REFERENCING

Shameem Al Mahmud Lecturer School of Business & Entrepreneurship Unity College International

• Referencing or citing • Style of Referencing • Author-Date Style
– – – – Harvard Referencing American Psychological Association (APA) Modern Language Association (MLA) Australian Journal of Physiotherapy (AJP)

• Numerical System
– Chicago / Turabian Style – Footnote Style

Referencing/Citing
• Referencing or citing is the practice of acknowledging the work of other authors or the sources of information and ideas in the text of a peace of word. • References are needed for most forms of academic writing, including essays, reports and dissertations. • References or citations show the reader what different aspects of your work are based on. • A reference in brackets that leads the reader to information about the page of a book or other source that is the evidence for what you have said.

Referencing/Citing
• References are not something you should leave to the end of a sentence or a paragraph. • Referencing or citation is an integral part of your work and the process of referencing help to develop ideas. • The reference after a quotation inform the reader where to refer in order to find the quotation in the book or other publication that it was taken from. • Reference after the end of paragraph or a passage inform the reader about the book or other sources you based your ideas on.

Referencing/Citing

• It’s a part of sound academic practice and skill. • By using references appropriately, you will avoid plagiarism, which is falsely claiming someone else’s words or ideas as your own

Style of Referencing
• Style of referencing vary according to different disciplines or field of study. • These style differ in the way sources are referred to in the text and listed in the reference list at the end of the assignment. • Style of referencing
– Author-Date Style – Numerical Systems

Style of Referencing
• AUTHOR-DATE STYLE
– These include the author name and the date in the text

• The Harvard Style • The American Psychological Association (APA): used in various disciplines, in particular psychology. • The Modern Language Association (MLA): used in humanities disciplines. • The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy (AJP): used by physiotherapy.

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• The Harvard Style: used by most of the universities
– The page number is omitted if the entire work is cited. Author’s surname is omitted from the text reference.
• Many factors are known to affect the successful outcomes for students at university (Johnston 2003). • Johnston (2003) claims that there are many factors that are known to affect the success of students at university.

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• Cases where you need to include a page number in brackets.
– McLaine (2002, p. 16) stated that productivity among 69 percent of workers was found to be affected by work related stress.

• You need to include the page number for text referencing when you:
– Use a direct quote from a original source – Summarise an idea from a particular page – Copy tables, figures, or provide particular details

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• If there are two or three authors for a text reference
– According to Cooper, Krever and Van (2002) the use of this process leads to greater accuracy.

• If there are more than three authors for a text reference
– This has been suggested by Sandler et al. (2002) in there first Australian study

• Et al. – Latin Word (“and the others”)

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• The reference list include in the Harvard Author-Date System:
– Is titled ‘References’ – Is arranged alphabetically by author’s family name – Is a single list – books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together and not arranged in separate list. – Includes the full details of your in-text references (author, date, title, publishing details) – This is not a bibliography :a bibliography lists everything you may have read, while a reference list is limited to the in-text references in your assignment.

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• Setting out the items in Harvard Author-Date Reference system • Format of the Harvard Author-Date Reference – are set out in the following order:
– Author, Initials., Year. Title, publication information.

The title is placed in italics and the element are separated by commas.

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• Example of a book (Author, Initials., Year. Title of Book. Edition. Place: Publisher.)
Authors family name followed by a comma, then initials Year of Publication followed by full-stop – No Brackets

McShane, Steven L. and Von Glinow, Mary Ann, 2008. Organizational behavior. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Title of the book in italics Uppercase use for first word

Place of publication

Publisher

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• Chapters of edited book
– Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials., Year. Title of chapter followed by “In” Book editor(s) initials and surname with ed. or eds. after the last name. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter numbers followed by full-stop. – Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In W. Jones, ed. One Hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch. 2. – Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In S. Stone, ed. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS, 1980, p. 44-68.

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• E-books
– Author, Year. Title of book. [type of medium] Place of publication: Publisher. Available at: include website address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [access date] – Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book]. Chester: Castle press. Available at: www.libweb.anglia.ac.uk/E-books, [accessed 3 June 2005]

Style of Referencing – Harvard
• Journal articles
– Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers.
• Boughton, J. M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly, 42 (6), p. 564-78.

• Journal articles from an electronic source
– Jenkings, R., 1989. Clashing with caching. ARIADNE, [Online] Issue 21, 10 September. Available at: http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue21/web-cache/ [accessed 2 December 2004].

Style of Referencing - Harvard
• Journal Abstract from a Database
– Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [Type of medium]. Volume number (Issue/Part numbers). Page numbers if available and abstract details. Available at: URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [access details]
• Boughton, J. M. 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly, [Online]. 42(6). Abstract from Blackwell Science Synergy database. Available at: http://www.pol.upenn/articles,BlackwellScienceSynergy [accessed 12 June 2005

Style of Referencing - Harvard
• Newspaper Articles
– Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Title of News Paper, Day and month before page numbers of Article.
• Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. Times, 3 Sep. p. 4-5.

