JH701: Management of Change and Organisational Development

Acknowledgement of sources:
Text: Waddell,D., Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (2000). Organisation development and change. South Melbourne, Vic.: Nelson Thomson Learning. Other sources: French, W.L. & Bell, C.H. (1999). Organization development – Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement (6th ed). New York: Prentice Hall. Harvey, D. & Brown, D.R. (2001). An experiential approach to organization development (6th ed). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Senior, B. (1997). Organisational change. Harlow, Eng.: Prentice Hall.

JH701 Management of Change & Organisational Development
• • • • • • • • • • 1 Overview of Change & Organisation Development 2 Systems approach to OD & diagnosis 3 Diagnostic processes 4 Collecting & analysing diagnostic information 5 A practitioner perspective on managing change & Managing effective change programs 6 - 9 Overview of interventions 10 Evaluating & institutionalising change interventions 11 Entering & contracting 12 OD practitioners – styles & skills 13 Trends in managing change & OD

Week 1: Overview of Change and Organisation Development

Learning Objectives
• To provide a definition of Organisation Development (OD) • To distinguish OD and planned change from other forms of organisation change • To provide an overview of the unit

Changing environmental forces
• Political (eg government legislation & ideology) • Economic (eg economic policies, employment rates, currency exchange rates) • Technological (eg new production processes, IT / the Internet) • Socio-cultural (eg demographic trends, attitudes to work, lifestyle changes)

Ford’s Definition of Change

Change occurs whenever there is a shift in what we do, how we do it, why we do it, or how well we do it.

Ansoff & McDonnell’s levels of environmental turbulence
1.Predictable 2.Forecastable by extrapolation 3. Predictable threats & opportunities 4. Partially predictable opportunities 5. Unpredictable surprises

Grundy’s varieties of change
1. smooth incremental 2. bumpy incremental 3. discontinuous

Burke’s Definition of OD

OD is a planned process of change in an organisation’s culture through the utilisation of behavioural science technology, research, and theory.

French’s Definition of OD
OD refers to a long-range effort to improve an organisation’s problem-solving capabilities and its ability to cope with changes in its external environment with the help of external or internal behavioural-scientist consultants.

Beckhard’s Definition of OD
OD is an effort (1) planned, (2) organisation-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organisation effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organisation’s “processes,” using behavioural science knowledge.

Beer’s Definition of OD
OD is a system-wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at: (2) enhancing congruence between organisational structure, process, strategy, people, and culture; (3) developing new and creative organisational solutions; and (4) developing the organisation’s self-renewing capacity. It occurs through collaboration of organisational members working with a change agent using behavioural science theory, research, and technology.

Dunphy & Stace’s Definition of OD
OD is a ‘soft’ approach that describes a process of change undertaken in small incremental steps managed participatively

Organisation Development is...
a systemwide application of behavioural science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organisation effectiveness.

Five Stems of OD Practice
Laboratory Training

Current Practice

Action Research/Survey Feedback Participative Management Quality of Work Life Strategic Change
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990

2000

Part I: Overview of the Text
The Nature of Planned Change (Chapter 2) The OD Practitioner (Chapter 3)

Part II: The Process of Organisation Development
Entering & Contracting (Chapter 4) Feeding Back Diagnostic Data (Chapter 8) Diagnosing Organisations (Chapter 5) Designing OD Interventions (Chapter 9) Diagnosing Groups & Jobs (Chapter 6) Managing Change (Chapter 10) Collecting Diagnostic Information (Chapter 7) Evaluating & Institutionalising Change (Chapter 11)

Part III: Human Process Interventions

Part IV: Technostructural Interventions

Part V: Human Resources Management Interventions Performance Management (Chapter 17) Developing and Assisting Members (Chapter 18)

Part VI: Strategic Interventions

Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches (Chapter 12 Organisation Process Approaches (Chapter 13)

Restructuring Organisations (Chapter 14) Employee Involvement (Chapter 15) Work Design (Chapter 16)

Organisation and Environment Relationships (Chapter 19) Organisation Transformation (Chapter 20)

Part VII: Special Topics in Organisation Development Organisation Development OD in Global Settings (Chapter 21)

Learning Objectives
• To describe and compare major perspectives on changing organisations. • To introduce a General Model of Planned Change that will be used to organise the material presented in the text & unit. • To describe how planned change can be adopted to fit different kinds of conditions.

Lewin’s Change Model
Unfreezing Movement

Refreezing

Action Research Model
Problem Identification Joint diagnosis

Consultation with a behavioral scientist

Joint action planning

Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis Feedback to Client

Action Data gathering after action

Contemporary Approaches to Planned Change
Choose Positive Subjects Develop a Vision with Broad Participation

Collect Positive Stories with Broad Participation Examine Data and Develop Possibility Propositions

Develop Action Plans

Evaluate

Comparison of Planned Change Models
• Similarities
– – – – Change preceded by diagnosis or preparation Apply behavioural science knowledge Stress involvement of organisation members Recognise the role of a consultant

• Differences
– General vs. specific activities – Centrality of consultant role – Problem-solving vs. social constructionism

General Model of Planned Change

Entering and
Contracting

Diagnosing

Planning and Implementing Change

Evaluating and Institutionalising Change

Different Types of Planned Change
• Magnitude of Change
– Incremental – Quantum

• Degree of Organisation
– Overorganised – Underorganised

• Domestic vs. International Settings

Critique of Planned Change
• Conceptualisation of Planned Change
– Change in not linear – Change is not rational – The relationship between change and performance is unclear

• Practice of Planned Change
– Limited consulting skills and focus – Quick fixes vs. development approaches

Contingency Approach to Change Management
– Scale of change: fine tuning, incremental,
adjustment, modular transformation, corporate transformation

– Style of management: collaborative,
consultative, directive, coercive

– Typology of change strategies and conditions for their use: participative evolution, charismatic
transformation, forced evolution, dictatorial transformation

NEXT WEEK
• Systems approach to OD & diagnosis • Reading: Chapters 5 & 6 • Additional reading: Senior (1997) Chapters 1 &2

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