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# DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Chapter 2
Measurement of Fluid
Pressure
ZAIFAH BT. CHE WIL
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAH
JUNE 2015

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

## UPON COMPLETING THIS CHAPTER, THE STUDENTS ARE

EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO
2.1 Understand pressure and pressure variation in a fluid at
rest.
2.1.1
2.1.2
gauge
2.1.5
tube

## Describe the concept of pressure and pressure head

Describe the relationship between absolute pressure,
pressure, and atmospheric pressure.
Calculate pressure by using barometer, piezometer, Umanometer and pressure difference in manometer.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

PRESSURE
Pressure is defined as a normal force (N)

## Pressure, P = N/m OR Pascal (Pa).

Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm, lbf/in=psi.

Liquid will exert pressure on all sides as well as bottom of the vessel

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Pressure Head
Pressure head is the internal energy of a fluid due to the
pressure exerted on its container.
Pstatic fluid = gh

## = m/V = fluid density

g = acceleration of gravity
h = depth of fluid

EXAMPLE 2.1
Find the pressure at a point 4 m below the free surface of water.
Solution
Given; h = 4 m
Pressure head;
P = gh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 4 = 39240 N/m2

EXAMPLE 2.2
The gauge pressure in water mains is 50 kN/m2, what is the pressure head?
Solution
Given; P = 50 kN/m2
The pressure head equivalent to the pressure in the pipe is just:
P = gh
h= P
g
= 50 x 103
1000 x 9.81
= 5.1 m

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

## Absolute pressure, gauge pressure, and

atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric Pressure, (Patm)

## The atmospheric pressure is the pressure that an area experiences due to

the force exerted by the atmosphere.
Also called as barometric pressure
Standard atmospheric pressure (at sea level);
101.3 kN/m = 10.3 m of water = 760 mm of Hg

## Absolute Pressure, (Pabs or P)

The pressure which is measured with reference to absolute vacuum pressure
Occur at absolute vacuum

## Gauge Pressure, (Pg)

Gauge pressure is the pressure which is measured with the help of a

## pressure measuring instrument in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as

datum.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

## Pgage = Pabs Patm

Pabs = Patm + Pgage
Pvac = Patm Pabs
Vacuum Pressure, (Pvac)
Pressure below atmospheric pressure
Measured by vacuum gauges that indicate the difference between the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.

EXAMPLE 2.7

What are the gauge pressure and absolute pressure at a point 3 m below the free surface of a liquid having a density of 1.53 x 10 3 kg/m3 if the
atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 750 mm of mercury? The specific gravity of mercury is 13.6 and density of water = 1000 kg/m 3.
Solution
Given; h = 3 m, = 1.53 x 103 kg/m3, zo = 750 mm = 0.75 m, sp.gr. = 13.6, w = 1000 kg/m3
Density;
o = sp.gr x w
= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m3
Atmospheric pressure;
Pamt = ogho
= 13600 x 9.81 x 0.75
= 100062 N/m2
Pressure at a point, which at a depth of 3 m from the free surface of the liquid is given by;
Pg = gh
= (1.53 x 103) x 9.81 x 3
= 45027.9 N/m2
Absolute pressure;
Pabs = Patm + Pg
= 100062 + 45027.9
= 145089.9 N/m2

EXAMPLE 2.8

Find the pressure on a scuba diver when she is 12 meters below the surface of the ocean. Assume standard
atmospheric conditions.
Solution
Given; h = 12 m, = 1.03 x 103 kg/m3, Pamt = 1.01 x 105 N/m2

Gauge pressure;
Pg = ogho
= (1.03 x 103) x 9.81 x 12
= 1.21 x 105 N/m2
Absolute pressure;
Pabs = Patm + Pg
= 1.01 x 105 + 1.21 x 105
= 2. 22 x 105 N/m2

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Measurement of Pressure
Barometer
Piezometer
Manometer
Differential Manometer
U-tube Differential Manometer
Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer

The Barometer

pressure

## zero since there is only Hg

vapor above point C, and it is
very low relative to Patm.

PC gh Patm
Patm gh

The Piezometer
Its used to measure pressure in a static fluid by using the

## height of a column of liquid

The pressure at A is equal to the Pressure due to the
column of liquid of height h

PA = gh

## It is used to measures the pressure at a point and

consists of bent tube glass with one end exposed to
atmosphere and the other attached to the fluid being
measured

A manometer consists of a

P1 P2
P2 Patm gh

## U-tube containing one or

more fluids such as
mercury, water, alcohol, or
oil.
Manometers use the
relationship between
pressure and head to
measure pressure

EXAMPLE 2.9

The right limb of a simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is open to the atmosphere while the left is connected to a pipe in which a
fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 is flowing. The centre of the pipe is 12 cm below the level of mercury in the right limb. Find the pressure of fluid in the
pipe if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 20 cm.
Solution
Given; sp. gr. = 0.9, h1 = 20 12 = 8 cm = 0.08 m, h2 = 20 cm = 0.2 m, m = 13600 kg/m3

