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Topic 2: Foundry Technology

Sub-Topics of Foundry Technology:

2.1.1 Patterns practices:

Types of patterns, allowances and material used for
2.1.2 Molding materials, molding sands, Molding
sands properties and sand testing; grain fineness;
moisture content, clay content and permeability test.
2.1.3 Core materials and core making, core print;
core boxes, chaplets, gating system design.
2.1.4 Molding practices: Green, dry and loam sand
molding, pit and floor molding; shell molding;
permanent molding; carbon dioxide molding.

Sub-Topics of Foundry Technology:

2.2 Casting practices:

2.2.1 Fundamental of metal casting, Sand casting, Shell-Mold
casting, Mold casting (plaster and ceramic), Investment
casting, Vacuum casting, Permanent mould casting, Slush
casting, Pressure casting, Die casting, Centrifugal casting,
Continuous casting, Squeeze casting, Casting alloys.
2.2.2 Casting defects.
2.2.3 Design of casting, Gating system design, and riser design.
2.2.4 Melting furnaces-rotary, Pit electric, Tilting and cupola.
2.2.5 Metallurgical considerations in casting elements of gating
system, and risers and their design.

Metal Casting Introduction:

Metal Casting is one of the oldest materials shaping methods


Casting means pouring molten metal into a mold made using

pattern with a cavity of the shape to be made, and allowing it to

When solidified, the desired metal object is taken out from the
mold either by breaking the mold or taking the mold apart.

The solidified object is called the casting.

By this process, intricate parts can be given strength and

rigidity frequently not obtainable by any other manufacturing

The mold, into which the metal is poured, is made of some heat
resisting material.

Sand is most often used as it resists the high temperature of the

molten metal.

Permanent molds of metal can also be used to cast


Metal Casting:

Metal Casting Advantages:

Molten material can flow into very small sections so that

intricate shapes can be made by this process. As a result, many
other operations, such as machining, forging, and welding, can
be minimized or eliminated.
It is possible to cast practically any material that is ferrous or
As the metal can be placed exactly where it is required, large
saving in weight can be achieved.
The necessary tools required for casting molds are very simple
and inexpensive. As a result, for production of a small lot, it is
the ideal process.
There are certain parts made from metals and alloys that can
only be processed this way.
Size and weight of the product is not a limitation for the casting

Metal Casting Limitations:

Dimensional accuracy and surface finish of the

castings made by sand casting processes are a
limitation to this technique. Many new casting
processes have been developed which can take into
consideration the aspects of dimensional accuracy
and surface finish, some of these processes are die
casting process, investment casting process, vacuumsealed molding process, and shell molding process.

The metal casting process is a labor intensive


Metal Casting History:

3200 B.C. A copper frog, the oldest known casting in
existence, is cast in Mesopotamia.

233 B.C. Cast iron plowshares are poured in China.

500 A.D. Cast crucible steel is first produced in India,

but the process is lost until 1750, when Benjamin
Huntsman reinvents it in England.

1455 Dillenburg Castle in Germany is the first to use

cast iron pipe to transport water.

1480 Birth of Vannoccio Biringuccio (1480-1539), the

"father of the foundry industry," in Italy. He is the first
man to document the foundry process in writing.

Metal Casting History:

1709 Englishman Abraham Darby creates the first

true foundry flask for sand and loam molding.

1750 Benjamin Huntsman reinvents the process of

cast crucible steel in England. This process is the first
in which the steel is completely melted, producing a
uniform composition within the melt. Since the metal
is completely molten, it also allows for alloy steel
production, as the additional elements in the alloy
can be added to the crucible during melting. Prior
steel production was accomplished by a combination
of forging and tempering, and the metal never
reached a molten state.

1809 Centrifugal casting is developed by A. G.

Metal Casting History:

1896 American Foundrymen's Association (renamed

American Foundrymen's Society in 1948 and now called
the American Foundry Society) is formed.

1897 Investment casting is rediscovered by B.F. Philbrook

of Iowa. He uses it to cast dental inlays.

1947 The Shell process, invented by J. Croning of

Germany during WWII, is discovered by U.S. officials
and made public.

1953 The Hotbox system of making and curing cores in

one operation is developed, eliminating the need for
dielectric drying ovens.

