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Part 4: Leading

chapter

Organizational
Behavior:
Power, Politics,
Conflict, and
Stress

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning.


All rights reserved.

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook


The University of West Alabama

Learning
Learning Outcomes
Outcomes
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Describe each of the big five personality dimensions.
2. Explain the perception process, and identify the two factors that
influence it.
3. Describe the interrelationship among personality, perception, and
attitude, and explain the contribution of each to a managers
behavior.
4. Explain what job satisfaction is and why it is important.
5. Define power, and explain the difference between position and
personal power.
6. Identify the differences among reward, legitimate, and referent
power.
7. Discuss how power and politics are related.
Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

82

Learning
Learning Outcomes
Outcomes (contd)
(contd)
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
8. Describe how money and politics have a similar use.
9. Explain what networking, reciprocity, and coalitions have in
common.
10. List and define five conflict management styles.
11. List the steps in initiating and using the collaborative conflict
resolution model.
12. Explain the stress tug-of-war analogy.
13. Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at The RLJ


Companies
1. How would you describe Robert Johnsons personality?
2. How have perception and attitudes affected Robert Johnsons
career? How did he deal with discrimination?
3. What types of power does Johnson have? How does he use
his power?
4. How does Johnson effectively use organizational politics at
The RLJ Companies?
5. What types of negotiating and collaborating does Johnson do?

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

84

Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior
The study of actions that affect performance in the

workplace.
The goal of organizational behavior theorists is to
explain and predict actions and how they will affect
performance.
The field of organizational behavior has three levels
of focus: the individual, the group, and the
organization.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

85

Personality
Personality
A combination of behavioral, mental, and emotional

traits that define an individual.


Based on genetics and environmental factors.
Affects behavior as well as perceptions and attitudes.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

86

Single Traits of Personality


Locus of Control
Lies on a continuum between believing that control

over ones destiny is external (externalizers) and


believing that it is internal (internalizers).

Optimism versus Pessimism


Lies on a continuum whose opposite end is

pessimism.

Risk Propensity
Lies on a continuum from risk taking to risk avoiding.

Machiavellianism
Based on the belief that the ends can justify the

means and power should be used to reach desired


ends.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

87

The Big Five Personality Dimensions


From

Trait

To

Extrovert

Extraversion

Introvert

Cooperative

Agreeableness

Competitive

Emotionally
stable

Emotionalism

Emotionally
unstable

Responsible/
Dependable

Conscientiousness

Irresponsible/
Undependable

Willing to try
new things

Openness to Experience

Not willing to
try new things

Trait
TraitContinuum
Continuum

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88

Perception
Perception
The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting

environmental information.
Self-esteem (self-concept)

Your perception of yourself.

Self-efficacy

The belief in your own capability to perform in a specific


situation.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

89

The Attribution Process


Attribution
The process of determining the reason for an

individuals behavior and whether that behavior is


either situational (out of the control of the individual)
or intentional (the individual is consciously behaving).

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810

Exhibit 81 The Attribution Process

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811

Bias in Perception
Selectivity
Screening information in favor of the desired

outcome.

Frame of Reference
Seeing things from your point of view rather than

anothers.

Stereotypes
The process of generalizing the behavior of a group

and then applying the generalities to one individual.

Expectations
Perceiving what is expected to be perceived.
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812

Attitudes
Attitudes
Positive or negative evaluations of people, things, and

situations.

Attitude Formation
Attitudes are based on perceptions.

Attitudes and Behavior


Attitudes reflect feelings and affect behavior.

Pygmalion Effect
Managers attitudes toward and expectations of

employees and how they treat them largely determine


employee performance.
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813

Attitudes and Job Satisfaction


Job Satisfaction
A persons attitude toward his or her job.
Generally measured along a continuum from

satisfied/positive/high to dissatisfied/negative/low.

Job Satisfaction and Performance


Affects absenteeism and turnover.
Citizenship behavior

Employee efforts to go above and beyond the call of duty.

Determinants of Job Satisfaction


Personality, the work itself, compensation, growth and

upward mobility, coworkers, management


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814

Join the Discussion

Ethics & Social Responsibility

Smoking
1. Should employees be allowed to smoke wherever and

whenever they want to at work?


2. How did your perceptions of and attitude toward smoking affect

your answer to the previous question?


3. Might limiting employees smoking change their behavior on the

job? How so?


