Components of control and automation equipments and devices


• A. Components and types of control system • Automation hierarchy and Architecture

At the end of the lecture students will be able to Identify: • The process/system/plant - Process variable/Measured variable • Sensor or sensing element/measuring element • System desired value / Set point, error or deviation • Automatic controller, comparator or comparing element • Correcting unit – actuating unit (Actuator)

Control system

1. Control system components

Simplified Control System (CS)
1 2 3 4

- Control System - Sensors, Switches - Valves, Pumps, Transformers - Resource


1 2


Control System – brains of a electronic and/or electromechanical system with sensors used to monitor & change levels or direct: air, water/fluid, electricity, traffic, fuel, etc.

Courtesy NIST Manufacturing Engineering Lab, Intelligent Systems

Simplified Control System (CS)
• • This is well the interconnected components in a system. These systems use slower bandwidth, e.g. 9600 bps, tentacles for data collection, “real time” sampling, firmware types of logic circuits, and electromechanical connections to effect valves, gates, throw switches, etc. Control system are often thought as that equipment used solely by large utilities, e.g. power, gas, water In fact these systems exist in every modern building. The larger and newer the building and or building complex, the greater the likelihood that one of these systems is resident..

• • •

Scada system

SOURCE: Vendor Site

Other frequently used terms for this arena include Distributed Control Systems or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

Technical necessity of automation
 Processing of the information flow  Enforcement of safety and availability  Reduction of personal costs

The Cultures
Physical Plant
• Focus
– – – – Safety 100% Availability Electro-mechanical No updating, Aged equipment

Network Operations
• Focus
– – – – Security 99.5% Availability Electronic Continuous Updating, New Routers, Switches, Servers IP, Ethernet High Bandwidth All Digital

The Language
– – – – RTUs, PLCs, IEDs DNP, Modbus Low Bandwidth Analog & Digital

The Language
– – – –

The Vendors
– Allen Bradley(AB)/Rockwell, Honeywell, Siemens, Johnson Controls

The Vendors

– IBM, Microsoft, CISCO, Dell

Expectations of Automation
 Process Optimisation – Energy, material and time savings – Quality improvement, reduction of waste, pollution control – compliance with laws, product tracking – Increase availability, safety – Fast response to market – Connection to management and accounting  Acquisition of large number of “Process Variables”, data mining  Personal costs reduction – Simplify interface – Assist decision – Require data processing, displays, data base, expert systems  Human-Machine Interface (MMC = Man-Machine Communication)  Asset Optimisation – Automation of engineering, commissioning and maintenance – Software configuration, back-up and versioning – Maintenance support  Engineering Tools

Data Quantity in Different Plants Power Plant (25 years ago)
– 100 measurement and action variables (called "points") – Analog controllers, analog instruments – one central "process controller" for data monitoring and protocol. Thermal power plant (today) – 10000 points, comprising: • 8000 binary and analog measurement points and • 2000 actuation point – 1000 micro-controllers and logic controllers Nuclear Power Plant – three times more points than in conventional power plants Electricity distribution network – 100’000 – 10’000’000 points Data reduction and processing is necessary to operate plants

• • •

Sensors devices

Transmitting devices
• • Telemetering may be defined as signal transmission over a considerable distance. The device at the measuring point, usually a transducer, is then often called a transmitter with the receiver located at the recording or control center. Flapper-Nozzle Mechanism Pneumatic Converters for Pressure, Flow, and Temperature Measurements Control Valves Valve Positioners Inductive signal transmitters Capacitive signal transmitters Potentiometric signal transmitters

• • • • • • •

Final control elements
• Final control elements act directly on the controlled body, process or machine. The controller output signal is fed to the correcting unit which then alters the variable to return the system to its desired or set value. This correcting unit could be a valve, motor, damper or an electric contactor. Most marine applications involve the use of valves to regulate fluid flow.
• • • • • • • Operation of Control Valves Control Valve Characteristics Equal Area Percentage Control Valve Characteristics Single Ported Control Valves Double Ported Control Valves Valve Positioner Hydraulic and pneumatic control drives

• •

– Dismantle, repair and refit control actuating devices

Calibration requirements

Output Elements
• Output elements generate high-power outputs in response to controller signals. These outputs are usually in the form of physical quantities such as position, speed, temperature, flow, etc so that the output elements can also take many different forms. • For example, speed control can be obtained by controlling and electric motor or by controlling an internal combustion engine. • Obviously the torque and power that is generated in each of these cases is different and the output element that is chosen in a particular situation is determined by such factors.

