USES OF STANDARD
DEVIATION
JAVIER, MARIE JOY JAZMINE G.
GUTIERREZ, MARY JOY L.
INTRODUCTION:
Standard deviation is the measure of spread
most commonly used in statistical practice
when the mean is used to calculate central
tendency.
it measures spread around the mean
its close links with the mean, standard
deviation can be greatly affected if the mean
gives a poor measure of central tendency.
It is calculated as the square root of variance
IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD
standard deviation, you cant get a handle on
Without
DEVIATION:
whether the data are close to the average or whether
the data are spread out over a wide range.
Without the standard deviation, you cant compare
two data sets effectively.
Suppose two sets of data have the same average; does
that mean that the data sets must be exactly the
same? Not at all.
For example, the data sets 199, 200, 201 and 0, 200,
400 both have the same average (200) yet they have
very different standard deviations. The first data set
USES:
Some examples of situations in which standard
deviation might help to understand the value of the
data:
A class of students took a math test. Their teacher
found that the mean score on the test was an 85%.
She then calculated the standard deviation of the
other test scores and found a very small standard
deviation which suggested that most students
scored very close to 85%.
A dog walker wants to determine if the dogs on his
route are close in weight or not close in weight. He
takes the average of the weight of all ten dogs. He
then calculates the variance, and then the standard
deviation. His standard deviation is extremely high.
A market researcher is analyzing the results of a recent
customer survey. He wants to have some measure of the
reliability of the answers received in the survey in order to
predict how a larger group of people might answer the same
questions. A low standard deviation shows that the answers
are very projectable to a larger group of people.
A market researcher is analyzing the results of a recent
customer survey. He wants to have some measure of the
reliability of the answers received in the survey in order to
predict how a larger group of people might answer the same
questions. A low standard deviation shows that the answers
are very projectable to a larger group of people.
A weather reporter is analyzing the high temperature
forecasted for a series of dates versus the actual high
temperature recorded on each date. A low standard
deviation would show a reliable weather forecast.
A class of students took a test in Language Arts. The teacher
determines that the mean grade on the exam is a 65%. She is
concerned that this is very low, so she determines the standard
deviation to see if it seems that most students scored close to
the mean, or not. The teacher finds that the standard deviation
is high. After closely examining all of the tests, the teacher is
able to determine that several students with very low scores
were the outliers that pulled down the mean of the entire
classs scores.
An employer wants to determine if the salaries in one
department seem fair for all employees, or if there is a great
disparity. He finds the average of the salaries in that
department and then calculates the variance, and then the
standard deviation. The employer finds that the standard
deviation is slightly higher than he expected, so he examines
the data further and finds that while most employees fall within
a similar pay bracket, three loyal employees who have been in
the department for 20 years or more, far longer than the
TERM:
Variance (S2) = average squared
deviation of values from mean
Calculating variance involves squaring
deviations, so it does not have the same
unit of measurement as the original
observations. For example, lengths
measured in metres (m) have a variance
measured in metres squared (m2).
Taking the square root of the variance gives
us the units used in the original scale and
this is the standard deviation.
EXAMPLE 1:
Calculate standard deviation from the following distribution of marks
by using all the methods.
Marks
No. of Students
13
40
35
30
57
20
79
10
SOLUTION
Mar
ks
13
40
35
30
57
79

F
fX XX XX
2
80
160
120
20
120
80
10
80
16
160
400
400
Total 100
EXAMPLE 2:
Calculate the standard deviation for the following sample
data using all methods: 2, 4, 8, 6, 10, and 12.
X
(XX)2
(27)2=25
(47)2=9
(87)2=1
(67)2=1
10
(107)2=9
12
(127)2=25
X=42
(XX)2=70
EXAMPLE 3:
Taking Assume Mean as Zero
X
2
4
8
6
10
12
X=42
X2
4
16
64
36
100
144
X2=364
EXAMPLE 4:
Using assumed mean as Zero
Marks
fX
fX2
13
40
80
160
35
30
120
480
57
20
120
720
79
10
80
640
Total
100
400
2000
OTHER EXAMPLES:
1. A hen lays eight eggs. Each egg was weighed and
recorded as follows:
60 g, 56 g, 61 g, 68 g, 51 g, 53 g, 69 g, 54 g.
Mean:
USING THE INFORMATION FROM THE
ABOVE TABLE, WE CAN SEE THAT
In order to calculate the standard deviation, we must
use the following formula:
2.
Note: During calculations, when a variable is grouped
by class intervals, the midpoint of the interval is used
in place of every other value in the interval. Thus, the
spread of observations within each interval is ignored.
This makes the standard deviation always less than
the true value. It should, therefore, be regarded as an
approximation.
TO CALCULATE THE STANDARD
DEVIATION: