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Chapter 2

Measurement of Fluid

Pressure

ZAIFAH BT. CHE WIL

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAH

JUNE 2015

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO

2.1 Understand pressure and pressure variation in a fluid at

rest.

2.1.1

2.1.2

gauge

2.1.5

tube

Describe the relationship between absolute pressure,

pressure, and atmospheric pressure.

Calculate pressure by using barometer, piezometer, Umanometer and pressure difference in manometer.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

PRESSURE

Pressure is defined as a normal force (N)

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm, lbf/in=psi.

Liquid will exert pressure on all sides as well as bottom of the vessel

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Pressure Head

Pressure head is the internal energy of a fluid due to the

pressure exerted on its container.

Pstatic fluid = gh

g = acceleration of gravity

h = depth of fluid

EXAMPLE 2.1

Find the pressure at a point 4 m below the free surface of water.

Solution

Given; h = 4 m

Pressure head;

P = gh

= 1000 x 9.81 x 4 = 39240 N/m2

EXAMPLE 2.2

The gauge pressure in water mains is 50 kN/m2, what is the pressure head?

Solution

Given; P = 50 kN/m2

The pressure head equivalent to the pressure in the pipe is just:

P = gh

h= P

g

= 50 x 103

1000 x 9.81

= 5.1 m

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric Pressure, (Patm)

the force exerted by the atmosphere.

Also called as barometric pressure

Standard atmospheric pressure (at sea level);

101.3 kN/m = 10.3 m of water = 760 mm of Hg

The pressure which is measured with reference to absolute vacuum pressure

Occur at absolute vacuum

Gauge pressure is the pressure which is measured with the help of a

datum.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Pabs = Patm + Pgage

Pvac = Patm Pabs

Vacuum Pressure, (Pvac)

Pressure below atmospheric pressure

Measured by vacuum gauges that indicate the difference between the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.

EXAMPLE 2.7

What are the gauge pressure and absolute pressure at a point 3 m below the free surface of a liquid having a density of 1.53 x 10 3 kg/m3 if the

atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 750 mm of mercury? The specific gravity of mercury is 13.6 and density of water = 1000 kg/m 3.

Solution

Given; h = 3 m, = 1.53 x 103 kg/m3, zo = 750 mm = 0.75 m, sp.gr. = 13.6, w = 1000 kg/m3

Density;

o = sp.gr x w

= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m3

Atmospheric pressure;

Pamt = ogho

= 13600 x 9.81 x 0.75

= 100062 N/m2

Pressure at a point, which at a depth of 3 m from the free surface of the liquid is given by;

Pg = gh

= (1.53 x 103) x 9.81 x 3

= 45027.9 N/m2

Absolute pressure;

Pabs = Patm + Pg

= 100062 + 45027.9

= 145089.9 N/m2

EXAMPLE 2.8

Find the pressure on a scuba diver when she is 12 meters below the surface of the ocean. Assume standard

atmospheric conditions.

Solution

Given; h = 12 m, = 1.03 x 103 kg/m3, Pamt = 1.01 x 105 N/m2

Gauge pressure;

Pg = ogho

= (1.03 x 103) x 9.81 x 12

= 1.21 x 105 N/m2

Absolute pressure;

Pabs = Patm + Pg

= 1.01 x 105 + 1.21 x 105

= 2. 22 x 105 N/m2

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Measurement of Pressure

Barometer

Piezometer

Manometer

Differential Manometer

U-tube Differential Manometer

Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer

The Barometer

pressure

vapor above point C, and it is

very low relative to Patm.

PC gh Patm

Patm gh

The Piezometer

Its used to measure pressure in a static fluid by using the

The pressure at A is equal to the Pressure due to the

column of liquid of height h

PA = gh

consists of bent tube glass with one end exposed to

atmosphere and the other attached to the fluid being

measured

A manometer consists of a

P1 P2

P2 Patm gh

more fluids such as

mercury, water, alcohol, or

oil.

Manometers use the

relationship between

pressure and head to

measure pressure

EXAMPLE 2.9

The right limb of a simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is open to the atmosphere while the left is connected to a pipe in which a

fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 is flowing. The centre of the pipe is 12 cm below the level of mercury in the right limb. Find the pressure of fluid in the

pipe if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 20 cm.

