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DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Chapter 2
Measurement of Fluid
Pressure
ZAIFAH BT. CHE WIL
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAH
JUNE 2015

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

UPON COMPLETING THIS CHAPTER, THE STUDENTS ARE


EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO
2.1 Understand pressure and pressure variation in a fluid at
rest.
2.1.1
2.1.2
gauge
2.1.5
tube

Describe the concept of pressure and pressure head


Describe the relationship between absolute pressure,
pressure, and atmospheric pressure.
Calculate pressure by using barometer, piezometer, Umanometer and pressure difference in manometer.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

PRESSURE
Pressure is defined as a normal force (N)

exerted by a fluid per unit area (A).

Pressure, P = N/m OR Pascal (Pa).


Other units include bar, atm, kgf/cm, lbf/in=psi.

Liquid will exert pressure on all sides as well as bottom of the vessel

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Pressure Head
Pressure head is the internal energy of a fluid due to the
pressure exerted on its container.
Pstatic fluid = gh

= m/V = fluid density


g = acceleration of gravity
h = depth of fluid

EXAMPLE 2.1

Find the pressure at a point 4 m below the free surface of water.


Solution
Given; h = 4 m
Pressure head;
P = gh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 4 = 39240 N/m2
EXAMPLE 2.2

The gauge pressure in water mains is 50 kN/m2, what is the pressure head?
Solution
Given; P = 50 kN/m2
The pressure head equivalent to the pressure in the pipe is just:
P = gh
h= P
g
= 50 x 103
1000 x 9.81
= 5.1 m

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Absolute pressure, gauge pressure, and


atmospheric pressure
Atmospheric Pressure, (Patm)

The atmospheric pressure is the pressure that an area experiences due to


the force exerted by the atmosphere.
Also called as barometric pressure
Standard atmospheric pressure (at sea level);
101.3 kN/m = 10.3 m of water = 760 mm of Hg

Absolute Pressure, (Pabs or P)


The pressure which is measured with reference to absolute vacuum pressure
Occur at absolute vacuum

Gauge Pressure, (Pg)


Gauge pressure is the pressure which is measured with the help of a

pressure measuring instrument in which the atmospheric pressure is taken as


datum.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Relationship between Pabs, Pg, and Patm

Pgage = Pabs Patm


Pabs = Patm + Pgage
Pvac = Patm Pabs
Vacuum Pressure, (Pvac)
Pressure below atmospheric pressure
Measured by vacuum gauges that indicate the difference between the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.

EXAMPLE 2.1

What are the gauge pressure and absolute pressure at a point 3 m below the

free surface of a liquid having a density of 1.53 x 10 3 kg/m3 if the


atmospheric pressure is equivalent to 750 mm of mercury? The specific
gravity of mercury is 13.6 and density of water = 1000 kg/m3
Find the pressure on a scuba diver when she is 12 meters below the surface

of the ocean. Assume standard atmospheric conditions.

DCN3113 HYDRAULICS

Measurement of Pressure
Barometer
Piezometer
Manometer
Differential Manometer
U-tube Differential Manometer
Inverted U-tube Differential Manometer

The Barometer

Use to measure Atmospheric

pressure

PC (Pvapor) can be taken to be

zero since there is only Hg


vapor above point C, and it is
very low relative to Patm.

PC gh Patm
Patm gh

The Piezometer
Its used to measure pressure in a static fluid by using the

height of a column of liquid


The pressure at A is equal to the Pressure due to the
column of liquid of height h

PA = gh

Simple U-Tube Manometer

It is used to measures the pressure at a point and


consists of bent tube glass with one end exposed to
atmosphere and the other attached to the fluid being
measured

A manometer consists of a

P1 P2
P2 Patm gh

U-tube containing one or


more fluids such as
mercury, water, alcohol, or
oil.
Manometers use the
relationship between
pressure and head to
measure pressure

EXAMPLE 2.3

The right limb of a simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is open to the atmosphere while the left is connected
to a pipe in which a fluid of sp. gr. 0.9 is flowing. The centre of the pipe is 12 cm below the level of mercury in the right
limb. Find the pressure of fluid in the pipe if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 20 cm.

EXERCISE 1
A simple U-tube manometer containing mercury is connected

to a pipe in which a fluid sp. gr. 0.8 and having vacuum


pressure is flowing. The other end of the manometer is open to
atmosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in pipe, if the
difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 40 cm and the
height of fluid in the left from the centre of pipe is 15 cm below.

Differential Manometer
Used to measure pressure difference between two points in a pipe
or in different pipes.
Most commonly type of differential manometer are :
(a) U-tube differential manometer
manometer

(b) Inverted U-tube differential

Example 2.4
A differential manometer, when connected to two pipes A and B, gives
the readings as shown in Figure. Determine the pressure (kN/m 2) in the
tube A, if the pressure in the pipe B be 55 kN/m2.
Solution
Given; PB = 55 kN/m2 = 55 x 103 N/m2

Exercise 2
A differential manometer is connected at two points A and B of two
pipes as shown in Figure 2.8. The pipe A contains a liquid of sp. gr.
= 1.5 while pipe B contains a liquid of sp. gr. = 0.9. The pressure at
A and B are 98.1 kN/m2 and 176.58 kN/m2 respectively. Find the
difference in mercury level in the differential manometer.

Task
1. What is the maximum gauge pressure of water that can be measured using a piezometer 2.5 m

high?

(Ans: 24.5 kN/m2)

2. Calculate the pressure in N/m2 at 1.2 m depth from the surface of a liquid with a specific gravity of
0.8.
(Ans: 9417.6 N/m2)
3. A cylinder contains liquid which has gauge pressure of 165 kN/m2. Define the pressure in terms of :i.
Head of oil (Specific gravity = 0.9)
ii. Head of mercury
iii. Head of water
(Ans: i. 16.688 m, ii. 1.237 m, 16.820
m)
4. A U-tube manometer is used to measure the pressure of a fluid of density 800 kg/m3. If the density of
the manometric liquid is 13.6 103 kg/m3, what is the gauge pressure in the pipe if;
h1 =
0.5 m and D is 0.9 m above BC
h2 = 0.1 m and D is 0.2 m below BC
(Ans: 116.15 kN/m2, -27.45 kN/m2)
5. A differential manometer is used to measure the pressure difference between two points in pipe
carrying water. The manometric liquid is mercury and the points have a 0.3 m height difference.
Calculate the pressure difference when h = 0.7 m.
(An: 89.47 kN/m2)