Metal Casting History:

1958 H.F. Shroyer is granted a patent for the full mold process,
the forerunner of the expendable pattern (lost foam) casting

1968 The Coldbox process is introduced by L. Toriello and J.

Robins for high production core making.

1971 The Japanese develop V-Process molding. This method

uses unbonded sand and a vacuum.

1971 Rheocasting is developed at Massachusetts Institute of


1996 Cast metal matrix composites are first used in a production

model automobile in the brake rotors for the Lotus Elise.

Metal Casting History (India):

3000 BC Earliest castings include the 11 cm high bronze

dancing girl found at Mohen-jo-daro.

2000 BC Iron pillars, arrows, hooks, nails, bowls and

daggers or earlier have been found in Delhi, Roopar,
Nashik and other places.

500 BC Large scale state-owned mints and jewelry units,

and processes of metal extraction and alloying have been
mentioned in Kautilya's Arthashastra

500 A.D. Cast crucible steel is first produced in India, but

the process is lost until 1750, when Benjamin Huntsman
reinvents it in England

Casting Terms:

Figure : Mold Section showing some casting terms

Casting Terms:
1. Flask: A metal or wood frame, without fixed top or bottom, in which
the mold is formed. Depending upon the position of the flask in the
molding structure, it is referred to by various names such as drag lower molding flask, cope - upper molding flask, cheek
- intermediate molding flask used in three piece molding.

2. Pattern: It is the replica of the final object to be made. The mold

cavity is made with the help of pattern.

3. Parting line: This is the dividing line between the two molding flasks
that makes up the mold.

4. Molding sand: Sand, which binds strongly without losing its

permeability to air or gases. It is a mixture of silica sand, clay, and

moisture in appropriate proportions.

5. Facing sand: The small amount of carbonaceous material sprinkled

on the inner surface of the mold cavity to give a better surface finish
to the castings.

Casting Terms:
6. Core: A separate part of the mold, made of sand and generally baked,
which is used to create openings and various shaped cavities in the
7. Pouring basin: A small funnel shaped cavity at the top of the mold into
which the molten metal is poured.
8. Sprue: The passage through which the molten metal, from the pouring
basin, reaches the mold cavity. In many cases it controls the flow of
metal into the mold.
9. Runner: The channel through which the molten metal is carried from
the sprue to the gate.
10.Gate: A channel through which the molten metal enters the mold
11.Chaplets: Chaplets are used to support the cores inside the mold
cavity to take care of its own weight and overcome the metallostatic
12. Riser: A column of molten metal placed in the mold to feed the
castings as it shrinks and solidifies. Also known as "feed head".
13. Vent: Small opening in the mold to facilitate escape of air and gases.

Steps in Making Sand Castings:


Core making


Melting and pouring


Work flow in typical sand-casting foundries

Steps of sand casting process:

Steps in Making Sand Castings:

Pattern making
The pattern is a physical model of the casting used to make
the mold. The mold is made by packing some readily
formed aggregate material, such as molding sand, around
the pattern. When the pattern is withdrawn, its imprint
provides the mold cavity, which is ultimately filled with
metal to become the casting. If the casting is to be hollow,
as in the case of pipe fittings, additional patterns, referred
to as cores, are used to form these cavities.
Core making
Cores are forms, usually made of sand, which are placed
into a mold cavity to form the interior surfaces of castings.
Thus the void space between the core and mold-cavity
surface is what eventually becomes the casting.

2.1.1 Patterns practices:

Types of patterns,

Pattern allowances and

Material used for patterns.


Definition of a Pattern
A pattern is a form of wood, metal, or other suitable
material around which molding material is packed to
produce the mold cavity.

Fig. View in a pattern

shop. (CourtesyofAllisChalmersMfg.Co.)


Functions of the Pattern

1. A pattern prepares a mold cavity for the purpose of
making a casting.
2. A pattern may contain projections known as core prints
if the casting requires a core and need to be made hollow.
3. Runner, gates, and risers used for feeding molten metal
in the mold cavity may form a part of the pattern.
4. Patterns properly made and having finished and
smooth surfaces reduce casting defects.
5. A properly constructed pattern minimizes the overall
cost of the castings.


