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RESEARCH METHODS

BACKGROUND

Introduction to Research WHY? .

to arrive at knowledge  Ex: All statistics professors are incredible people. alone.Introduction to Research  Methods of Knowledge Acquisition ◦ Authority . D. . Ms. D is a statistics professor.Knowledge based on authority may rely upon the reputation of an individual  ◦ Rationalism – The use of reasoning. is an incredible person. Therefore. Ms.

the clarifying idea that springs through consciousness all at once as a whole.Introduction to Research  Methods of Knowledge Acquisition ◦ Intuition – Acquiring knowledge through a sudden insight. ◦ Scientific Method – Uses both reasoning and intuition for establishing truth. . Relies on objective assessment.

◦ Scientific Method – Uses both reasoning and intuition for establishing truth. Relies on objective assessment. . the clarifying idea that springs through consciousness all at once as a whole.Introduction to Research  Methods of Knowledge Acquisition ◦ Intuition – Acquiring knowledge through a sudden insight.

Introduction to Research  The ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Scientific Method Ask a Question Do Background Research Construct a Hypothesis Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion Communicate Your Results .

Introduction to Research The Research Process .

objects or scores.Introduction to Research   Definition of Terms  Population– The complete set of individuals. . or person that may have different values at different times depending on the conditions. object.  Variable -Any property or characteristic of some event. that the investigator is interested in studying.  Sample – A subset of the population.

The dependent variable in an experiment is the variable that the investigator measures to determine the effect of the independent variable. .The independent variable in an experiment is the variable that is systematically manipulated by the investigator ◦ Dependent Variable (DV) .Introduction to Research  Definition of Terms ◦ Independent Variable (IV) .

parameter is a number calculated on population data that quantifies a characteristic of the population.Introduction to Research  Definition of Terms ◦ Data . ◦ Statistic . .A statistic is a number calculated on sample data that quantifies a characteristic of the sample. ◦ Parameter .The measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment are called data.

◦ Statistic . .A statistic is a number calculated on sample data that quantifies a characteristic of the sample.Introduction to Research  Definition of Terms ◦ Data .The measurements that are made on the subjects of an experiment are called data.parameter is a number calculated on population data that quantifies a characteristic of the population. ◦ Parameter .

The average number of words remembered by each group is calculated. The students are divided into two groups of 50 students per group. . the teacher uses several words and passages that are presented visually or auditorily. and the two group averages are compared to see whether the mode of presentation had an effect.Exercise!  An English teacher conducts an experiment to determine whether the mode of presentation affects how well a lesson material is remembered. For this experiment. The first group receives a visual presentation of the words and passages. At the end of their respective presentations. the subjects are asked to write down as much of the material as they can remember. and the second group hears the words and passages through an auditory presentation. 100 students are selected from the undergraduates attending the university at which the teacher works.