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Chapter 6 OFDM/DMT for Wireline Communications School of Info. Sci. & Eng. Shandong Univ.
Chapter 6
OFDM/DMT for
Wireline Communications
School of Info. Sci. & Eng.
Shandong Univ.
CONTENT  6.1 Discrete MultiTone (DMT) and Wireline Channel Properties  6.2 Optical OFDM Transmission and
CONTENT
 6.1 Discrete MultiTone (DMT) and Wireline
Channel Properties
 6.2 Optical OFDM Transmission and Optical
Channel Properties
 6.3 Impulse-Noise Cancellation
 6.4 Dual Polarization Optical OFDM Transmission
 6.5 Forward Error Correction
 6.6 Summary
Properties of the Twisted-Pair Channel  Transfer Characteristic :
Properties of the Twisted-Pair Channel
 Transfer Characteristic :
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)  NEXT results from coupling from other loops in
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and
Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)
 NEXT results from coupling from other loops in
the same cable from transmitters located at the
same side as the own receiver. NEXT (as a
power contribution) is modeled as:
where N is the number of identical disturbers and
the power of 0.6 is to halfways model the
distribution of disturbers in cable.
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)  FEXT results from coupling from other lo ops
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and
Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)
 FEXT results from coupling from other lo ops
in the same cable from transmitters located at
the opposite side of the own receiver. FEXT (as
a power contribution) is modeled as:
where N is the number of identical disturbers, l is the length
of the coupling length, and the power of 0.6 is to halfways
model the distribution of disturbers in the cable
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT) NEXT and FEXT
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and
Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)
NEXT and FEXT
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)  The so-called Equal-Level FEXT (EL- FEXT) is defined
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and
Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)
 The so-called Equal-Level FEXT (EL-
FEXT) is defined by eliminating the length
dependency and the transfer function:
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT) Measured NEXT of an 0.4-mm layered cable
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and
Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)
Measured NEXT of an 0.4-mm layered cable
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)  Measured NEXT of an 0.4-mm layered cable
Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT) and
Far-end Crosstalk (FEXT)
 Measured NEXT of an 0.4-mm layered cable
Radio-frequency Interference (RFI) and Impulse Noise  Non-symmetries are characterized by unbalance parameters like Longitudinal Conversion
Radio-frequency Interference
(RFI) and Impulse Noise
Non-symmetries are characterized by unbalance parameters
like Longitudinal Conversion Loss (LCL), Transverse
Conversion Loss (TCL), Longitudinal Conversion Transfer
Loss (LCTL),and Transverse Conversion Transfer Loss
(TCTL).
The duration of an impulse follows roughly follows a
combination of two log-normal densities in the form :
Radio-frequency Interference (RFI) and Impulse Noise Impulses resulting from welding and fluorescent tubes, measured at a
Radio-frequency Interference
(RFI) and Impulse Noise
Impulses resulting from welding and fluorescent tubes,
measured at a telephone socket
Discrete MultiTone (DMT) Components of DMT transmission
Discrete MultiTone (DMT)
Components of DMT transmission
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD  The singular-value decomposition rephrases the channel matrix in
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD
 The singular-value decomposition rephrases the
channel matrix in DFT domain H ( n) at carrier
number n as :
Λ(n) is a diagonal matrix. P (n ) and Q (n) are
unitary matrices.