A pattern differs from a finished cast part and from the

original drawing in four essential ways.
1. An allowance is added to the pattern to compensate for
metal contraction.
2. An allowance may be added to certain details to provide
for machining and other finishing requirements.
3. An allowance, called pattern taper or draft, is usually
made on vertical sides to facilitate removal of the pattern
from the sand.
4. Projections, called core prints, may be present which
form recesses in the sand for the location and support of


Types of patterns:

Pattern types may depend on a utilitarian classification.

a.Patterns are those which are complete in themselves and not
dependent on any rigging or mounting. They may be single, split,
or loose-piece in construction, depending on size and details.
b.Gated patterns are those which have an added detail designed
to form the gate and runner. Often several patterns are held
together with this gating device.
c.Match-plate or mounted patterns are those which have been
fastened to a plate and equipped to fit a given flask size and type.
They may include cope and drag portions mounted on opposite
sides of one plate; or the cope portion may be mounted on one
plate and the drag portion mounted on another plate.
d.Other miscellaneous pattern types include those with follow
boards, sweep patterns, and skeleton patterns, often used for
special jobs.

Types of Patterns:

Solid or Single piece Pattern

Split Pattern
Match Plate Pattern
Gated Pattern
Loose Piece Pattern
Skeleton Pattern
Sweep Pattern
Left hand and Right hand Pattern
Shell Pattern
Segmental Pattern
Follow Board Pattern

Types of Patterns:

Solid or Single Piece Pattern:

A single or solid piece pattern is made with out joints,

loose pieces or partings.

It has usually one board surface that serves as a parting

surface in the mould.

This type of pattern is used for a limited number of

castings because most of the molding operations like
providing runners and risers, withdrawal of pattern etc. is
done by hand.

Soil temper glands of steam engines are made by solid or

single piece pattern.

Types of Patterns:

Fig. Portion of a large skeleton pattern under

construction. (CourtesyofAllis-ChalmersMfg.Co.)

Types of Patterns:

Types of Patterns:

Split Pattern:

This type of pattern is used when the pattern if made is single

piece will give rise to withdrawal difficulty from the mould.

Split pattern consists of two pieces; one half of the pattern

rests in the drag (lower part ofthemoldingbox)andtheother
halfinthe cope(upperpartofthemoldingbox).

The split patterns are commonly used for the casting of steam
valve bodies, small pulleys, wheels and cylinders etc.

Types of Patterns:

Match Plate Pattern

It is split pattern in which the cope and drag portions are

mounted on side of a plate, called match plate, conforming to the
parting line.

The associated gating and rising system, is usually made and

then mounted on match plate, but can be cast integrally with the
size of the match plate corresponds to the size of the flask used to
make mould.

Multiple patterns of small parts can be mounted on a single

match plate can often be shared by the multiple patterns on the
match plate. In features can be added to the cope and drag sides of
the match plate to accurate alignment of the cope and drag mould
halves after removal of the pattern.

Match plate pattern are used for moderate to high volume prod small
and medium size castings with considerable dimensional accuracy.

Types of Patterns:
Match plate pattern are used for moderate to high
volume production of small and medium size castings
with considerable dimensional accuracy.

Types of Patterns:

Gated Pattern
The gated pattern is used for mass production.
For small castings, multi cavity moulds are prepared i.e.
single moulds carry a number of cavities. Each pattern may
be provided with a gate pattern with it examples are Vice
Handle, Nuts and bolts etc.

Types of Patterns:

Cope and Drag Pattern:

When large cavities are to be manufactured, the

moulds are to be very heavy to handle.

Separate pieces of pattern are made on a

convenient joint line and mounted on boards with
slots and holes provided with easier fittings.

This arrangement helps the molder to work on

each piece separately.

This ensures higher strength and durability.

Types of Patterns: Cope and Drag Pattern:

Types of Patterns:

Loose Piece Pattern:

The loose piece pattern are

needed when the casting is
such that the pattern cannot
be removed as one piece,
even though the pattern is
split and the parting line is
made on more than one

In loose piece pattern the

main pattern is removed first,
then the Small loose piece is

Types of Patterns:

Skeleton Pattern:
For large castings pattern would require a considerable amount of
timber for fully solid pattern.
In such cases the pattern is made of wooden frame and rib
construction so that it will form an exterior or interior outline of
casting, this framework is known as skeleton.
The gaps between ribs and frame are filled with molding sand, the
shape is obtained by using strickle board.
Skeleton patterns are generally employed for symmetrical castings.
Castings, which are generally made by making bodies, pipe bends,
water pipes and boxes.

