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Chapter 2 : Support And

Locomotion

2.1 Understanding Support


And Locomotion In Humans
And Animals

e Necessity For Support And Locomotion In Human


And Animals
Locomotion is the movement of whole
organisms from place to place

Humans and animals need to move from


place to place:
a. For food
b. For shelter
c. To find mate for reproduction
d. To escape from predators (protection)
e. To find prey

lems That Could Be Faced By Humans And Animal


Support And Movement
Movement in water : Water is dense and can
resist
movement
Movement in air : A lot of effort is required by an
animal to
overcome the force of
gravity
Movement on land : Soft and collapsible body
tissues cause
instability.
These problems can be overcome by having a
skeletal system.

The Functions Of Skeletons


To provide shape for body and support for
organism
For muscle attachment, to enable movement
To protect internal organs from injury
To store certain minerals such as calcium and
phosphorus (bone)
To produce blood cells (bone marrow)

3 Types Of Skeleton In Animals


1) Hydrostatic skeleton
Consists of internal watery fluids contained
within confined spaces in the body
This fluid is held under pressure
compartments surrounded by muscles

in

Since the fluid cannot escape, it forms an


incompressible skeleton
Eg. Earthworth, jelly fish

3 Types Of Skeleton In Animals


2) Exoskeleton
An outer covering which is made up of rigid and
strong materials such as calcium or chitin.
The cuticle of an insect covers the surface of its
body. This cuticle is covered with wax to prevent
water loss.
Exoskeletons are non-living structures, incapable
of growth. In order to grow, arthropods have to
shed their skeletons through ecdysis (moulting)

3 Types Of Skeleton In Animals


3) Endoskeleton
Internal
skeleton
comprising of many
component parts of
cartilage or bones
to which muscles
are attached.
Vertebrates depend
on the bones for
locomotion
Eg. Birds, crocodile,
Human

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Structure Of The Human Skeleton


(1) Axial skeleton

(2) Appendicular skeleton

Skull

Pectoral girdle
(scapula, clavicle)

Vertebral column
(spine)

Upper limbs
(humerus, radius,
ulna, hand)

Rib cage
(rib bones,
sternum)

Pelvic girdle
Lower limbs
(femur, tibia,
fibula and tarsals)

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Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges

Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor


(a) The skull (22
bones)
consists of
Cranium (cranial bones) - eight flat bones
which become fused soon after birth enclose
protect the brain
and
facial bones - fourteen bones protect and
provide the entrances to the digestive and
respiratory systems
Suture

immovable joints
that
held
the
bones together

nasal

The lower jaw


is the only freely maxilla
moveable bone
of the skull
mandible
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ligament
hyoid

(b) The Vertebral


Column (33)
The
vertebral
column also known
as the backbone
7 neck or
or spine.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

cervical vertebrae

There are discs of


cartilage between
adjacent vertebrae,
known
as12 thoracic vertebrae
intervertebral
disc, which acts as:
a) shock absorbing
cushion
b) reduces friction
5 lumbar vertebrae
between vertebrae
c) allows movement
5 sacral (sacrum)
between adjacent
vertebrae
vertebrae.
Triangularwhich
bones
4 caudal vertebral
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fused together to form

Intervertebra
disc

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Common Characteristics Of A Typical Vertebra

Refer textbook pg 51, Fig. 2.4


There are variations in the size and
shape of the vertebrae
But a typical vertebra has :
a solid body or centrum
a neural canal and
several bony processes

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Common Characteristics Of A Typical Vertebra


Neural spine/ spinous process
Muscular attachment

ezygapophyses / articular process


Attachment with
the next vertebra

ural canal/ vertebral foramen


Spinal cord
passes through
It
this
is canal
continuous
with the neural
canals of other
vertebrae
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Neural arch
Protects the spinal cord
Transverse
process
Muscular
attachment
Centrum (body) is a
solid piece of bone
that can resist
compression

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The First Cervical Vertebrae - Atlas


There are seven cervical vertebra. The first is
known as atlas.