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD  Let t (n) and r(n ) be input
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD
 Let t (n) and r(n ) be input and output vectors,
respectively. At the transmitter side, we multiply
the signal t(n ) by P (n ). Whereas, the signal
at the receiver is multiplied by Q H ( n) to obtain the
output r(n ) :
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD  Using the SVD , we obtain : x
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD
 Using the SVD , we obtain :
x (n) is the product of P ( n) and t (n )
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD  OFDM and SVD as Reed-Solomon or RS-like codes
Two-Sided Processing for MIMO Based on SVD
OFDM and SVD as Reed-Solomon or RS-like codes RS
codes are commonly defined as follows
the structures of OFDM and SVD :
QR decomposition for upstream processing  For upstream processing we write the L × L channel
QR decomposition for upstream processing
 For upstream processing we write the L × L
channel matrix as (In the following, we omit the
carrier index n): H=QR
 With a unitary matrix Q and an upper triangular
matrix R .Working with column vectors for
information and received values, a post-processing
with Q H leads to:
QR decomposition for upstream processing Spatial DFE structure resulting from QR decomposition
QR decomposition for upstream processing
Spatial DFE structure resulting from QR decomposition
QR decomposition for downstream processing  For downstream processing, the idea is to apply a QR
QR decomposition for downstream processing
For downstream processing, the idea is to apply a QR
decomposition to the transpose of the channel matrix. This
enables us to do a pre-processing instead of the post-
processing of the previous paragraph. We hence obtain:
The diagonal matrix is added to obtain a similar structure in
the following formula . Equation can equivalently be
rephrased as:
QR decomposition for downstream processing QR decomposition for downstream processing
QR decomposition for downstream processing
QR decomposition for downstream processing
Optical OFDM Transmission and Optical Channel Properties  Commercially available systems for high bit-rate optical data
Optical OFDM Transmission and
Optical Channel Properties
 Commercially available systems for high bit-rate
optical data transmission utilize on-off-keying or
differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and reach
bit-rates up to 40 Gbit/s.
 A straightforward approach is bit-interleaved coded
modulation with iterative decoding (BICM-ID) ,
which can be considered as the most simple
approach to achieve high spectral efficiency while
providing a low decoding complexity.
Common Mode and Differential Mode  Differential-Mode (DM) signals have been the conventional approach of transmission
Common Mode and Differential Mode
Differential-Mode (DM) signals have been the conventional
approach of transmission over copper cables.
Common-Mode (CM) signals are taken as the arithmetic
mean of the two signals measured with respect to ground,
which makes them prone to interference.
Both DM and CM signals are readily available on the
receiver side:
Coupling and Transfer Functions  Transfer functions for DM and CM obtained from measurements of a
Coupling and Transfer Functions
Transfer functions for DM and CM obtained from
measurements of a 0.4 mm Swiss cable of length 100 m
Coupling and Transfer Functions  NEXT coupling functions, obtained from measurements of different TPs in the
Coupling and Transfer Functions
NEXT coupling functions, obtained from measurements of different
TPs in the bundle. The outlier is due to measuring the other TP in the
same star quad
Coupling and Transfer Functions  FEXT coupling functions, obtained from measurements of different TPs in the
Coupling and Transfer Functions
FEXT coupling functions, obtained from measurements of different TPs
in the bundle. The outliers are due to measuring adjacent TPs
Common-Mode Reference-Based Canceler  Impulse noise generated from light switching, both in DM and CM
Common-Mode Reference-Based Canceler
Impulse noise generated from light switching, both in DM and CM
Impulse Noise Detection and Cancellation—Detection  For the first method , in order to obtain the
Impulse Noise Detection and Cancellation—Detection
For the first method , in order to obtain the envelope, the
CM is split into non overlapping frames of size M .Out of
every frame, the maxim value is chosen and interpolation is
performed among all local maxima.
Envelope of CM signal (green)
Impulse Noise Detection and Cancellation—Detection  A second method which can be easily implemented in the
Impulse Noise Detection and Cancellation—Detection
 A second method which can be easily implemented
in the analog domain uses a rectifier and a low pass
filter to detect the envelope of the CM signal :
Second method for CM envelope detection
Simulation Results  The green line depicts the overall received DM signal, which is corrupted by
Simulation Results
The green line depicts the overall received DM signal,
which is corrupted by impulsive noise, while the black
waveform illustrates the same DM signal, impulse noise
free.
The red line presents the ideal transmitted signal, with no
interference, only attenuated by the loop.
Dual Polarization Optical OFDM Transmission Investigated system: Dual polarization OFDM transmission, coherent detection.
Dual Polarization Optical OFDM
Transmission
Investigated system: Dual polarization OFDM
transmission, coherent detection.