• Internet/Website
– Author, Initial., Year. Title of document or page, [Type of medium]. Available at: URL [accessed date]
• National electronic Library for Health. 2003. Can walking make you slimmer and healthier?, [Online]. (Updated 16 Jan 2005). Available at: http://www.nhs.uk.tht.walking [accessed 10 April 2005]

Style of Referencing - Harvard
• Dissertation
– Author, Initial., Year. Title of dissertation. Level. Name of University.
• Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. PhD. Anglia Ruskin University.

• Conference Report
– Authorship author, editor or organisation, Year. Full title of conference report. Location, Date, Publisher: Place of publication
• UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005. 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005, United Nations: New York.

Style of Referencing - Harvard
• Conference Paper
– Author, Year. Full title of conference paper. In, Editor/Organisation, Full title of conference. Location, Date, Publisher: Place of publication
• Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-27 May 2005, United Nations: New York.

Style of Referencing - Harvard

• Unpublished Work
– Woolley, E. & Muncey, T., (in press) Demons or diamonds: a study to ascertain the range of attitudes present in health professionals to children with conduct disorder. Journal of Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. (accepted for publication December 2002).

Style of Referencing - Harvard
• References with Missing Details
– Where there is no obvious publication date, check the content and references to work out the earliest likely date
• 1995? probable year • ca. 1995 approximately 1995 • 199- decade certain but not year • 1999? probable decade

Style of Referencing - Harvard
• References with Missing Details
– Sometimes it may not be possible to identify an author, place or publisher.

• Anon author anonymous or not identifiable • s.l. no place of publication (Latin: sine loco) • s.n. no named publisher (Latin: sine nomine)

Style of Referencing - APA
• American Psychological Association (APA)
– Book – Author. Date of publication. Title. Publisher Details

Style of Referencing - APA
• Two to Six Authors

– Edition Other Than the First Edition

Style of Referencing - APA
• Journal Article
– Author. Date of publication. Title. Journal Name, Volume (Issue)

Style of Referencing - APA
• Chapter or Article in an Edited Book

Magazine Article • Author Known

Author Unknown

Style of Referencing - APA
• Newspaper Article/Journal Article With No Author
- When there is no author, cite the article title in quotation marks:
• ("South Australian premier resigns in tears," 1999)

• Book With No Author
- When there is no author, cite the title of the book in italics and the publication date:
• (Dictionary of computing, 1991)

Style of Referencing - APA
• No Date
- When a work has no publication date put (n.d.) "no date", cite the author followed by the abbreviation for no date:
• Clarke (n.d.) studied secondary students' classroom behaviour.

Style of Referencing - APA
• Conference Proceedings
- Published

- Unpublished

Style of Referencing - APA
• Electronic Report

• Electronic Conference Proceedings

Style of Referencing - MLA
• Modern Language Association (MLA)
– Is used in Humanities disciplines

• Book
The details required in order, are: 1. name/s of author/s, editor/s, compiler/s or the institution responsible 2. title of publication and subtitle if any (all titles must be underlined or italicised) 3. series title and individual volume if any 4. edition, if other than first 5. place of publication 6. publisher 7. year of publication 8. page number(s) if applicable

Style of Referencing - MLA
• Example

Book
Berkman, Robert I. Find It Fast: How to Uncover Expert Information on any Subject. New York: Harper Perennial, 1994.

McTaggart, Douglas, Christopher Findlay, and Michael Parkin. Economics. 2nd ed. Sydney: Addison-Wesley, 1995.

Style of Referencing - MLA
• Chapter or part of a book
- O'Regan, Tom and Stehpen Cox. “Towards an Ecology of Cultural Attendance.” Mobilising the Audience. Ed. Balnaves, Mark, O'Regan, Tom and Sternberg, Jason. St. Lucia, Australia, U of Queensland P, 2002. 131-167.

• No author or editor
- If no author is given, the title is used as the first element of a citation. Do not use either Anonymous or Anon. Alphabetise the entry by the first main word of the title in the reference list. - The CCH Macquarie Dictionary of Business. North Ryde, NSW: CCH Australia, 1993.

Style of Referencing - MLA
• FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE
The details required are: • • • • • • • name/s of author/s of the article title of article title of periodical volume number issue (or part) number year of publication page number(s)

Style of Referencing - MLA
• Example for Journal
Turner, Graeme, and Delys Bird. “Australian Studies: Practice Without Theory.” Westerly 27.2 (1982): 51-56.

• Conference paper
Bohrer, S., T. Zielke, and V. Freiburg. “Integrated Obstacle Detection Framework for Intelligent Cruise Control on Motorways.” Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, September 19-20, 1996, Sikei University, Tokyo, Japan. Piscataway, N.J.: Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1996. 49-52.