Density;
1 = sp.gr x w
= 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m3
Pressure in the left limb above CD;
PC = PA + 1gh1
= PA + 900(9.81)(0.08)
= PA + 706.32 N/m2
Pressure in the right limb above CD;
PD = mgh2
= 13600(9.81)(0.2)
= 26683.2 N/m2
Equating the two pressure;
PC = PD
PA + 706.32 = 26683.2
PA = 26683.2 706.32
= 25976.88 N/m2

Example 2
A simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is connected

## to a pipe in which a fluid sp. gr. 0.8 and having vacuum

pressure is flowing. The other end of the manometer is open to
atmosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in pipe, if the
difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 40 cm and the
height of fluid in the left from the centre of pipe is 15 cm below.

Differential Manometer
Used to measure pressure difference between two points in a pipe
or in different pipes.
Most commonly type of differential manometer are :
(a) U-tube differential manometer
manometer

## (b) Inverted U-tube differential

Example 3
A differential manometer, when connected to two pipes A and B, gives
the readings as shown in Figure. Determine the pressure (kN/m 2) in the
tube A, if the pressure in the pipe B be 55 kN/m2.
Solution
Given; PB = 55 kN/m2 = 55 x 103 N/m2

Density;
1 = sp.gr x w
= 0.85 x 1000 = 850 kg/m3
2 = sp.gr x w
= 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m3
3 = sp.gr x w
= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m3
Pressure in the left limb above CD;
PC = PA + 1gh1
= PA + 850(9.81)(6.5)
= PA + 54200.25 N/m2
Pressure in the right limb above CD;
PD = PB + 2gh2 + 3gh3
= 55 x 103 + 900(9.81)(1.25) + 13600(9.81)(0.5)
= 55 x 103 + 11036.25 + 66708
Equating the two pressure;

PC = P D
PA + 54200.25 = 55 x 103 + 11036.25 + 66708
PA = 132744.25 54200.25
PA = 78544 N/m2 = 79 kN/m2

Example 4
A differential manometer is connected at two points A and B of two pipes as
shown in Figure 2.8. The pipe A contains a liquid of sp. gr. = 1.5 while pipe
B contains a liquid of sp. gr. = 0.9. The pressure at A and B are 98.1 kN/m 2
and 176.58 kN/m2 respectively. Find the difference in mercury level in the
differential manometer.

Solution
Given; sp. gr. = 1.5, sp. gr. = 0.9, PA = 98.1 kN/m2, PB = 176.58 kN/m2
Density;
1 = sp.gr x w
= 1.5 x 1000 = 1500 kg/m3
2 = sp.gr x w
= 0.9 x 1000 = 900 kg/m3
3 = sp.gr x w
= 13.6 x 1000 = 13600 kg/m3
Pressure;
PA = 98.1 kN/m2 = 98100 N/m2
PB = 176.58 kN/m2 = 176580 N/m2
Pressure in the left limb above CD;
PC = PA + 1gh1 + 3gh3
= 98100 + 1500(9.81)(5) + 13600(9.81)(h3)
= 98100 + 73575 + 133416h3
= 83385 + 133416h3
Pressure in the right limb above CD;
PD = PB + 2gh2
= 176580 +900(9.81)(2 + h3)
= 176580 + 17658 + 8829h3
Equating the two pressure;
PC = PD
83385 + 133416h3 = 176580 + 17658 + 8829h3
133416h3 8829h3 = 194238 83385
124587h3 = 110853
h3 = 110853
124587
= 0.90 m

Exercise 2
1.

What is the maximum gauge pressure of water that can be measured using a piezometer 2.5 m high?
(Ans: 24.5 kN/m2)

2. Calculate the pressure in N/m2 at 1.2 m depth from the surface of a liquid with a specific gravity of 0.8.
(Ans: 9417.6 N/m2)
3. A cylinder contains liquid which has gauge pressure of 165 kN/m2. Define the pressure in terms of :i.
Head of oil (Specific gravity = 0.9)
ii.
Head of mercury
iii.
Head of water
(Ans: i. 16.688 m, ii. 1.237 m, 16.820 m)
4. A U-tube manometer is used to measure the pressure of a fluid of density 800 kg/m3. If the density of the
manometric liquid is 13.6 103 kg/m3, what is the gauge pressure in the pipe if;
h1 = 0.5 m and D is 0.9 m
above BC
h2 = 0.1 m and D is 0.2 m below BC
(Ans: 116.15 kN/m2, -27.45 kN/m2)
5. A differential manometer is used to measure the pressure difference between two points in pipe carrying water.
The manometric liquid is mercury and the points have a 0.3 m height difference. Calculate the pressure
difference when h = 0.7 m.
(An: 89.47 kN/m2)