The first cervical vertebra is the atlas


The atlas is a
ringshaped
bone with large
Neural spine
facets
to
Vertebrarte
Neural canal
articulate with
rial canal
Ligament
/tranverse
the base of the
foreman
Transverse
skull (occipital
process
It
has a large
condyle)
Facet for
Cavity for
articulating
neural
canal,
odontoid
with
process
no centrum and
occipital
Anterior
View
condyle
a small neural
spine
The joint between the skull and the atlas allows
the head to move up and down

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Second Cervical Vertebrae - Axis


The second
cervical vertebra
is the axis

neural spine
neural canal
postzygapophyses

It has a Centrum
and transverse
process
The Centrum extends
upwards to form the
adenoid process

transverse
process
Centrum
vertebrarterial
canal

adenoid process

Anterior View

Which fits into the lower part of the neural canal of


the atlas
It allows the atlas to turn about the adenoid process
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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Third To The Seventh Cervical Vertebra


neural spine
prezygapophysis

neural arch

neural canal
Transverse
process

Centrum
Vertebrarterial
canal
Anterior View

The smallest and lightest vertebrae


Has two vertebrarterial canals through the
artery and nerve pass through
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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Thoracic Vertebra


There are 12 thoracic vertebrae
neural spine
(muscle attachment)
neural canal through which
spinal cord passes
transverse process
articulates with rib
Centrum

surface for articulation with


next vertebra
Anterior View

A thoracic vertebra has a Centrum, a circular


neural canal, a long neural spine which point
downwards, two transverse processes.
The neural spine and transverse processes are
for the attachment of muscles and ligaments.
Facets on both sides of the Centrum, and at
the ends of the transverse process are for

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Typical Lumbar Vertebra


neural spine

postzygapophysis

Metapophysis
prezygapophysis
Transverse
process

anapophysics

Centrum
hypapophysis
Anterior View

Side View

Are the biggest vertebrae in the vertebral column.

hey have short but big centrum because they are subj
o the greatest stress

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Lumbar Vertebrae (5)

Position : waist
The largest and
strongest in the
vertebral column.
- small neural canal.
- short neural spine.
- thick and large
centrum
which bear the
weight of
the lower back.
- long transverse
processes for muscle
attachment.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Attachment Of One Lumbar Vertebra To Another

Anterior View
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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Attachment Of One Lumbar Vertebra To Another

Side View

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Sacrum & Coccyx

Sacrum (5)
- position : pelvic
region
- fused to each other.
- has 4 pairs of
opening.
- triangular shape.

Coccyx (4)
- caudal region.
-

bones fused to
each other which
tapers at one end.

(3) The Rib


Cage
Vertebral column

Sternum

Floating ribs

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

There are 12 pairs of


ribs in the skeleton of
man
The first 7 pairs are
connected directly to
the sternum and are
called true ribs
The next 3 pairs are
attached to the 7th pair
and are called false
ribs
The last 2 pairs are
floating ribs

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

1) The Pectoral Girdle


Clavicle
Head

Scapula
Shaft of humerus

Articulating surface

The pectoral girdle is a


framework
of
bone
consisting of two similar
halves joined in the mid
ventral line
Each half consists of two
bones
the scapula and
the clavicle
The scapula or shoulder
blade is large, flat and
triangular.
The clavicle or collar bone is
slender and curved slightly

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

2) The Pelvic Girdle


Sacrum
llium

Acetabulum
Coccyx

Ischium

Pubic symphysis

The pelvic girdle consists


of two similar halves
which join the sacrum at
the back and meet at the
pubic symphysis in front
Each half of the pelvic
girdle consists of three
bones
the ilium,
the ischium and
the pubis
The head of the femur
fits into the acetabulum

3) Upper limb

4) Hind limb

Role of joint, skeletal muscle ,


tendon and ligament in
Movement
Joints
Joints

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

A joint is the place where two or more bones


meet
Two main types of movable joints are

Hinge joint allows movement in one place


e.g. Elbow and knee joints
Ball and socket joint allows rotational
movement of bone
in Shoulder
all three places
e.g..
and pelvic
joints

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Movement And Support


Structure
Structure Of
Of A
A
Joint
Joint

bone

Cartilage
Prevents friction
and acts as
shock absorber
Synovial fluid
Acts as a
lubricant

Capsular ligament
Prevents
dislocation of the
bones
Synovial
Secretes
membrane
synovial fluid
which fills the
cavity
bone

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Understanding Support And Locomotion In Humans And Anim

Role Of Ligament In Movement

Ligament
Ligament
Ligaments connect bone to bone
Consists of tough, elastic fibers

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Understanding Support And Locomotion In Humans And Anim

Roles Of Tendons In
Movement
Tendons
Tendons
Connect muscles to bones
Consists of tough, inelastic collagen fibers

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Muscles
Muscles

Role Of Muscles In
Movement

Muscles which are attached to bones are called


skeletal (striated) muscles

Skeletal muscles are arranged in pairs called


antagonistic pairs. When one muscle contracts,
the other muscle relaxes.

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2 Locomotion And Suppor


Structure And Contraction OfChapter
Skeletal
Muscle

A muscle is made up of many long cylindrical cells


called muscle fibers.
Each muscle fiber is made up of a bundle of smaller
fibers called myofibrils.
A myofibril has a distinctive banding pattern due to
microfilaments.
There are two types, thick (myosin) and thin (actin)
microfilaments.
The thick filaments are confined to the dark bands,
made up of myosin.
The thin filaments occur in the light bands, and extend
beyond the thick filaments, composed of the protein,
actin.
The filaments are the contractive apparatus of
muscles.
When the muscle contracts, the thin filaments slide
along the thick filaments.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Movement In Straightening The Arms

Ball and
socket joint
scapula
Biceps
muscle
relaxes

Triceps muscle
contracts

Tendon
Radius

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Ulna

The
triceps
muscle
contracts,
the
biceps
muscle
relaxes. Ulna is
pulled down.
The triceps and
biceps
muscles
are described as
antagonistic
muscles.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Movement In Bending The Arms


The biceps muscle
contracts, the triceps
muscle relaxes. Ulna
is pulled up.
Biceps muscle
contracts

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Triceps
Muscle
relaxes

The biceps muscle


which causes bending
when it contracts is
referred to as the
flexor
while
the
triceps muscle which
causes straightening
when it contracts is
referred to as the
extensor.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Movement In The Lower Limb

Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps femoris
contracts
femur

Biceps femoris
relaxes
Calf muscle
contracts

Tibia and fibula

1) Straightening the leg:


) Gluteus maximus (the largest and superficial muscle of
the hips) contracts, pulls the femur backward
The quadriceps femoris contracts, the biceps femoris
relaxes, pulls the tibia and fibula forward. The leg is
straightened.
2) Bending the leg:
The quadriceps femoris relaxes, the biceps femoris
(hamstring muscle) contracts. The leg is bent

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Muscle Involves In Walking


Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps femoris
contracts
femur

Biceps femoris
relaxes
Calf muscle
contracts

Tibia and fibula

The calf muscle contracts and raises the heel. In doing


so, it exerts a forward thrust by pushing the ball of the
foot against the ground.
The hamstring muscle (biceps femoris) contracts to pull
the femur back and bends the knee. The leg is raised.
As the right foot loses contact with the ground, the
weight of the body is now supported by the left leg
which is still contact with the ground.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

The Muscle Involves In Walking


Gluteus maximus
Quadriceps femoris
contracts
femur

Biceps femoris
relaxes
Calf muscle
contracts

Tibia and fibula

Next, the quadriceps femoris muscle contracts, pull the


femur forward and extends the leg.
When the extension of the leg is completed, the tibialis
contracts to lower the heel. The foot the regains
contact with the ground with the heel taouching the
ground first. The weight of the body is now supported
on the right leg.
The whole sequence is repeated with the left leg.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Locomotion In Animals

omotion in an earthworm - Animals with a hydrostatic skeleton


The force of contraction is
applied to a fluid-filled
posterior
anterior
cavity : caelom
The caelom is surrounded
by two antagonistic layers
of muscle
(i) the circular muscle
surround the chamber
(ii)
the
longitudinal
muscle extend from one
(pg 60) Beginning from the
anterior, the circular
end to the other (pg 61)
muscles contract, the longitudinal muscle relax,
chaetae (bristles) retract causing the earthworm
become thinner and longer and anterior segments
extend forwards.
(pg 61) Then, the longitudinal muscles contract, the
circular muscles relax. Chaetae anchor the shortened
segment on the ground.
The earthworm becomes shorter and thicker (bulge).
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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Locomotion In Animals

omotion in an earthworm - Animals with a hydrostatic skeleton


posterior

anterior

The shortened segment in the posterior is pulled


forward.
With the anterior segments remaining stationary,
the peristaltic wave of contraction of the
longitudinal muscles continues down the posterior,
pulling the rear segments forward.

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Locomotion In Animals

ocomotion in a grasshopper animal with an exoskele

Walking

Jumping
Locomotion in
grasshopper is
by walking,
jumping and
flying.

Flying

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Locomotion In Animals

(c) Locomotion in a frog - endoskeleton

The mechanism of jumping


The strong hind legs are folded in the shape
of zhind legs straighten
The
The fore limbs move forward ready to land
It lands with its fore limbs

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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Locomotion In A Fish - Adaptations Of Fish To Move In


Streamlined body
Its body is broad at the anterior and
tapers to the tail, enables the fish to move
through water with minimum resistance.
[pg 62 (a)]
Scales
The backward, directed, overlapping scales
and covered by a slimy coating to reduce
resistance when swimming.
Swim bladder pg 63
(c)
A swim bladder is a gas filled sac inside
the abdomen of the fish.
By controlling the amount of gas in the
bladder, the fish can change its
buoyancy to reach certain depth in the
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water.

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

comotion In A Fish - Adaptations Of Fish To Move In W


Fins
Fins are necessary for stability and
precisely control movements through the
water
The pectoral and pelvic fins (paired fins)
are used for steering and braking
The dorsal and ventral fin (median fins)
increases the vertical surface of the fish
and keeps it upright by preventing it from
rolling sideways.
The caudal or tail fin generates the
forward force which propels a fish forward
and aids in steering
Three kinds of instability
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Dorsal fin

Pelvic fin

Pectoral
fin

Ventral
fin

Caudal
or tail
fin

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

comotion In A Fish - Adaptations Of Fish To Move In W


Arrangement Of Myotomes
Fish
Consist ofInmuscle
blocks or myotomes (W
shaped) arranged on both sides of the
vertebral column (backbone)
vertebrae

W shaped myotomes

myotomes
(muscle blocks)

Alternate contraction and relaxation of


myotomes causes the body to bend side to
side and the tail to beat and produces
forward thrust.
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Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Mechanism Of Locomotion In Fish

Fish moves to the left, tail pulls to the rig

Muscles
on left
side relax

Muscles on
left side
contract
and pull
the tail to
the left
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Forward thrust
Muscles
on right
side
Sideways thrust
contract
and pull
Thrust of water
the tail to
Fish moves to the right, tail pulls to the le
the right
Forwa
rd
thrust

Muscles on
right side
relax
Sideway
s thrust

Thrust of water

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

(e) Locomotion In A Bird

daptations For Flight In A Bird


Fore-limbs are modified as wings.
Wings are aerofoils which have a convex upper
surface and a concave lower surface.
The shape generates lift when it moves
through air.
aerofoil

lift

Air flow

Faster air flow at the


top causes low
pressure

Slower air flow at the


bottom causes high
pressure
Low body weight, which reduces
energy required in
gravit
y

flight. The skull is thin, it has no teeth and the long


bones are hollow.
The body is covered in feathers, which provides
insulation against heat loss. *not involved in flying

Locomotion In A Bird - Upward Movement Of The


Wing During Flight
Coracoid
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Pectoralis minor
Sternum

Pectoralis major

Page 64. The pectoralis minor contracts


and pectoralis major relaxes, pulls the
humerus over the coracoid bone. The
wings are pulled up.
The flight feathers twist open and air
flows through the gaps between them.
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Air flow

Locomotion In A Bird - Downward Movement Of The


Wing During Flight
Coracoid
Humerus
Radius
Ulna
Pectoralis minor
Sternum

Pectoralis major

In the downward movement of the wing,


- the pectoralis major contracts,
- the pectoralis minor relaxes and pulls the
wings down.
As both wings go down, air resistance
closes the flight feathers, pushing the full
wing areas on the air and lifting the bird
up.
The wings which move up and down
rhythmically generate the forward thrust
as well as to provide the lift for the flying
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Air flow

Chapter 2 : Support And


Locomotion

2.2 Appreciating A Healthy


Musculoskeletal System

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Muscle
Cramp

Muscular
Dystrophy
Impaired
Musculos
keletal
System

Osteoporosi
s
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Arthritis

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Gout

Chapter 2 Locomotion And Suppor

Appreciating A Healthy Musculoskeletal System

Balanced diet

Good Posture
Maintaini
ng A
Healthy
Musculos
keletal
System

Proper Attire
For Daily
Activities
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Adequate
Exercise