Solution

Given; sp. gr. = 0.9, h1 = 20 12 = 8 cm = 0.08 m, h2 = 20 cm = 0.2 m, m = 13600 kg/m3

Density;

1 = sp.gr x w

= 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m3

Pressure in the left limb above CD;

PC = PA + 1gh1

= PA + 900(9.81)(0.08)

= PA + 706.32 N/m2

Pressure in the right limb above CD;

PD = mgh2

= 13600(9.81)(0.2)

= 26683.2 N/m2

Equating the two pressure;

PC = PD

PA + 706.32 = 26683.2

PA = 26683.2 706.32

= 25976.88 N/m2

Example 2

A simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is connected

pressure is flowing. The other end of the manometer is open to

atmosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in pipe, if the

difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 40 cm and the

height of fluid in the left from the centre of pipe is 15 cm below.

Differential Manometer

Used to measure pressure difference between two points in a pipe

or in different pipes.

Most commonly type of differential manometer are :

(a) U-tube differential manometer

manometer

Example 3

A differential manometer, when connected to two pipes A and B, gives

the readings as shown in Figure. Determine the pressure (kN/m 2) in the

tube A, if the pressure in the pipe B be 55 kN/m2.

Solution

Given; PB = 55 kN/m2 = 55 x 103 N/m2

Density;

1 = sp.gr x w

= 0.85 x 1000 = 850 kg/m3

2 = sp.gr x w

= 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m3

3 = sp.gr x w

= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m3

Pressure in the left limb above CD;

PC = PA + 1gh1

= PA + 850(9.81)(6.5)

= PA + 54200.25 N/m2

Pressure in the right limb above CD;

PD = PB + 2gh2 + 3gh3

= 55 x 103 + 900(9.81)(1.25) + 13600(9.81)(0.5)

= 55 x 103 + 11036.25 + 66708

Equating the two pressure;

PC = P D

PA + 54200.25 = 55 x 103 + 11036.25 + 66708

PA = 132744.25 54200.25

PA = 78544 N/m2 = 79 kN/m2

Example 4

A differential manometer is connected at two points A and B of two pipes as

shown in Figure 2.8. The pipe A contains a liquid of sp. gr. = 1.5 while pipe

B contains a liquid of sp. gr. = 0.9. The pressure at A and B are 98.1 kN/m 2

and 176.58 kN/m2 respectively. Find the difference in mercury level in the

differential manometer.

Solution

Given; sp. gr. = 1.5, sp. gr. = 0.9, PA = 98.1 kN/m2, PB = 176.58 kN/m2

Density;

1 = sp.gr x w

= 1.5 x 1000 = 1500 kg/m3

2 = sp.gr x w

= 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m3

3 = sp.gr x w

= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m3

Pressure;

PA = 98.1 kN/m2 = 98100 N/m2

PB = 176.58 kN/m2 = 176580 N/m2

Pressure in the left limb above CD;

PC = PA + 1gh1 + 3gh3

= 98100 + 1500(9.81)(5) + 13600(9.81)(h3)

= 98100 + 73575 + 133416h3

= 83385 + 133416h3

Pressure in the right limb above CD;

PD = PB + 2gh2

= 176580 +900(9.81)(2 + h3)

= 176580 + 17658 + 8829h3

Equating the two pressure;

PC = PD

83385 + 133416h3 = 176580 + 17658 + 8829h3

133416h3 8829h3 = 194238 83385

124587h3 = 110853

h3 = 110853

124587

= 0.90 m

Exercise 2

1.

What is the maximum gauge pressure of water that can be measured using a piezometer 2.5 m high?

(Ans: 24.5 kN/m2)

2. Calculate the pressure in N/m2 at 1.2 m depth from the surface of a liquid with a specific gravity of 0.8.

(Ans: 9417.6 N/m2)

3. A cylinder contains liquid which has gauge pressure of 165 kN/m2. Define the pressure in terms of :i.

Head of oil (Specific gravity = 0.9)

ii.

Head of mercury

iii.

Head of water

(Ans: i. 16.688 m, ii. 1.237 m, 16.820 m)

4. A U-tube manometer is used to measure the pressure of a fluid of density 800 kg/m3. If the density of the

manometric liquid is 13.6 103 kg/m3, what is the gauge pressure in the pipe if;

h1 = 0.5 m and D is 0.9 m

above BC

h2 = 0.1 m and D is 0.2 m below BC

(Ans: 116.15 kN/m2, -27.45 kN/m2)

5. A differential manometer is used to measure the pressure difference between two points in pipe carrying water.

The manometric liquid is mercury and the points have a 0.3 m height difference. Calculate the pressure

difference when h = 0.7 m.

(An: 89.47 kN/m2)

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