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USES OF STANDARD

DEVIATION

JAVIER, MARIE JOY JAZMINE G.


GUTIERREZ, MARY JOY L.

INTRODUCTION:

Standard deviation is the measure of spread


most commonly used in statistical practice
when the mean is used to calculate central
tendency.

it measures spread around the mean


its close links with the mean, standard
deviation can be greatly affected if the mean
gives a poor measure of central tendency.

It is calculated as the square root of variance

IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD
standard deviation, you cant get a handle on
Without
DEVIATION:
whether the data are close to the average or whether
the data are spread out over a wide range.

Without the standard deviation, you cant compare


two data sets effectively.

Suppose two sets of data have the same average; does


that mean that the data sets must be exactly the
same? Not at all.

For example, the data sets 199, 200, 201 and 0, 200,
400 both have the same average (200) yet they have
very different standard deviations. The first data set

USES:
Some examples of situations in which standard
deviation might help to understand the value of the
data:
A class of students took a math test. Their teacher
found that the mean score on the test was an 85%.
She then calculated the standard deviation of the
other test scores and found a very small standard
deviation which suggested that most students
scored very close to 85%.
A dog walker wants to determine if the dogs on his
route are close in weight or not close in weight. He
takes the average of the weight of all ten dogs. He
then calculates the variance, and then the standard
deviation. His standard deviation is extremely high.

A market researcher is analyzing the results of a recent

customer survey. He wants to have some measure of the


reliability of the answers received in the survey in order to
predict how a larger group of people might answer the same
questions. A low standard deviation shows that the answers
are very projectable to a larger group of people.
A market researcher is analyzing the results of a recent
customer survey. He wants to have some measure of the
reliability of the answers received in the survey in order to
predict how a larger group of people might answer the same
questions. A low standard deviation shows that the answers
are very projectable to a larger group of people.
A weather reporter is analyzing the high temperature
forecasted for a series of dates versus the actual high
temperature recorded on each date. A low standard
deviation would show a reliable weather forecast.

A class of students took a test in Language Arts. The teacher

determines that the mean grade on the exam is a 65%. She is


concerned that this is very low, so she determines the standard
deviation to see if it seems that most students scored close to
the mean, or not. The teacher finds that the standard deviation
is high. After closely examining all of the tests, the teacher is
able to determine that several students with very low scores
were the outliers that pulled down the mean of the entire
classs scores.
An employer wants to determine if the salaries in one
department seem fair for all employees, or if there is a great
disparity. He finds the average of the salaries in that
department and then calculates the variance, and then the
standard deviation. The employer finds that the standard
deviation is slightly higher than he expected, so he examines
the data further and finds that while most employees fall within
a similar pay bracket, three loyal employees who have been in
the department for 20 years or more, far longer than the

TERM:
Variance (S2) = average squared
deviation of values from mean

Calculating variance involves squaring

deviations, so it does not have the same


unit of measurement as the original
observations. For example, lengths
measured in metres (m) have a variance
measured in metres squared (m2).
Taking the square root of the variance gives
us the units used in the original scale and
this is the standard deviation.

EXAMPLE 1:

Calculate standard deviation from the following distribution of marks


by using all the methods.

Marks

No. of Students
13

40

35

30

57

20

79

10

SOLUTION
Mar
ks

13

40

35

30

57
79

|
F|
fX XX| XX|
2

80

160

120

20

120

80

10

80

16

160

400

400

Total 100

EXAMPLE 2:

Calculate the standard deviation for the following sample


data using all methods: 2, 4, 8, 6, 10, and 12.
X

(XX)2

(27)2=25

(47)2=9

(87)2=1

(67)2=1

10

(107)2=9

12

(127)2=25

X=42

(XX)2=70

EXAMPLE 3:
Taking Assume Mean as Zero

X
2
4
8
6
10
12
X=42

X2
4
16
64
36
100
144
X2=364

EXAMPLE 4:

Using assumed mean as Zero


Marks

fX

fX2

13

40

80

160

35

30

120

480

57

20

120

720

79

10

80

640

Total

100

400

2000

OTHER EXAMPLES:

1. A hen lays eight eggs. Each egg was weighed and


recorded as follows:
60 g, 56 g, 61 g, 68 g, 51 g, 53 g, 69 g, 54 g.
Mean:

USING THE INFORMATION FROM THE


ABOVE TABLE, WE CAN SEE THAT
In order to calculate the standard deviation, we must
use the following formula:

2.

Note: During calculations, when a variable is grouped


by class intervals, the midpoint of the interval is used
in place of every other value in the interval. Thus, the
spread of observations within each interval is ignored.
This makes the standard deviation always less than
the true value. It should, therefore, be regarded as an
approximation.

TO CALCULATE THE STANDARD


DEVIATION: