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Endocrine

system

Endocrine system

The system that regulates different physiological


processes in adjustments of metabolism, fluid
balance, growth and development.

Endocrinology, the study of endocrine activity, is


a very active and exciting field of biomedical
research.

Endocrine system

A diverse collection of cells, tissues, and organs


including specialized endocrine glands that
produce and secrete hormones, chemical
messengers responsible for the regulation of
many body processes.

Hormones excite, or stimulate, changes in


specific tissues.

Cell signaling

Cells signal one another with neurotransmitters,


hormones, and local regulators.

Pheromones are chemical messengers that


animals produce for communication with other
animals of the same species.

Classical endocrine signaling

Classical Endocrine Signaling, hormones are


secreted by endocrine glands.

Endocrine glands secrete their hormones into the


surrounding interstitial fluid or blood.

Typically, hormones diffuse into capillaries and are


transported by the blood to target cells.

Neurohormones are transported in the blood

Neuroendocrine cells, are important link


between the nervous system and endocrine
systems.

They produce neurohormones that are


transported down the axons and released into the
interstitial fluid.

They typically diffuse into capillaries and are


transported by the blood.

Local regulators as hormones

A local regulator is a signaling molecule that


diffuses through the interstitial fluid and acts on
nearby cells.

In autocrine regulation, a hormone, or other


regulator acts on the very cells that produce it.

Paracrine regulation, a local regulation.

Local regulators

HISTAMINE stored in mast cells and is released


in response to allergic reactions, injury or
infection. It causes blood vessels to dilate and
capillaries to become more permeable.

GROWTH FACTORS stimulate cell division and


normal development

Local regulators

NITRIC OXIDE produced by many types of cells,


including those lining blood vessels, relaxes
nearby smooth muscle fibers, dilating blood
vessels.

PROSTAGLANDIN are modified fatty acids


released continuously by cells of most tissues, are
paracrine regulators. Some prostagladins
stimulate smooth muscle to contract, whereas
others cause relaxation.

Four chemical groups of hormones

FATTY ACID DERIVATIVES prostaglandin and


the juvenile hormones of insects.

STEROID HORMONE molting hormone of


insects. In vertebrates, the adrenal cortex, testis
and ovary and placenta secret steroid hormones
synthesized from cholesterol

AMINO ACID DERIVATIVES the simplest


hormone chemically. Thyroid hormones are
synthesized by amino acid tyrosine and iodide

Four chemical groups of hormones

Epinephrine and norepinephrine, produced by the


medulla of adrenal gland, also derived from
tyrosine. Melatonin is synthesized from the
amino acid tryptophan,

PEPTIDE HORMONES the largest hormone


group. Neuropeptides are a large group of
signaling molecules produced by neurons.

Mechanism of hormone action

A hormone present in the extracellular fluid


remains unnoticed until it reaches its target
cells.

The target cells of a particular hormone have


receptors that recognize and bind it.

Only the hormone that fits the specific receptor


can influence the metabolic machinery of the cell.

Mechanism of hormone action

Receptors are continually synthesized and degraded.


Their numbers are increased or decreased by:

Receptor up-regulation

Receptor down-regulation

They are triggered by signals to genes that code for


the receptors, as well as by other several
mechanisms.

Some hormones enter target cells and activate


genes

Steroid hormones and thyroid hormones are relatively


small, lipid-soluble molecules that easily pass through
the plasma membrane of the target cell.

Specific protein receptors in the cytoplasm or in the


nucleus bind with the hormone to form a hormonereceptor complex.

This complex combines with specific receptor sites on


the nuclear DNA, and turns specific genes on or off,
activating or repressing transcription of messenger RNA
molecules that that code for specific proteins.

Some hormones enter target cells and activate


genes

These proteins produce the changes in the


structure or metabolic activity responsible for the
hormones action.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF STEROID


HORMONES DIAGRAM

Many hormones bind to cell-surface receptors

Peptide hormones bind to a specific cell-surface


receptor in the plasma membrane. Two main
types of cell-surface receptors are:

G protein-linked receptors

Enzyme-linked receptors

G protein-linked receptors

G Protein-linked receptors are transmembrane


proteins that loop back and forth through the
plasma membrane seven times.

These receptors initiate signal transduction; that


is, they convert an extracellular hormone signal
into an intracellular signal that affects some
intracellular process.

OVERVIEW OF PEPTIDE HORMONE ACTION


DIAGRAM

G protein-linked receptors

The hormone does not enter the cell. It serves as


the 1st messenger and relays information to a 2nd
messenger, or intracellular signal.

The 2nd messenger then signals effector molecules


that carry out the action. Thus, many hormones
activate a series of molecular events that
comprise a signaling cascade.

G protein-linked receptors

G Protein-linked receptors activate G


proteins, a group of integral regulatory proteins.

The G indicates that they bind guanosine


triphosphate (GTP), which, like ATP, is an
important molecule in energy reactions.

When the system in inactive, G protein binds to


guanosine diphosphate (GDP), which is similar
to ADP, the hydrolized form of ATP. D

G protein-linked receptors

Phospholipid products and calcium ions can


act as second messenger

Certain hormone-receptor complexes activates a


G protein that then activates the membranebound enzyme phospholipase C.

The enzyme phospholipase C splits a membrane


protein, PIP2 (phosphotidylinositol 4,5biphosphate), into two products:

G protein-linked receptors

1. Inositol triphosphate (IP3)

2. diacylglycerol (DAG)

They both at as second messengers

diacylglycerol (DAG) remains in the plasma


membrane where (in combination with calcium
ions) it activates protein kinase C that
phosphorylates a variety of proteins.

G protein-linked receptors

Inositol triphosphate (IP3) opens calcium ion channels


in the ER, releasing calcium ions in the cytosol. Calcium
ions have important functions in many cell processes:

Muscle contraction

Neural signaling

Microtubule disassembly

Blood clotting

Activation of some enzymes

Calcium ions exert their effects by binding to a certain


proteins such as calmodulin, molecules that change shape
and then activate certain proteins, altering their activity. D

Enzyme-linked receptors function directly

Enzyme-linked receptors are transmembrane


proteins with a hormone-binding site outside the cell
and an enzyme site inside the cell.

These receptors are not linked to proteins.

They function directly as an enzymes or are directly


linked to enzymes.

Most enzyme-linked receptors are receptor tyrosine


kinase.

Enzyme-linked receptors function directly

These receptors bind signal molecules known as


growth factors, including insulin and nerve
growth factors.

When growth factor bind to the receptor, the


receptor is activated and phosphorylates the
amino acid tyrosine in specific cell proteins.

Hormone signals are amplified

Although hormones ar present in very small amounts, they


effectively regulate many physiological processes.

This is in large part the result of signal amplification, an


increase in signal strength.

For example, a single hormone molecule activates up to 100


G proteins. Each adenylyl cyclase molecule produces many
cAMP molecules. In turn, each cAMP activates a protein
kinase that phosphorylates many protein molecules. Thus
through a cascade of signals and reactions, a single
hormone molecule activates many proteins.

inVertebrate
neuroendocrine
systems

inVertebrate neuroendocrine systems

Among invertebrates, hormones are secreted


mainly by the endocrine glands.

These neurohormones regulate:

regeneration in hydras, flatworms and annelids

Color changes in crustaceans

Growth, development, metabolic rate, gamete


production, and reproduction including reproductive
behaviour in many groups

inVertebrate
neuroendocrine systems

Neuroendocrine cells produce brain hormone (BH),


which is transported down axons and stored in the
paired corpora cardiaca (sing., corpus cardiacum).

When released from the corpora cardiaca, BH


stimulates the prothoracic glands, endocrine glands
in prothorax, to produce molting hormone (MH) also
called ecdysone.

Molting hormone, a steroid hormone, stimulates growth


and molting.

inVertebrate neuroendocrine systems

In the immature insect, paired endocrine glands,


called corpora allata (sing., corpus allatum)
secrete juvenile hormone (JH).

This hormone suppresses metamorphosis at each


larval molt so that the insect increases in size
while remaining in its immature state; after the
molt, the insect is still in a larval stage.

inVertebrate
neuroendocrine systems

When the concentration of JH decreases,


metamorphosis occurs and the insect is
transformed into pupa.

In the absence of JH, the pupa molts and becomes


an adult. The nervous system regulates he
secretory activity of the corpora allata, and the
amount of JH decreases with successive molts.

Vertebrate
endocrine
system

Vertebrate endocrine system

In contrast to the invertebrate endocrine system,


the emphasis in the vertebrate endocrine system
iosn classical endocrine organs with many
physiological processes controlled by these
organs.

However, the nervous system still exerts an


influence over the endocrine system since some
of the peripheral endocrine organs are under the
control of the

anterior pituitary.

Vertebrate endocrine system

During vertebrate evolution, there has been much


conservation in terms of endocrine function.

