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Pre production tools

Storyboard
Storyboards are used to illustrate how you want your production to turn out. It
consists of series of pictures which represents each shot, and each shot has a
description below the picture. The description includes: the shot type, location of
the filming, screen action, camera movement, lighting, sound and effects. The
storyboard is useful towards the production because you can thoroughly plan
out what youre going to film so while filming, you wont be confused and
disorganised and waste time. The storyboard is also useful to show to the
producer before you film, so you can see if there needs to be any changes or
improvements done so you wouldnt need to waste time re-filming. There arent
any laws behind the storyboard so there isnt any hassle, and it is efficient to
filming as it keeps your scenes and shots organised. Although it is great to keep
the scenes organised, during the filming you may trail off the storyboard as there
may be some sudden changes during the filming so its not always reliable and
accurate towards filming. Although the storyboard takes quite long to do it helps
you do the script and the filming. The storyboard specifically helped me to
consider what I was going to do for each shot. Looking through the storyboard
made me try and use a variety of shot types so it has a large range of shot types
to make the advert look interesting. It also allowed me to estimate how long the
advert was going to be so the duration wont be too long or too short.

Gantt chart
Gantt charts are used to update regularly to keep track of all the work
done or production completed in certain periods of time. The gantt
chart is essential to the production because it helps keep track of all the
work you have or havent done, which is also the strength of a gantt
chart. The weakness of a gantt chart is that you have to remember to
update it regularly, or else you would have to make it up which wouldnt
make the gantt chart reliable. The gantt chart is for you to keep track of
things so there are no laws applied to the gantt chart. To set out the
gantt chart, on the left are the production (tools) to be done, and above
are the dates until the final deadline. Along the way the gantt chart
needs to be filled for each date youve included and colour code whether
youve done it or not. Red means that it hasnt been done, orange means
its a working progress and green means that it has been finished. The
gantt chart is hassle for me to do as you would need to update it
everyday, and sometimes you forget so you have no choice but to make
it up making it unreliable. The gantt chart is a living document, which
means that it is updated frequently. Setting out the gantt chart also
allowed me to think about the dates and the deadlines for the project so
I am not too far behind.

Script
A script is written text for a play, film or broadcast. In this case it is a
script for an advert. The script describes the setting, actions and
dialogue of the actors/characters. For every single dialogue or
movement/action, it needs to be recorded on the script in detail so the
actor and director knows what to do. The script is reliable because it
allows the actor/director to know what the intention of each scene is
and how it is meant to play out. However during the time of filming
some actors may stray off the script and form an ad-lib or improv, so
the actions/dialogue on the script is not always definite. The script has
no laws behind it since it is only a guide for actors and directors
during the filming period. As long as you know how you want your
production to look like it is easy to do the script and it is helpful
because the actors/director would know what to do so they wont waste
time on set being confused or not knowing what to do. In this advert I
didnt use the script as it didnt record every single shot taken. Since
my actress was a child, it was much more simple for me to explain and
show the actions that she would have to do instead of reading it for
herself.

Risk Assessment
The risk assessment is a document where you record possible risks that
may happen during filming. To fill in the risk assessment you have to
record the risks, and evaluate how dangerous it is and how you would act
if the risk happened. Under the likelihood section there are levels from AE (A- Almost certain, E- Rare). Underneath consequences are numbers
from 1-5 (1- Insignificant, no injuries, 5- Catastrophic, death). Under the
level of risk there are letters E (Extreme risk), H (High risk), M
(Moderate risk) and L (Low risk). In the preemptive section you have to
record what youll do to prevent it from happening and under response
you have to record what you will do if it did happen. The risk assessment
is helpful and makes you think about the risks that may happen which you
may not notice until it actually happens. However most of the times there
are little risks so it may be hard to know what to put in the risk
assessment. At most times the risk assessment may be difficult due to
thinking of different risks there may be, but in the end it doesnt take
much time at all to finish it. It helps being cautious and safe. Risk
assessments are used in all working environments to protect the people
working there. If one of the members were injured and the risk wasnt
recorded in the risk assessment, then they could easily sue me. However if
it was looked over then an insurance would cover the damages.

Location Recce
The location recce is for you to record the location and work out
whether or not it is a suitable location for you to film in and include
information about the location like potential risks etc. For the
location recce you need a picture/sketch of the location (screenshot
from Google Earth) and put the name of the location. Then you need
to take pictures of specific places of the set/location and bullet point
information about it. The location recce help you know the
whereabouts of the location and helps you explore and search
whether or not it is okay for your filming. The only weakness of the
location recce is the hassle of taking pictures of each of your specific
locations however it is not much of a big deal. There are other
production tools that could help you with the information of the
location, like the risk assessment. Overall the location recce is quite
useful and not much of a bother to do. The location recce would
help consider how long it would take to get to the location,
transportation, potential weather problems and health and safety
issues. The location recce especially helped me with the risks as it
made me survey the area to check any possible risks and damages.

Call Sheet
A call sheet is a sheet of paper which has crucial contact information
for the cast and crew of the film to inform them where and when they
should be at the location of filming. It also includes other
information like the props, lighting, camera, expected weather,
additional equipment, catering, transport and others which you may
think are crucial to add. The call sheet is quite easy to do as all you
need to do is fill in the cast/crews name and contact information,
and vaguely fill in the rest of the information at the bottom half of
the sheet. The call sheet is helpful as you can contact the members if
they do not turn up, or to remind them of the filming date so they
dont forget. There are hardly any downsides to the call sheet. Due to
the confidentiality of this document I would have been made to sign
an agreement where I would have to prove that the information is
private. Since this is an individual project I didnt need to sign an
agreement document as I didnt have anyone to share the document
with in the first place. The call sheet made me consider the crew and
cast members participating in a project, and the certain things to
consider when filming it.

Budget
The budget sheet is used to record the cost of the production and the
materials used for the production, and how many days you would need it
for. The costs doesnt have to be the definite price, however it does need
to be a very close estimation of the cost so the overall budget is very close
to the actual price. After recording the total of the equipment we need,
we also need to find the contingency fund at 10% of the budget which is
needed in case of emergencies. Including the total plus the contingency
fund, it creates the total budget of the equipment needed. Although the
budget sheet is useful in order for you not to overspend, it is also very
long to calculate the total budget. I disliked doing the budget sheet as
maths is a weak point and having to calculate and find out all of the
equipment prices was a hassle to me, but it is quite useful to know
whether or not youre overspending. The budget sheet made me consider
the approximate prices of how much a production could cost.
Researching the costs also made me reference the sources of the pieces of
the equipment and crew which differs varying from the people/company
renting. Using the budget sheet for this project isnt very necessary as I
was already provided with the equipment, and I am individually filming
and editing the project however it gave me an insight of how productions
would cost.

Requirements
The requirements sheet, as the name suggests, is a sheet for you to record
all the things required to make your production. You need to record which
production equipment you need, crew requirements, actors, transport,
props/scenery and post production needs. Then you need to record
whether or not each required needs are available, whether or not you have
booked it or if they are at least counted. The requirements are really easy
to do as long as you know what you need however it may take time to
confirm whether or not they are available or if they could be booked. The
requirements are super easy to do and there are hardly any hassles behind
it. The requirements sheet helps you go over the things you need for your
production which helped me organise things before the filming date so I
dont need to get anything on the day or miss things out. Since this was an
individual production this document was only slightly useful to me as it
was more of a checklist. If this was a group project or used professionally
then it would be a lot more useful because you would need to check
whether all of the staff/crew members were there and the cast, and
whether or not they were being accommodated.

Release Agreement
Release agreements is a legal document for the actor or participant of the
production to sign. Even if the participant isnt in the production in the
end, it is still useful because it allows footage to be agreeable to the actors.
If the filming location is in a public or crowded area, although itd be a
good idea for every participant to sign the release agreement, it would be
extremely time consuming. This is also very important if you have
underage actors in your filming production as you would need the
parents/guardians consent and signature so they are happy with the
childs participation to proceed with the filming. It is also important
because if I did not have a legal document to prove that I had permission it
would not have been allowed to air on TV due to Ofcoms consent rule.
Since there was only one actor (child) to star in my advert, it was simple
for me to get the parents consent and signature as only one document was
needed to sign. If the filming was done in a public area where the people
are visible in the shot, you would need a public liability insurance.
http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/broadcasting/broadcast-codes/broadca
st-code/privacy/
This website states the privacy of people when filming. This applies to me
under the people under 16 section as the child actress I am using also has
equal rights to an adult. It states that an adult over 18 needs to consent the
filming of the child.

