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What is Cybercrime?

Cybercrime or computer crime is any


crime that involves a computer and a
network.
The computer used in the commission
of a crime or may be the target.
Both governmental and non-state
actors engage in cybercrimes.
annual damage to the global economy
is at $445 billion.

Types of Cybercrimes
Hacking: a persons computer is broken
into so that his personal or sensitive
information can be accessed .
Theft: This crime occurs when a person
violates copyrights and downloads music,
movies, games and software.
Cyber Stalking: Online harassment
wherein the victim is subjected to a
barrage of online messages and emails.

Types of Cybercrimes
Identity Theft : a criminal accesses data about a
persons bank account, credit cards, Social Security,
debit card and other sensitive information .
Malicious Software :These are Internet-based
software or programs that are used to disrupt a
network.
Child soliciting and Abuse :cyber crime wherein
criminals solicit minors via chat rooms for the
purpose of child pornography.

Causes of Cybercrime
Economy : perception of low risk and very
high financial reward.
Ideology :perceived ethical, ideological or
moral reasons.
Structural causes :the environment in which
cyber crime is committed.
More and more personal and
sensitive information is stored online.
Personal: Personal emotions and vendettas.

Cybercrimes:Past &
Present

Past: ego or expertise


Present: steal, deceive and exploit people.

Cybercrimes can be committed single handedly and


does not require the physical presence of the criminals .

Categories of Cyber Crime:


i. Individual:cyber stalking, distributing
pornography

ii. Property:
iii. Government:

cyber terrorism

Effects of Cyber Crime


Loss Of Revenue:Caused by an outside party
who obtains sensitive financial information,
using it to withdraw funds from an organization.
Time Loss: Time is wasted when IT personnel
must devote great portions of their day
handling such incidences.
Damaged Reputations: customer records are
compromised by a security breach associated
with cyber crime.
Reduced Productivity: Due to the measures that
many companies must implement to counteract
cyber crime, there is often a negative effect on
employees' productivity.

Cybercrimes in Nepal
Past

email blackmail
SMS blackmail
illicit publication in
online world
data piracy

Present
unauthorized access
of data
Phishing
online fraud
online sale of
counterfeit products
online illegal activities
such as prostitution

How did she become victim of


cybercrime?

Cases:
a. Defamation online or Internet harassment:
b.
c.
d.

Nepal Police have caught a 27 -year-old man, who allegedly


impersonated a girl in a Facebook account.
In Cyber cafes, children of young ages can be seen using porn
sites.
From government to private organizations are using pirated CDs.
Software CDs can be seen in the footpaths of Kathmandu.
The polices Central Investigation Bureau arrested four people,
including two foreign nationals from Nigeria and Sierra Leone, for
operating a fraud racket via SMS.

Existing measures:
e.

The 2004 Act declared hacking, stealing data, pirating software


and posting defamatory information online as criminal and civil
offences. Under this law, the government can punish cyberoffenders with up to five years of imprisonment and/or a fine of
up to Rs 50,000, contingent upon the crimes severity.

Weak Enforcement
Although the present Act does touch on a few
important issues, the enforcement part is minimal
because of several reasons. First, both the police and
judiciary have not developed sophisticated tools to
investigate cybercrimes. At present, there are only
two units that deal with cybercrimesthe
Cybercrime Investigation Cell at Hanuman Dhoka
and the Central Investigation Bureau. But even when
cybercrime cell discovers a fake Facebook account, it
can only block the account because Nepali law does
not allow access to a users IP address.

Tips for Safety


1. latest security software, web browser
and operating system,updated.
2. Strong Password
3. Install Firewall
4. If you are connected to a public WiFi,
don't access sites where you need to
enter your password, credit card
information etc.
5. Install Anti-virus Software
6. Monitor your Childrens Online Activities

Facebook: Emerging Cyber Crime

o What are the precautions


before crime?
o What to do after becoming
victim of cybercrime?

Zero Minute
Any Questions?

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