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Computer Fundamentals

Dr. Subodh Srivastava


Visiting faculty,CSE,IIT (BHU)

CONTENTS
Overview
Introduction to Computers
Characteristics of Computers
History/Evolution
Generation Of Computers

Overview

Introduction to Computers
Classification of computers
Applications of Computers
Number Systems, Number Conversions, Logic Gates

Overview
contd..

Computer Organization
Memory Units
Input Devices
Output Devices

Overview
contd..
UNIT-III

Introduction To Computer Software


Operating system
Problem solving Techniques
Computer Programming languages
Computer Threats

Introduction To Computers
Definition:
Its an electronic Device that is used for information
Processing.
Computer.. Latin word.. compute
Calculation Machine

A computer system includes a computer,


peripheral devices, and software.

Introduction To Computers
Computer
Performs computations and makes logical decisions
Millions / billions times faster than human beings
Computer programs
Sets of instructions for which computer processes data.
Instruction : A command in binary that is recognized and
executed by the computer in order to accomplish the task.
Hardware
Physical devices of computer system
Software
Programs that run on computers
Algorithm :
A process or set of rules to be followed in
calculations or other problem-solving operations,

Definition:
Introduction To Computer Software
Operating system
Problem solving Techniques
Computer Prog ramming languages
Computer Threats

Devices that comprise a


computer system
Monitor
(output)

Speaker
(output)

System unit
(processor,
memory)

Printer
(output)

Scanner
(input)

Keyboard
(input)

Mouse
(input)

Storage
devices
(CD-RW,
Floppy, Hard
disk, zip,)

Capabilities of Computers
Huge Data Storage
Input and Output
Processing

Characteristics of Computers
High Processing: The computers are very fast in
computing.
Accuracy: Rarely makes error
Reliability:
Versatility: To handle a variety of applications and jobs.
Diligence: Computer can perform a given set of functions
endlessly without getting tired or bored.
Automation : No human intervention is required one the
data are given.
Storage: A computer can store massive amount of
information.
Programmability. A program is the list of instruction
telling the computer what to do.

The Von Neumann Model

The Von Neumann model


consists of five major
comments
Input devices.
Central Processing Unit (containing the
control unit and the arithmetic/logic
unit).
Memory.
Output devices.
Storage devices.

What are the Primary


Components?
Input devices.
Keyboard.
Mouse

Keyboard.
The most commonly used input device is the
keyboard on which data is entered by
manually keying in or typing certain keys. A
keyboard typically has 101 or 105 keys.

Mouse: Is a pointing device which is used to


control the movement of a mouse pointer on
the screen to make selections from the screen.

The Central Processing Unit


The central processing unit (CPU) contains
electronic circuits that cause processing to
occur.
The CPU interprets instructions to the
computer, performs the logical and arithmetic
processing operations, and causes the input
and output operations to occur.
It is considered the brain of the
computer.

The Central Processing Unit

Memory
Memory also called Random Access Memory
or RAM (temporary memory) is the main
memory of the computer.
It consists of electronic components that
store data including numbers, letters of the
alphabet, graphics and sound.
Any information stored in RAM is lost when
the computer is turned off.
There are two types of RAM
SRAM(Static RAM)
DRAM(Dynamic RAM)

SRAM
SRAM, abit of datais stored using the
state of a six transistormemory cell.
This form of RAM is more expensive to
produce, but is generally faster
and requires less power than
DRAM .
In modern computers, is often used
as cache memory for theCPU.

DRAM
DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor
and capacitor pair, which together comprise
a DRAMmemory cell.
The capacitor holds a high or low charge (1 or
0, respectively),
and the transistor acts as a switch that lets
the control circuitry on the chip read the
capacitor's state of charge or change it.
As this form of memory is less expensive to
produce than static RAM, it is the predominant
form of computer memory used in modern
computers.

Cache memory
Cache memory, also called
CPUmemory, is random
accessmemory(RAM) that a
computer microprocessor can access
more quickly than it can access
regular RAM. This memoryis
typically integrated directly with the
CPU chip or placed on a separate
chip that has a separate bus
interconnect with the CPU.

Most modern operating systems employ a method


of extending RAM capacity, known as "virtual
memory".

ROM
Read Only Memory or ROM is memory that
is etched on a chip that has start-up directions
for your computer. It is permanent memory.
Types of ROM(Non volatile memories)
PROM (Programmable ROM)
EPROM(Erasable Programmable ROM )
EEPROM(ElectricallyErasable
Programmable ROM )

Memory

Memory

Look inside your computer

RAM BANK

CPU

Out Put Devices


Output devices make the information
resulting from the processing available for
use. The two output devices more commonly
used are the printer and the computer screen.
The printer produces a hard copy of your
output, and the computer screen produces a
soft copy of your output.

Out Put Devices

Out Put Devices

History Of Computers

Before the 1500s, in Europe, calculations were made


with an abacus
Invented around 500BC, available in many
cultures (China, Mesopotamia, Japan, Greece,
Rome, etc.)
In 1642, Blaise Pascal (French mathematician,
physicist, philosopher) invented a mechanical
calculator called the Pascaline
In 1671, Gottfried von Leibniz (German
mathematician, philosopher) extended the Pascaline to
do multiplications, divisions, square roots: the Stepped
Reckoner
None of these machines had memory, and they
required human intervention at each step

In 1822 Charles Babbage (English


mathematician, philosopher), sometimes called
the father of computing built the Difference
Engine

Machine designed to automate the computation


(tabulation) of polynomial functions (which
are known to be good approximations of many
useful functions)
Based on the method of finite difference
Implements some storage

In 1833 Babbage designed the Analytical


Engine, but he died before he could build it
It was built after his death, powered by
steam

In 1822 Charles Babbage (English


mathematician, philosopher), sometimes called
the father of computing built the Difference
Engine

Machine designed to automate the computation


(tabulation) of polynomial functions (which
are known to be good approximations of many
useful functions)
Based on the method of finite difference
Implements some storage

In 1833 Babbage designed the Analytical


Engine, but he died before he could build it
It was built after his death, powered by
steam

Introduction To Computers
Generations of Computers

Introduction To Computers
Generation of Computers

First Generation (1946-59)


Second Generation(1957-64)
Third Generation(1965-70)
Fourth Generation(1970-90)
Fifth Generation(1990 till date)

Introduction To Computers
Generation 0: Mechanical Calculators
Generation 1: Vacuum Tube Computers
Generation 2: Transistor Computers
Generation 3: Integrated Circuits
Generation 4: Microprocessors

Introduction To Computers

Generation 1 :

ENIAC
The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was
unveiled in 1946: the first all-electronic, general-purpose digital
computer

The use of binary


In the 30s Claude Shannon (the father of information
theory) had proposed that the use of binary arithmetic and
boolean logic should be used with electronic circuits
The Von-Neumann architecture

CPU

I/O
System

Memory

Generation 2: IBM7094

Generation 3: Integrated Circuits

Seymour Cray created the Cray


Research Corporation
Cray-1: $8.8 million, 160 million
instructions per seconds and 8
Mbytes of memory

Generation 4: VLSI

Microprocessors

Improvements to IC technology made it


possible to integrate more and more transistors
in a single chip
SSI (Small Scale Integration): 10-100
MSI (Medium Scale Integration): 1001,000
LSI (Large Scale Integration): 1,00010,000
VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration):
>10,000

Generation 5?
The term Generation 5 is used sometimes to refer to all
more or less sci fi future developments
Voice recognition
Artificial intelligence
Quantum computing
Bio computing
Nano technology
Learning
Natural languages