Chapter 2 : Support And


Locomotion

2.3 Understanding Support


In Plants

Necessity of Support in
Plants

1. For upright position so that their leaves are


positioned in such a ways as to maximise the
absorption of sunlight for photosynthesis.
2. Flowers need to lifted for pollination while fruits
and seeds are held at high position for dispersion.
3. Provide strength to withstand wind resistance.
4. Support in plants is mainly provided by the turgidity
of cells and the distribution of vascular bundles
namely the xylem vessels and cellulose in the cell
walls

Support In Aquatic
Plants
a) Submerged plant
Eg: Hydrilla sp.
have very thin , narrow and
very flexible leaves.
This type of leaves provides
little resistance to water flow.
This means that submerged
plants can be tugged at and
pulled by water currents with
little damage.

Support In Aquatic
Plants
a) Submerged plant
There are air sac or air
spaces within the leaves and
stems which keep the plants
afloat close to the surface to
obtain maximum light.
Since water buoyancy
provides support for these
plants, their stem have no
woody tissue.
Therefore, if these plants are
removed from water, they
become limp and floppy.

Support In Aquatic
Plants
b) Floating plants

Supported by the upward


thrust provided by the
surrounding water
They have aerenchyma
tissue and air sac in the
roots, stems and leaves for
support and to enable them
to float.
E.g. water hyacinth.
Refer text book page 64,
Figure 2.7

Support in aquatic plants


Aerenchyma tissues
Are spongy tissues with
large air spaces between
the cells (intercellular air
spaces)

Support in terrestrial plants


The type of terrestrial plant such as:
a. woody plants
b. herbaceous plants
c. creepers, vines and lianas (woody
vines)

a. Woody plants
In young plants, the
support is provided by the
turgidity of the cells and
the cellulose cell walls.
In older plants, the
support is provided by
lignified xylem vessels,
tracheids and
sclerenchyma tissues.

a. Woody plants
a) Xylem vessels
do not have cytoplasm in
them.
They are long cylindrical
structures placed end to
end to conduct water from
the root to the leaves.
They have thick walls of
lignin which are deposited
during the plant secondary
growth.
This results in the

a. Woody plants
Different types of
vessels:
Annular or ring-shaped
vessels
Spiral vessels
Scalariform or ladder-like
vessels
pitted vessels

a. Woody plants
The formation of these
types of vessels is
collectively known as the
primary xylem.
As plant grow, they usually
undergo secondary growth
which results in the
formation of a large
amount of secondary
xylem called wood

a. Woody plants
b) Tracheids
Are dead cells with thick
walls but with a very small
diameter.
They are found with xylem
vessels and together they
give support to the plant.

a. Woody plants
c) Scelerenchyma
tissues:
They are thick, rigid and
non-stretcheable cell
walls.
Do not allow water to go
trough.
Sclerenchyma tissues
support the non growing
parts of plants.

a. Woody plants
Two types of
sclerencyma tissue:
A.
Sclerenchyma fibres
are
long , straight and thin
cells found around the
vascular
bundles, providing
support.
B. Sclereids are small,
short, circular, irregularly
shaped cells with lignified
walls
which harden the
outer layer of the seeds.

b. Herbaceous plants
Support is provided by the
turgidity of parenchyma and
collenchyma cells and xylem
tissues
When the parenchyma cells are
filled with water, they become
turgid and press against each
other to maintain the shape and
firmness of the plant.
Collenchyma cells have
unevenly thicked cellulose and
the midrib of the leaves provide
mechanical strength.

Creepers, Vines and Lianas


Plants with modifications to obtain support as
they are not able to support themselves
upright.
Examples of structural modifications:
1) Tendrils
2) Modified roots
3) Modified shoot
4) Thorns

Creepers
The cucumber plant
Tendrils are slender, coiled structures
found on the stems which
twine themselves around a support to help
a plant.
Function : to support its weight and climb
easily.
Gloriosa sp.
Tendrils at the end of the leaves
For climbing
Enable the plant to obtain support.

Creepers
The pepper plant
has modified roots to twine around an
object
Function: for support.
Morning glory and long bean plant
Shoots which are able to twine around an
object,
Function : to support itself.
Rose bush
have thorns
Function : to hook on to a nearby support

Lianas
Example: Rattan
Used in making furniture and ropes.
Have variety of adaptations to attach
themselves to their host such as twining
stems and thorns.

Thank you.