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CAVENDISH UNIVERSITY

ARMENIA
2008
Contemporary Trends in
Developing and
Organizing Management
BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT THEORY
HUMAN RELATIONS APPROACH
ELTON MAYO STUDIES
Zeinab Hasrati
Makruhi Keshishyan
Hovhannes Petrosyan

THE BEHAVIORISTS TOOK MANAGEMENT


ANOTHER STEP FORWARD

They focused on employees


As individuals
As parts of work groups
As persons with needs to be met by the organization

George Elton Mayo (1880 1949)

The role that Mayo had in the development of


management is usually associated with his discovery of

Social man and the need for this in the work place.

Mayo found that workers acted according to


sentiments and emotion.

He felt that if you treated the worker with respect and


tried to meet their needs than they would be a better
worker for you and both management and the
employee would benefit.

The Hawthorne Plant of WESTERN ELECTRIC


Chicago(29,000 employees)

The Hawthorne Studies (or Hawthorne Experiments) were


conducted from 1927 to 1932 at the Western Electric
Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois (a suburb of Chicago)

The experiments
There were four main phases to the
Hawthorne experiments:

The
The
The
The

illumination experiments
relay assembly test room
interviewing program
bank wiring observation room

1.The illumination experiments


The workers were divided into two
groups

A. experiment group

B. control group

Performance Recording Device

2.The relay assembly test room


The experiment was divided
into 13 periods during which
the workers were subjected
to a series of planned and
controlled changes to their:
A. Conditions of work
B. Hours of work
C. Rest pauses
D. Provision of refreshments
Women in the Relay Assembly

3.The interviewing program


20.000 interviews
A. An impartial and nonjudgmental approach
B. Concentrated on
listening

Interviews
period

30 min

90 min

Factory Cabling Department

4.The bank wiring observation room

14 men

The group developed its own pattern of informal social relations


and norms of what constituted proper behaviour

Group pressures on individual workers were stonger than financial


incentives offered by management

CONCLUSION
Workplaces are social environments and within
them, people are motivated by much more than
economic self-interest
In the training world, the Hawthorne Effect is a chameleon

The mere act of showing people that you're concerned about


them usually spurs them to better job performance

Carrying the theory to the edges of cynicism, some


would say it doesn't make any difference what you
teach because the Hawthorne Effect will produce
the positive outcome you want.
In fact, the contention is that about 50% of any
successful training session can be attributed to
the Hawthorne Effect.
The Hawthorne Effect has also been called the
'Somebody Upstairs Cares' syndrome
When people spend a large portion of their time at work,
they must have a sense of belonging, of being part of a
team. When they do, they produce better. That's the
Hawthorne Effect.