Style of Referencing - MLA
• FOR INTERNET
Weibel, S., “Metadata: The Foundations of Resource Description”, D-lib Magazine 10 Oct. 1995. http://www.dlib.org/dlib/July95/07weibel.html (5 Dec. 1995).

• REFERENCES IN THE TEXT
Examples • Some maintain “that the sexes are interchangeable” (Moir and Jessel 94). • It is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable (Moir and Jessel 94). • Moir and Jessel have shown that it is futile to maintain that the sexes are interchangeable. (94) • Moir and Jessel maintain “that the sexes are interchangeable” (94).

Style of Referencing - AJP
• Australian Journal of Physiotherapy (AJP)
– style is used by physiotherapy.

• There are two components to the AJP style:
- the author and date (and sometimes the page number) must appear in the text/main body in round brackets. - all the details on each source must be in the reference list at the end.

Style of Referencing - AJP
• Text referencing
When you cite (identify) references in the text of your assignment — regardless of whether you paraphrase, summarise, quote or copy — you should include:
1. the author’s surname (family name) (or name of editor or organisation responsible) 2. the year of publication (latest edition or when site was last reviewed) 3. page numbers if appropriate and where available.

Style of Referencing - AJP
• Example
• It has been argued that the relative seriousness of the two kinds of errors differs from situation to situation (Smith 2001). • Smith (2001) has argued that the relative seriousness of the two kinds of errors differs from situation to situation. • A recent study (Jones and Chan 1996, p.2) has shown a series of outcomes that “result from economic hardship in the community”.

Style of Referencing - AJP
• For a book
author/s surname(s) and initial(s) year of publication title of book edition (if relevant) city where published publishing company relevant page numbers (abbreviated as pp.)

Lincoln YS and Guba EG (1985): Naturalistic Inquiry. Bevely Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Style of Referencing - AJP
• For a journal article
author/s surname(s) and initial(s) year of publication title of article (do not capitalise the title of the article) title of journal or periodical (in italics with important words in upper case) volume number (no issue number is included) page number(s)

Thornquist E (1992): Patient-physician trust: an exploratory study. Journal of Family Practice 44:169-176.

Style of Referencing - AJP
• For an electronic source
author – the person or organisation responsible for the source date of publication title type of medium (e.g. [online] or [CD-ROM], except for Internet source) edition place of publication publisher date of update/revision location (may include: a host document; availability and access number) date of access
American Physical Therapy Association (2003): APTA Code of Ethics. http://www.apta.org/PT_Practice/ethics_pt/code_ethics Accessed 22 September, 2003.

Style of Referencing - Numerical
• Numerical Systems
– The Chicago or Turabian Style (used by art and humanities) – The Footnote Style (used by School of Architecture)

Style of Referencing - Turabian Style
• Chicago / Turabian Style
To acknowledge a source in your paper, place a superscript number immediately after the end punctuation of a sentence containing the quotation, paraphrase, or summary. Example: This is how one acknowledges a source in Chicago/Turabian documentation.1 Do not put any punctuation after the number. 1. Donald N. McCloskey, Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays in Historical Economics (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1981), 54. 1. Louise M. Rosenblatt, "The Transactional Theory: Against Dualisms," College English 54 (1993): 380.

Style of Referencing - Footnote Style
• The Footnote Style

There are two components to the footnote system: § the note identifiers and accompanying footnotes in the text of your assignment § the bibliography, at the end of the assignment.

Style of Referencing - Footnote Style
• The footnote system enables you to reference by using consecutive numbers called note identifiers within your text, starting with the number 1. These numbers are used to identify information that has been referenced. • Each note identifier or number is also listed at the bottom (or foot) of each page with relevant bibliographic details. This is called a footnote. Footnotes are usually set in a smaller font than the font in the body of your assignment.

Style of Referencing - Footnote Style

Style of Referencing - Footnote Style

Endnotes

• What ever style of referencing you follow, please remember to remain consistent throughout your work.

References
• Educational Services & Learning Support 2002, Referencing: The Harvard Referencing System, University Publishing Unit, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton. How to Acknowledge What You Have Read Abbreviations n.d, URL: http://www.libd.monash.edu.au/vl/cite/cite11.htm, (Accessed 18 February 2004) Roberts, Andrew (2007), “ABC of Referencing – ABC of Citation”, URL: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/WWW/STUDY/Refer.htm#Referencing, (Accessed 16 December 2007)

University of South Australia (2007), “Referencing Using the Harvard AuthorDate System”, URL: http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/student/learningAdvisors/docu , (Accessed 20 October 2007)

References

APA (American Psychological Association) Style, n.d, URL: http://inet.acu.edu.au/node.cfm/30877A04-38D0-4377-A62766D134F1BEB5 , (Accessed 04 March 2008) Chicago/Turabian Documentation, n.d. URL: http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocChiNotes_1stRef_article.html, (Accessed 26 March 2008)

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