This means that some hormones have found new roles


for example, the hormone thyroxine controls metabolic
rate in mammals, but in amphibians it is essential for
the metamorphosis from tadpole to adult frog.

In addition to this, as the vertebrates have evolved, new


endocrine organs have emerged, such as the
parathyroid glands that control Ca2+ levels which first
appeared in the teleosts (bony fish.

Vertebrate endocrine system

The typical vertebrate endocrine system is seen


to consist of three principal glands or groups of
glands:

the hypothalamus;

the pituitary gland;

peripheral endocrine glands

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

The hypothalamus is part of the vertebrate brain and sits


beneath the thalamus. Its main function is as an interface
between the nervous and endocrine systems.

A major role of the hypothalamus is to control the


pituitary gland - the so-called master gland.

The secretions of the hypothalamus are transported to


the pituitary gland.

There are two types of secretions - those that are


released into the posterior pituitary gland and those
released into the anterior pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

Hormones secreted by the hypothalamus travel down axons


extending from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
gland (the neurohypophysis).

This region has a typical neuroendocrine role in that


hormones are released from the posterior pituitary gland
directly into the circulation.

In mammals, the hormones released from the posterior


pituitary gland are ADH (also known as vasopressin),
which controls water absorption in the kidney, and oxytocin,
which stimulates uterine smooth muscle contraction and
milk ejection from the mammary glands.

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

Another important group of secretions produced by the


hypothalamus are the releasing hormones.

These substances are released from axon terminals into


capillaries which then pass to the anterior pituitary
gland (adenohypophysis).

Releasing hormones are thus delivered to the anterior


pituitary gland indirectly via the blood system, rather than
by direct release from axon terminals. The function of the
releasing hormones, as the name suggests, is to influence
the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

The hormones released from the anterior pituitary


then influence the secretions from other structures.

Alternatively, release of hormones may be inhibited


by release-inhibiting hormones secreted by the
hypothalamus.

It is essential that the plasma concentrations of all


the secretions in this system are maintained at
acceptable levels. The secretion levels are
controlled via a negative feedback mechanism

Hormones are
synthesized in the
cell bodies of the
hypothalamic
neurons.
ADH and oxytocin
are released from
the axon terminals
into the posterior
pituitary gland.

The releasing and


release-inhibiting
hormones are
released from
axon terminals
into capillaries and
are transported to
the
anterior pituitary
via the blood

Hypothalamic hormones and the


anterior pituitary hormones they
influence (Releasing hormone)
Hypothalamic hormone

Anterior Dituitaw hormone


influenced

Growth hormone-releasing
hormone (GHRH)

Growth hormone

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
(TRH)

Thyrotropin-stimulating
hormone (TSH)

Prolactin-releasing hormone
(PRH)

Prolactin

Luteinizing hormone-releasing
hormone (LHRH)

Leutenizing hormone

Follicle stimulating hormonereleasing hormone (FSHRHY

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Melanocyte-stimulating
hormone releasing hormone
(MSHRH)

Melanocyte-stimulating
hormone

Corticotropin-releasing

Corticotropin

Hypothalamic hormones and the anterior


pituitary hormones they
influence (Releasing-inhibiting hormone)

Hypothalamic hormone

Anterior Dituitaw hormone


influenced

Growth hormone releaseinhibiting hormone (GHRIH,


somatostatin

Growth hormone

Prolactin release-inhibiting
hormone (PRIH)

Prolactin

Melanocyte-stimulating
hormone release-inhibiting
hormone (MSHRIH)

release-inhibiting hormone
(MSHRIH)

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

Growth hormone promotes growth in all vertebrates.


It has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.

It also induces the liver to release a compound called


somatomedin which stimulates mitosis in bone tissue.

Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to


secrete thyroxine and triiodothyronine.

The secretions of the thyroid gland have a variety of effects - the


control of metabolic rate in mammals and the control of
metamorphosis in amphibians

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

Prolactin is a hormone whicihs well known for its


effects on reproductive tissue, and its stimulatory
effect on milk production.

However, it also has other effects, influencing water


and Na' exchanges in amphibians.

Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones (FSH and


LH) affect the gonads. FSH promotes gamete (i.e. egg
and sperm) development, whilst LH, amongst many
other functions, promotes steroid production.

The hypothalamus and


pituitary gland

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is involved


in physiological color change in somoef the lower
vertebrates, e.g. amphibianasn d fish, whilst in
some higher vertebrates it may be involved in
osmotic and ionic regulatory processes.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the


adrenal cortex to release the hormones produced
there (i.e. the mineralocorticoids, such as
cortisol).