Output Elements

DC Motor - DC electric motors can be used in positional or speed control systems where the power requirements are relatively low. These output elements are frequently known as servomotors. Servomotors can be armature-controlled or field-controlled. The figure illustrates the circuit diagram for an armature-controlled motor, where VC is the output voltage from a controller and is applied to the armature terminals of the motor. A separate field voltage, Vf is applied to the field winding of the motor so that magnetic field is generated. Since F = Bil and flux density B and the armature conductor length 1 are maintained at constant magnitudes, then the force that is generated in each armature conductor generates an unidirectional torque which causes the armature to rotate. In this way, the rotation of the armature can be considered to be proportional to the armature current.

Output Elements
• Hydraulic Actuators - These actuators can be in the form of hydraulic motors or hydraulic piston devices, and are available in a wide range of power capacities, torque capacities and speeds. The figure illustrates a typical double-acting piston and cylinder actuator. Coulomb friction affects the performance of these actuators and pressure differentials as high as 30% of the supply pressure can be necessary in order to overcome this resistance to motion. The mathematical equations that govern the motions of these actuators under steady conditions are:

Q = LPP + APv and F = APP

where Q is the flow of oil into the cylinder, LP is the leakage flow coefficient for the piston AP is the piston area, v is the piston velocity, F is the force that is generated by the piston and P is the pressure differential across the piston.

Output Elements
• Pneumatic Actuators - Pneumatic actuators can be classified as lowpressure or high-pressure actuators. High-pressure actuators are usually piston-type actuators which are similar in operation to hydraulic piston-type actuators. They are operated usually by spool-type control valves. Low-pressure actuators are frequently known as pneumatic motors and can be used in order to generate translatory or rotary motions. The figure illustrates a typical motor. In this actuator, low-pressure air causes the large-area diaphragm to deflect which in turn causes the translatory motion of an output shaft. This type of actuator is used frequently in process industries for operating flow control valves. Translatory movements can also be generated by capsules and bellows.

Exhaust steam pressure control
• Exhaust steam for various auxiliary services may be controlled at constant pressure by appropriate operation of a surplus steam (dump) valve or a make-up steam valve, A single controller can be used to operate one valve or the other in what is known as 'split range control’. The control arrangement is shown The steam pressure in the auxiliary range is measured by a pressure transmitter.
Exhaust steam pressure control (Source: Introduction to Marine Engineering by D A Taylor)

Centralized control system

Steering Control System

• B. Automation hierarchy and archtechture

• • •

Little difference in the overall architecture of different applications control systems. ANS/ISA standard Enterprise Resource Planning: – Business Planning & Logistics – Plant Production Scheduling – Operational Management, etc. Manufacturing Execution System: – Manufacturing Operations & Control – Dispatching Production, Detailed Product Scheduling, Reliability Assurance,... Control & Command System: – Batch control – Continuous Control – Discrete control

Enterprise Manufacturing Execution Supervision (SCADA)

Group Control

Individual Control Field

Primary technology

Example: Siemens WinCC

Large control system hierarchy
4 3 Planning, Statistics, Finances Workflow, Resources, Interactions Supervisory
SCADA = Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition

administration enterprise


Group Control Unit Control 1 Field Sensors & Actors 0 Primary technology A V T

Large control system hierarchy – Cont… 2
• • Administration: – Production goals, planning Enterprise: – Manages resources, workflow, coordinates activities of different sites quality supervision, maintenance, distribution and planning Supervision: – Supervision of the site, optimization, on-line operations, Control room, Process Data Base, logging (open loop) Group (Area): – Control of a well-defined part of the plant (closed loop, except for intervention of an operator)

– Coordinates individual subgroups, Adjusting setpoints and parameters
• Commands several units as a whole

Large control system hierarchy Unit (Cell): – Cont… 3

– Control (regulation, monitoring and protection) of a small part of a group (closed loop except for maintenance) • Measure: Sampling, scaling, processing, calibration • Control: regulation, set-points and parameters • Command: sequencing, protection and interlocking Field: – Sensors & Actuators, data acquisition, digitalization, data transmission – No processing except measurement correction and built-in protection

Field level
• Field level is in direct interaction with the plant's hardware

Group level
• Group level coordinates the activities of several unit controls • Distributed Control Systems (DCS) commonly refers to a hardware and software infrastructure to perform Process Automation

unit controllers

Local human interface at group level

Sometimes, the group level has its own man-machine interface for local operation control

Maintenance console / emergency panel

Supervisory level: Man-machine interface

• Control room (mimic wall) 1970s... • All instruments were directly wired to the control room

Supervisory level: SCADA = Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
• Displays the current state of the process (visualization) • Display the alarms and events (alarm log, logbook) • Display the trends (historians) and analyse them • Display handbooks, data sheets, inventory, expert system (documentation) • Allows communication and data synchronization with other centres

Operator workplace: Three main functions

1. Current state

2. Trends and history

3. Alarms and events

Response time and hierarchical level ERP Planning
Level MES
(Manufacturing Execution System) (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) (Enterprise Resource Planning)

Execution Level Supervisory Level Control Level


(Distributed Control System)


(Programmable Logic Controller)

ms seconds years





Operation and process data
• Normally, the operator is only concerned by the supervisory level, but exceptionally, operators (and engineers) want to access data of the lowest levels The operator sees the plant through a fast data base, refreshed in background

Automation applications
    Power generation Transmission Distribution Process hydro, coal, gas, oil, shale, nuclear, wind, solar electricity, gas, oil electricity, water paper, food, pharmaceutical, metal,processing, glass, cement, chemical, refinery, oil & gas computer aided manufacturing (CIM), flexible fabrication, appliances, automotive, aircrafts silos, elevator, harbor, deposits, luggage handling heat, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), process control, fire, energy supply, tunnels, highways,.... rolling stock, street cars, sub-urban trains, busses, cars, ships, airplanes, satellites,...

 Manufacturing  Storage  Building

 Transportation

What is a CS?

Local Infrastructure possibly using CSs
• Electrical distribution, & UPS • Natural gas distribution • Fuel Oil storage & flow • Water storage & flow • Lighting • Heating, cooling, ventilation • Fire alarms & suppression • Elevators & escalators • Gates & doors, alarms • Video security cameras • Traffic signals • Process Line Control

Modern engineering applications of control
• Flight Control Systems – Modern commercial and military aircraft are “fly by wire” – systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are already in place Robotics – High accuracy positioning for flexible manufacturing – Remote environments: space, sea, non-invasive surgery, etc.
• Chemical Process Control – Regulation of flow rates, temperature, concentrations, etc. – Long time scales, but only crude models of process Communications and Networks – Amplifiers and repeaters – Congestion control of the Internet – Power management for wireless communications Automotive – Engine control, transmission control, cruise control, climate control, etc – Luxury sedans: 12 control devices in 1976, 42 in 1988, 67 in 1991 • AND MANY MORE...

Automation systems manufacturers
Company Location Major mergers ABB Siemens Ansaldo Emerson General Electric Honeywell Rockwell Automation Alstom Schneider Electric Invensys Hitachi Yokogawa CH-SE DE IT US US US US FR FR UK JP JP Allen Bradley, Rockwell,.. Alsthom, GEC, CEGELEC, ABB Power,.. Télémécanique, Square-D, ... Foxboro, Siebe, BTR, Triconex,… Fisher Rosemount Brown Boveri, ASEA, CE, Alfa-Laval, Elsag-Bailey Plessey, Landis & Gyr, Stäfa, Cerberus,..

€ 80 B / year business, growing 5 % annually

Examples of automated plants
Appliances control (windows, seats, radio,..) Motor control (exhaust regulations) ABS and EPS, brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire 19% of the price is electronics, (+10% per year)

Airplanes Avionics
flight control, autopilot flight management flight recording, black boxes diagnostics “fly-by-wire”

Examples of automated plants Flexible automation, Manufacturing Numerous conveyors, robots, CNC machines, paint shops, logistics.

Examples of automated plants: Oil, Gas and Petrochemicals

(environmental protection)

from the earth to the refinery
(High pressure, saltwater, inaccessibility explosive environment with gas)

(extreme explosive environment)

• •

• •

Raw materials supply Primary process (steam, wind) Personal, plant and neighbourhood safety Environmental impact Generation process (voltage/freque ncy) Energy distribution (substation)

Examples of Automated plants: power plants

Examples of automated plants:
Waste treatment, incinerators
• • • • • Raw material supply Burning process Smoke cleaning Environmental control Co-generation process (steam, heat) • Ash analysis • Ash disposal

Examples of automated plants: water treatment

Managing pumps, tanks, chemical composition, filters, movers,..

Other examples of feedback
• Biological Systems – Physiological regulation (homeostasis) – Bio-molecular regulatory networks Environmental Systems – Microbial ecosystems – Global carbon cycle Financial Systems – Markets and exchanges – Supply and service chains


Cruise control
reference + -

disturbance Control + System

& mv = −bv + uengine + uhill uengine = k (vdes − v )


vss =

k 1 vdes + uhill b+ k b +k
→ 1 as k →∞ → 0 as k →∞

Stability/performance – Steady state velocity approaches desired velocity as k → ∞ – Smooth response; no overshoot or oscillations Disturbance rejection – Effect of disturbances (hills) approaches zero as k → ∞ Robustness – Results don’t depend on the specific values of b, m, or k for k sufficiently large

Local Infrastructure possibly using CSs
• Electrical distribution, & UPS • Natural gas distribution • Fuel Oil storage & flow • Water storage & flow • Lighting • Heating, cooling, ventilation • Fire alarms & suppression • Elevators & escalators • Gates & doors, alarms • Video security cameras • Traffic signals • Process Line Control

SENSING neural superposition eyes

hind wing gyroscopes (halteres)

Insect flight

specialized “power” muscles

two wings (di-ptera)


• More information:
COMPUTATION ~500,000 neurons

– M. D. Dickinson, Solving the mystery of insect flight, Scientific American, June 2001.

Segway: The human Transporter

Automated manufacturing benchmarks

2) CNC Machining

1) Flexible Manufacturing

3) Injection Molding Station

Automation of processes

Integrating part quality into the manufacturing system

Automated and Semi-Automated Quality Assessments

On-Line Part Characterization and Statistical Quality Control

Traditional Form: r e

Controller design




Adaptive Form:
State Controller





Process Model State Calculation


So what? …the Changing landscape

The Changing landscape
1. 2. 3. 4. Remote connectivity/control of CS devices Standardization of CS Protocols Connection of CS & Business LANs “Windowing” of CS & SCADA Control 1.


4. 3.

What are the concerns?

Access sirport lighting controls
From your PDA

SOURCE: Vendor’s web site

What are the concerns?

Facility Electrical Grid Access
via your cell phone

SOURCE: Vendor’s web site

What are the concerns?

Natural Gas Well Access
via your browser

SOURCE: Vendor’s web site

What are the concerns?

Cost Justification

WAYNE, Pa., Oct. 24, 2002 -- Energy information systems and wind-powered generation will emerge as the two most critical energy technologies in the next five years, according to a majority of energy entrepreneurs and investors surveyed at the EnerTech Forum in Phoenix last week. Scott Ungerer, Managing Director of EnerTech Capital, said respondents believed energy information systems, which allow companies to better manage their energy use, would continue to grow, particularly given the current economic climate. "With corporate America's increased focus on the bottom line, monitoring and managing energy use is receiving more attention than ever by corporate users." On the telecommunications front, respondents predicted the following communications technologies would be in widespread use in the next five years: broadband wireless (named by 68 percent) and optical networks (named by 51 percent). When asked why utilities have been so slow to adopt energy management solutions like sophisticated monitoring, data collection, and equipment control and dispatch, 49 percent said the economics of the technology is not yet compelling enough for utilities. The same percentage predicted that the energy management market sector would remain fragmented for many years, with no clear and pronounced trend.

What are the concerns?

Operational Security

Raise Awareness
Improve Understanding & Connections between Computer/IT & Building Engineers

• IT Security Worker – Electronic
• Equipment settings • Switch settings • Access Control

• Building/Campus Engineer – Supply & Discharge
Educate • Electricity • Water • Fuel

– Computer Programming & Data
• Creation • Execution • Storage

– Circuit Settings – Valve Settings – Electro-Mechanical Equipment – Physical Plant Safety

The following has been discussed: • The process/system/plant - Process variable/Measured variable • Elements of control system and components • Correcting unit – actuating unit (Actuator) • Example of control system and components