Location Release
Location release is also another legal document for the permission to
use the location of filming. The location release needs to be signed by
the owner of the location to permit the use of the location being
filmed, unless it is a public location. If there is no proof that there was
permission to use the location it may not be allowed to air on TV. The
location release was simple to do because I only had to film in one
location, and the location was at home which meant that it was easier
for me to get the document signed.
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1k_g2am7LO5D8LWPs0Sb
E4yPxiyLfrgLRnYPW53vquTQ/edit#slide=id.g99051901d_0_26
On the Ofcom website it also states that depending on the location
you film in, you have to be careful of the peoples privacy. For
example if you filmed in a public location you would need to be
careful of the peoples opinions if they are visible in the shot.
http://www.ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/itc/itc_publications/code
s_guidance/programme_code/section_2.asp.html
Under article 8, this also states that if it was filmed in a home, in
which is relevant to my case, then the familys matters needs to be
kept private and is to be respected.

Shooting script
The shooting script is another form of a script which records the type of shot, the
dynamics of the camera, the duration of the shot and the screen action. Its
supposed to be a more elaborate and precise version of the script. Professionally,
it would be used by the director alongside the cinematographer to discuss the
shots used in each shot for the production. The idea of a shooting script is that it
allows the crew to know the precise cinematography, and what is going on or else
they would mess up the filming, and waste time. On the right you record the
description of the shot and its duration and on the left you describe the screen
action in a summarised form. The shooting script, like the storyboard and script,
helps you organise the shots for the production so you know what to film and how
to film it on the day. For me the shooting script was slightly helpful, but in my
opinion it wasnt really needed because I didnt need to discuss the shot plans with
anyone as this was an individual project, and I would know which shot types to
use. The shooting script also allows you to count up the duration of each clips to
figure out the estimated total duration of the production is, so you know whether
its too short or long. Since this is pre-production, not all of the planned shots will
take place, and it may alter which leaves the shooting script as only a base for the
actual filming.

Overhead diagram
The overhead diagram is a visual birds eye view of the location youre going to be
filming in. Its a map of your location where you record which specific part of the
location youre going to be filming in and the placing of the actor in each scene, the
placement of the lighting, props etc. in each shot. In order for you to create the
overhead diagram you would need to survey the location first before you decide where
the placements should be. It is a pure visual representation of estimating what is going
to happen on the filming day, and it is key coded so you understand what is happening.
If the actor, camera or lighting needs moving then an arrow should be drawn to
indicate the direction that is moving. If the production consists of more than one scene
then more than one overhead diagram needs to be drawn according to how many
scenes there are. For me the overhead diagram was simple because my filming only
took place in one location, and for the majority of my shots it was taken in one place.
Since I am doing stop motion I couldnt draw the camera every single time it made a
slight move as it would consist of over 100 camera drawings, so I implied in my
diagram that most of the shots would be taken at around the similar position. For each
movement I did I labelled the shot number as well so I wouldnt get confused. Since
this is an individual project I would know what to do myself and not discuss it with
other people, so the overhead diagram wasnt extremely useful, however it did help me
see if certain shots/screen action was possible to do or not.

Shot list
The shot list is a list where you record each of your shots where you describe the
shot type and the screen action so the crew knows what to film during the day. For
number each shot you have and describe the shot type and screen action. Since my
production is a stop motion, I couldnt exactly record every single picture/shot I
take because I didnt exactly know how many pictures I would take, so I estimated
each screen action in each frame per second. As this was an individual project I
didnt really need the shot list as I fully know myself what Im going to be filming
and I have no need to discuss it with anyone. The shot list was a less descriptive
form of a shooting script which made the work process of this list to be very
repetitive. However because it was very similar to the shooting script, I used it as a
guideline to complete the shot list and it was easy and simple to do. For this project
a simple shot list was done however professionally it would be a lot more advanced
as it would record the number of the shot, shot type, screen action, notes and time
allowance. I noticed that shot lists are also listed on what would be logical to shoot
on the day, rather than the order of the shots for the production. This would be
helpful if you had different locations you needed to film in and had to shoot certain
bits which would be most convenient, however my production was based at one
location and was very orderly.

