Week 6(a): An overview of Interventions

Acknowledgement of sources
Text: Waddell, Cummings & Worley (2000). Other sources: French & Bell (1999); Senior (1997)

Learning Objectives
• To discuss criteria for effective interventions • To discuss issues, considerations, constraints, ingredients, and processes associated with intervention design • To give an overview of the various interventions used in the book

Definition of Interventions
An intervention is a set of sequenced and planned actions or events intended to help the organisation increase its effectiveness. Interventions purposely disrupt the status quo.

Characteristics of Effective Interventions
• Is it relevant to the needs of the organisation?
– Valid information – Free and Informed Choice – Internal Commitment

• Is it based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes? • Does it transfer competence to manage change to organisation members?

The Design of Effective Interventions
• Contingencies Related to the Change Situation


Readiness for change Cultural context Capability to change Capabilities of the Change Agent

• Contingencies Related to the Target of Change

Intervention Overview
• Human Process Interventions • Technostructural Interventions • Human Resources Management Interventions • Strategic Interventions

Strategic issues
• What products, functions, services, markets • How to gain competitive advantage • How to relate to the environment • What values will guide organisational functioning

Strategic Interventions
• Integrated Strategic Change • Transorganisation Development • Mergers and Acquisitions • Culture Change • Self-designing Organisations • Organization Learning and Knowledge Management

Technology & structure issues
• How to divide labour • How to co-ordinate departments • How to produce products or services • How to design work

Technostructural Interventions
• Structural Design • Downsizing • Reengineering • Employee Involvement • Work Design

Human Process issues
• How to communicate • How to solve issues • How to make decisions • How to interact • How to lead

Human Process Interventions
• T-Groups • Process Consultation and Team Building • Third-party Interventions (Conflict Resolution) • Organisation Confrontation Meeting • Intergroup Relationships • Large-group Interventions • Grid Organisation Development

Human Resource issues
• How to attract competent people • How to set goals & reward people • How to plan & develop people’s careers

Human Resources Management Interventions
• Goal Setting • Performance Appraisal • Reward Systems • Career Planning and Development • Managing Work Force Diversity • Employee Wellness

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