4. What kinds of personality traits might make employees resist

managements efforts to restrict their smoking during working


hours?
5. Is it ethical and socially responsible to restrict employees

smoking?

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

815

Power
Power
The ability to influence others behavior.

Sources of Power
Position power

Derived from top management and is delegated down the


chain of command.

Personal power

Derived from followers, based on an individuals behavior.

Empowerment

Giving power to employees.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

816

Power (contd)
How to Increase Your Power
You can increase your power without taking power

away from others.


Generally, power is given to those who get results
and have good interpersonal skills.

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817

Exhibit 82 Type of Power

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818

Types of Power
Coercive Power
Involves threats and/or punishment to influence

compliance.

Connection Power
Based on the users relationship with influential

people.

Reward Power
Based on the users ability to influence others by

providing something of value to them.

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819

Types of Power (contd)


Legitimate Power
Based on the users position power in the

organization.

Referent Power
Based on the users personal power relationships with

others.

Information Power
Based on others need for data.

Expert Power
Based on the users skills and knowledge.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

820

Join the Discussion

Ethics & Social Responsibility

Following Orders
1. Is it ethical and socially responsible to teach people in the

military or any other organization to follow orders without


questioning authority?
2. What would you do if your boss ordered you to do something

you thought might be unethical? (Some options are to just do


it, to not do it and say nothing, to look more closely at what you
are being asked to do, to go to your bosss boss to make sure
its okay to do it, to tell the boss you will not do it, to ask the
boss to do it himself or herself, or to blow the whistle to an
outside source like the government or media.)
3. Is following orders a good justification for conducting unethical

practices?

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

821

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

822

Organizational Politics
Politics
The process of gaining and using power.

Political Behaviors
Networking

The process of developing relationships for the purpose of


socializing and career building.

Reciprocity

The creation of obligations and the development of alliances


that are used to accomplish objectives.

Coalition Building

A network of alliances that help a manager achieve an


objective.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

823

Exhibit 83 Political Behaviors and Guidelines for Developing Political


Skills

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824

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825

Managing Conflict
Conflict
Exists whenever people are in disagreement and

opposition.

The Psychological Contract


Is composed of the implicit expectations of each

party.
Conflict arises when the contract is broken, which
happens when:

We fail to make explicit our own expectations and fail to


inquire into the expectations of others.
We assume that others have the same expectations that we
hold.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

826

Managing Conflict (contd)


Functional Conflict
Exists when disagreement and opposition support the

achievement of organizational goals.

Dysfunctional Conflict
Exists when conflict prevents the achievement of

organizational goals.
Too little or too much conflict is usually dysfunctional.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

827

Exhibit 84 Conflict Management Styles

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828

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829

Negotiation, Collaboration, and


Mediation
Negotiating
Negotiating

A process in which two or more parties in conflict

attempt to come to an agreement.


Can be hampered by zero-sum attitudes of parties.

Collaboration
The parties work together to solve a problem.

Mediation
The use of a neutral third party to help the parties

resolve a conflict.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

830

Exhibit 85 The Negotiation Process

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831

Exhibit 86 The Collaborative Conflict Resolution Model

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832

Exhibit 86 The Collaborative Conflict Resolution Model (contd)

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833

Exhibit 86 The Collaborative Conflict Resolution Model (contd)

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

834

Stress
Stress
The bodys reaction to environmental demands.

Stressors
Factors that cause people to feel overwhelmed by

anxiety, tension, and/or pressure.

Functional Stress
Helps improve performance by challenging and

motivating people to meet objectives.

Dysfunctional stress
Stress that is severe enough to lead to burnout.

Burnout is a constant lack of interest and motivation to


perform ones job due to stress.

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

835

Causes of Job Stress


Personality Type
Organizational Culture
Management Behavior
Type of Work
Interpersonal Relations

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836

Stress Management
Stress Management
The process of eliminating or reducing stress.

Stress Management Techniques


Time management
Relaxation
Nutrition
Exercise
Positive thinking
Support network

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837

Exhibit 87 Relaxation Exercises

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838

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839

Exhibit 88 The Stress Tug-of-War

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840

KEY
KEY TERMS
TERMS

organizational behavior
personality
perception
attribution
attitudes
Pygmalion effect
citizenship behavior
power
politics
networking
reciprocity

Copyright 2009 South-Western/Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

coalition
conflict
functional conflict
collaborative conflict
resolution model
BCF statement
mediator
arbitrator
stress
stressors

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