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Nutritional Deficiency

Diseases

Nutritional Diseases

Malnutrition: Lack of essential nutrients; ie


vitamins, minerals, amino acids

Undernourishment: Lack of food energy (calories).

WHO estimates that half of the worlds population is


malnourished in some form

Can you be overnourished and malnourished at the


same time?

Diseases of Malnourishment

Marasmus: progressive emaciation due to lack of protein &


calories preventing growth.

Kwashiorkor: lack of protein in diet, leading to failure of


neural development.

Cause of 49% of the 10.4 million deaths occurring in children younger


than 5 years in developing countries.

the sickness the older child gets when the next baby is born
Characterized by bloated belly

Chronic hunger: enough food to stay alive, but not be


productive

Child w/Marasmus

Child
w/Kwashiorkor

Noma, Cancrum oris


Cause: under/malnutrition
Problem: secondary infection;
mucous membranes become
inflamed and develop ulcers, often
in the mouth

Anemia
Cause: iron deficiency, decrease in the
number of RBCs
Problem: fatigue, irritability, shortness of
breath, constant headache

Beriberi
Cause: lack of vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Problem: heart and nervous system
damage, muscle wasting, brain
damage

Cretinism & Goiter


Cretinism

Goiter

Causes: lack of iodine


during pregnancy

Causes: lack of iodine

Problem: physical &


mental retardation,
stunted growth

Problem: deafness,
fatigue, weight gain,
enlarged thyroid

Pellagra
Cause: lack of niacin
Problem: dermatitis, weakness,
intestinal distress, neurologic
manifestations, organ failure

Osteoporosis
Cause: lack of calcium and/or
vitamin D (prevents absorption of
calcium)
Problem: weak bones, fractures,
decrease bone density

Rickets
Cause: lack of vitamin D
Problem: softening and
weakening of bones from release
of calcium from bones

Scurvy
Cause: lack of vitamin C
Problem: irritability, swelling and
hemorrhage especially over long
bones, death from hemorrhage and
cardiac failure

Xerophthalmia
Cause: vitamin A deficiency
Problem: blindness

Zinc deficiency
Cause: diet deficient in zinc
Problem: poor wound healing,
bone deformities, dwarfism,
hyperpigmentation, fetal
abnormalities, immune system
failure