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Casting Process

Casting, one of the oldest manufacturing


processes, dates back to 4000 B.C. when
copper arrowheads were made.
Definition:
Casting processes basically involve
the introduction of a molten metal
into a mold cavity, where upon
solidification, the metal takes on the
shape of the mold cavity.

Process Involves
Preparing

a mold cavity of the desired


shape
with
proper
allowance
for
shrinkage.

Melting

the metal with acceptable quality


and temp.

Pouring

the metal into the cavity and


providing means for the escape of air or
gases.

Solidification

process, must be properly


designed and controlled to avoid defects.

Mold

removal.

Casting Process
Advantages:

Inexpensive mold.
Complex geometry.
Metals and Non-metals can be casted.
Unlimited size.
No. of castings vary from very few to
several thousands.
Economical in low quantities.

Casting Process
Disadvantages:

Labor intensive.
Slower production rate.
Rough surface finish.
Loose tolerances.
Requires relatively thick walls (>3mm).

Casting Process
Applications:
Frames,
Structural parts,
Machine parts,
Engine blocks,
Wheels,
Valves,
Pipes,
Statues etc.

Sand Casting Diagram

Casting Terms
Flask:

A molding flask is one which holds


the sand mould intact.

Cope:Upper
Drag:

molding flask.

Lower molding flask.

Cheek:

The intermediate molding flask


used in three-piece molding

Core:Used

for making hollow cavities in


the castings.

Casting Terms

Pattern:The replica of the final product to


be made with some modifications.

Parting line:Is the line where the drag


and cope meet.

Bottom Board: This is normally made of


wood which is used to start t mold making.

Molding sand: Freshly prepared refractory


material used for making the mold cavity.
(Mixture of Silica, Clay & Water)

Casting Terms

Mold:The cavity that the molten metal is


poured in to form the final shape.

Pouring basin:This is a small funnel


shaped hole on top of the mold into which
the molten metal is poured.

Sprue:This is under the pouring cup


connected to the runner channeling the
molten metal into the mould cavity.

Runner:The horizontal channel feeding the


molten metal into the mould cavity.

Casting Terms
Riser:The

riser will feed more molten metal


into the cavity mould when shrinking accurse.

Gate:

The actual entry point of molten metal


entering the cavity.

Chaplets:

These are used to support cores


inside the mold cavity.

Chills:

These are metallic objects, which are


placed in the mold to increase the cooling
rate.

Casting Terms
Ladle:It

is used to move and pour


molten metal during the casting process.