Footage Log
The footage log is a log that you need to fill in to record each footage
clips/pictures you have taken, what scenes and shots they are, how
many takes it needed and the file name. It also has additional notes
you can fill in to talk about the footage. For example the quality of
the footage, the sound etc. The footage log takes long to fill in
because you need to record every single one of your footage onto the
sheet. This was extremely long for me to do because for my advert I
did stop-motion which resulted in over 100 pictures to fill in the
information for. The footage log is useful after you have finished
filming your advert as this helps putting the clips together and
editing it. However since this is an individual project there isnt any
useful needs for a footage log as I already know what to edit and
how the production is going to turn out. If this was a group project
and the editors took turns then the footage log would probably be a
lot more useful.

Asset Log
The asset log is used to help you find things and where they
are located in the making of your production. If the asset is
not yours you can include a link underneath the source
category so you can avoid copyright issues. The asset log was
useful to me as it helped me know whereabouts each of my
assets were and where I have got it from. The asset log is used
to record everything that you have used in the project that
doesn't belong to you, meaning it isnt self-made. For
example, I used the Lego logo which doesnt belong to me
therefore I would use the asset log and record the source of
where the logo came from to avoid copyright issues.
https://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/copyright/p01_uk_copy
right_law
On the copyright service website below rule 8, it implies that
using work that isnt yours is allowed under private or
research study purposes which my advertisement falls under.

EDL
The edit decision list a.k.a the EDL is a list where you have to
fill out when each footage is played at what time. This is after
you have finished with the editing as you would need to
record when the footage was played and when it has ended.
You also need to fill in the audio that was playing during the
footage, the effects used on the footage, the transitions used
and extra comments on the footage. For me the EDL was very
long to do, like the footage log, because I did stop motion.
The EDL determines what time each clip starts and finishes
so you know the exact cut of the timeline. If the project is lost
I could also use the EDL to recreate it again as all the times
has been recorded. The EDL is used for projects with multiple
editors to quickly find footage used in different edits so if
they need to repeat a shot, it is easier to find. Since this is
after the filming process, this is a post production tool.

Ofcom and Copyright


Due to Ofcom rules that I must follow, I had to make
sure that it doesnt include anything inappropriate such
as swearing or explicit imagery, especially since my
Lego advert advertises toys for children during prewatershed time. If I had included anything inappropriate
then the idea wouldnt have passed in the first place,
but especially in the Ofcom rules the advert would not
be advertised during the day which means that it
wouldnt have reached to Legos target audience. In this
link it lists the ways to protect under 18 year olds which
is especially necessary for my advert. For example:
Programme makers should always consider the impact
that the representation of the use of illegal drugs, the
abuse of drugs, smoking, solvent abuse and the misuse
of alcohol, may have on younger viewers and listeners.
(
http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/broadcast/gu
idance/831193/section1.pdf

Along with Ofcom rules I also had to consider


copyrights, because I was using a Lego logo and
soundtrack that wasnt mine. In the case of using a
Lego logo I wouldve avoided copyright issues due to
the fact that I would be working under the Lego
company therefore I would be allowed to use the Lego
logo.
For the audio I had used a free soundtrack on YouTube.
(Taken from their description box:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yd9CMLWHPe4)
"Hit Song" off the album "Songs for...Everything" by music group "Music
For...Anything" is a Royalty Free song.

They also mention that even though it is free, they


must also be credited rather than claiming it as your
own. As I used an Asset Log to record the original
source, I would have acknowledged the owner of the
audio. In addition to copyright, as the audio was from
YouTube, they also have their own copyright rules
where they have a signed copyright agreement which
means that I am able to use materials for