

The rock must


contain at least
10% of thesum of
the minerals on the
corners.

60

60

(Foid)olites

F (Feldspathoids)

Qtz. Diorite/
Qtz. Gabbro
5 Diorite/Gabbro/

90

Anorthosite

P
10(Plagioclase)
(Foid)-bearing
Diorite/Gabbro

Classification of mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks


Plagioclase
Anorthosite
90

Gabbros

IUGS classification schemes for coarsegrained gabbroic rocks (left) and ultramafic
rocks (below). Note that the corners are at
10% of other components, whereas the
edges are only at 5%.
Ultramafic rocks
Olivine
Dunite

Olivine
gabbro

Ha
rzb
urg
i

Plagioclase-bearing ultramafic rocks

Pyroxene

Olivine

(b)

Ultramafic rocks
classified over
here

Peridotites

lite
hr
We

te

90

Lherzolite

40

(c)

Pyroxenites

Olivine Websterite

Orthopyroxenite

10

10

Orthopyroxene

Websterite
Clinopyroxenite

Clinopyroxene

Classification of volcanic rocks: QAPF


IUGS classification scheme for volcanic
rocks. This works the same way as for
the IUGS scheme for plutonic rocks, but
historically volcanic rock names have
been different and fewer.
You might wonder how it is possible to
quantify all of the minerals in a volcanic
rock, given that mineral grains in many
volcanics are very small and many
volcanics contain a lot of glass.
In such cases quantification of the
identifiable crystals is meaningless in
the sense of this diagram. It is more
useful to plot a volume norm from a
chemical analysis instead.

No
volcanic
rocks
60

60

Rhyolite

Dacite

20

20

Trachyte

Latite
35

A
10

(foid)-bearing
Trachyte

Andesite/Basalt
65

(foid)-bearing
Latite

(Foid)

(foid)-bearing
Andesite/Basalt

10

(Foid)

Phonolite

Tephrite

60

60

(Foid)ites

Classification of volcanic rocks: fragmental textures


Classification schemes for the pyroclastic rocks. Left, based on the type of
material (after Pettijohn, 1975). Right, based on the size of the volcanic
fragments (after Fisher, 1966).

Chemical classification of igneous rocks: Na-K-Si


Chemical classification of volcanics based on total alkalis and silica (after
Le Bas et al., 1986).

Chemical classification of igneous rocks: K-Si

Chemical classification of igneous rocks: Si-Zr-Ti


Interestingly, certain trace elements vary more or less with the major
elements that define rock mineralogy. Data from the Partridge Formation
volcanics, Massachusetts (Hollocher, 1993).

Chemical
classification
of igneous
rocks: Nb-YZr-Ti

Data from the Partridge Formation


volcanics, Massachusetts (Hollocher, 1993).