Noise Variance Estimation  The transmission of symbol vectors[X 1 (d) X 2 (d)] T on
Noise Variance Estimation
 The transmission of symbol vectors[X 1 (d) X 2 (d)] T
on sub-carrier d can be written as:
 Then the relative noise variance for both receive
branches can be determined:
Noise Variance Estimation Estimated relative noise power
Noise Variance Estimation
Estimated relative noise power
Achievable Spectral Efficiency  According to Shannon the maximum information-rate which can be transmitted over a
Achievable Spectral Efficiency
According to Shannon the maximum information-rate
which can be transmitted over a band-limited additive white
Gaussian noise channel is:
The contributions of the orthogonal polarizations are added
up. Furthermore we average over the OFDM sub-carriers:
Achievable Spectral Efficiency  The investigated transmission system is assumed to consist of equally spaced, identical
Achievable Spectral Efficiency
The investigated transmission system is assumed to consist
of equally spaced, identical optical amplifiers. The optical
SNR (OSNR) after Nspans amplifiers is given by:
Here h and c denote Planck’s constant and the speed of
light, respectively. G is the amplifiers’ gain which shall
equal the loss of one fiber span. The noise figure is given
by F N
Achievable Spectral Efficiency  Achievable spectral efficiency versus distance and launch power
Achievable Spectral Efficiency
Achievable spectral efficiency versus distance and launch power
Achievable Spectral Efficiency  Achievable spectral efficiency vs. distance
Achievable Spectral Efficiency
 Achievable spectral efficiency vs. distance
ADC/DAC Resolution  Achievable spectral efficiency versus distance considering quantization noise.
ADC/DAC Resolution
Achievable spectral efficiency versus distance considering
quantization noise.
Forward Error Correction Iterative demapping and decoding, BICM-ID system configuration
Forward Error Correction
Iterative demapping and decoding, BICM-ID system
configuration
Forward Error Correction  The function btst (i, h ) takes the value ‘1’if bit number
Forward Error Correction
The function btst (i, h ) takes the value ‘1’if bit number h is
set in the binary decomposition of i, otherwise it is ‘0’
where:
When the channel symbols z are corrupted by complex
Gaussian noise, the conditional PDF calculates to:
Forward Error Correction  The soft-demapping algorithm of for the complex AWGN channel as:
Forward Error Correction
 The soft-demapping algorithm of for the complex
AWGN channel as:
Influence of the Applied Mapping  For anti-Gray mapping a quite high SNR is required to
Influence of the Applied Mapping
 For anti-Gray mapping a quite high SNR is
required to reach the so called “turbo cliff”, which
is the required SNR at which the decoding process
starts to deliver an iteration gain.
 The symbols within a CW are mapped to a ratio of
α according to Gray and to a ratio 1 − α according
to anti-Gray:
Simulations on the Performance of Coded OFDM Complete optical COFDM system
Simulations on the Performance of Coded OFDM
Complete optical COFDM system
Simulations on the Performance of Coded OFDM Simulations on systems performance; BER at BICM- ID output
Simulations on the Performance of Coded OFDM
Simulations on systems performance; BER at BICM-
ID output
Simulations on the Performance of Coded OFDM EXIT functions of decoder and soft-demapper for different mappings
Simulations on the Performance of Coded OFDM
EXIT functions of decoder and soft-demapper for different
mappings at optical input power of -9 dBm
Summary  This chapter gave an impression of some of the research issues related to the
Summary
This chapter gave an impression of some of the research
issues related to the wireline use of multicarrier
modulation. Many aspects are similar as in wireless, but the
channels offer different possibilities or have other
challenges, such as, e.g., more stationary behavior, an
additional common mode in twisted-pair, or non-linearities
in optical communication.
We adapted the principle of an iterative decoding scheme,
namely BICM-ID, to our system. The obtained results for
the investigated optical OFDM system promise to reach a
spectral efficiency of 8 bit/s/Hz for a 960 km fiber link.