Types of Patterns:
Sweep Pattern:
Uniform moulds and cores are shaped by sweep pattern.
The sweep pattern consists of a wooden board having a
shape corresponding to the shape of desired casting.
It is arranged to rotate about a central axis.

The sand is rammed and the board is made to rotate to get

the desired shape mould.

Sweep pattern is used for manufacturing of circular parts.

This method is very economical since no actual pattern is

needed and the pattern costs are kept at minimum
eliminating expensive pattern construction.

Types of Patterns: Sweep Pattern:

Types of Patterns: Follow board pattern:

A follow board is a wooden board and is used for

supporting a pattern which is very thin and fragile and
which may give way and collapse under pressure when the
sand above the pattern is being rammed.
With the follow board support under the weak pattern, the
drag is rammed, and then the fallow board is with drawn,
The rammed drag is inverted, cope is mounted on it and
During this operation pattern remains over the inverted
drag and get support from the rammed sand of the drag
under it.
Follow boards are also used for casting master patterns
for many applications.

Types of Patterns: Follow board pattern:

Types of Patterns:

Segmental Patterns:

These patterns are used for preparing molds of larger size

circular casting, avoiding use of solid pattern of exact size.

In principle they are similar to sweep patterns , but

deference is the sweep pattern is given continuous
revolving motion to generate the desired shape while a
segmental pattern is a portion of a solid pattern itself and a
mold is prepared in parts by it.

It is mounted on a central pivot and after preparing the

part mold in one position, the segment is moved to the
next position . The operation is repeated till complete
mold is ready.

Types of Patterns:

Pattern allowances

Pattern Allowances:

The variation in the size of a pattern compared to the

final casting, because it carries certain allowances due to

Metallurgical considerations
Example: Shrinkage allowance is the result of
metallurgical phenomenon.
Mechanical considerations
Example: Machining, draft, distortion, shake and other
allowances are due to mechanical reasons.

Types of Pattern Allowances:


Shrinkage or contraction


Machining or finish allowance.


Draft of tapper allowances.


Distortion or chamber allowance.


Shake or rapping allowance.


Wall movement allowance.

Shrinkage Allowance:

All most all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically on cooling.

The metal shrinkage is of three types:
1. Liquid Shrinkage:
It refers to the reduction in volume when the metal cools from
pouring temperature to liquidous / solidus state.
2. Solidifying Shrinkage:
It refers to the reduction in volume when the metal changes from
liquid state to solid state at the solidus temperature.

These shrinkages described in 1 &2 will be taken care by gating

system & riser, which feed the liquid metal to the casting.

2. Solid Shrinkage:
It refers to the reduction in volume caused when metal loses
temperature in solid state.
To account for this, shrinkage allowance is provided on the patterns.

Shrinkage Allowance (Cont..):

Almost all cast metals shrink or contract volumetrically after

solidification and therefore the pattern to obtain a particular
sized casting is made oversize by an amount equal to that of
shrinkage or contraction.

Different metals shrink at different rates because shrinkage is

the property of the cast metal / alloy.

1. The cast metal or alloy.
2. Pouring temp. of the metal/alloy.
3. Casted dimensions(size).
4. Casting design aspects.
5. Molding conditions(i.e., mould materials and molding
methods employed)

Shrinkage Allowance (Cont..):

The contraction of metals/alloys is always volumetric, but the

contraction allowances are always expressed in linear measures.

Machining Allowance:
A Casting is given an allowance for machining,

Castings get oxidized in the mold and during heat

treatment; scales etc., thus formed need to be removed.


It is the intended to remove surface roughness and

other imperfections from the castings.

iii. It

is required to achieve exact casting dimensions.

iv. Surface

finish is required on the casting.

Machining Allowance (Cont..):

How much extra metal or how much machining

allowance should be provided, depends on the factors
listed below:


Nature of metals.


Size and shape of casting.

iii. The

type of machining operations to be employed for

cleaning the casting.

iv. Casting


Molding process employed.

Machining Allowance (Cont..):

Machining Allowances of Various Metals:

Draft or Taper Allowance:

It is given to all surfaces perpendicular to parting line.
Draft allowance is given so that the pattern can be
easily removed from the molding material tightly
packed around it with out damaging the mould cavity.
The amount of taper depends upon:


Shape and size of pattern in the depth direction in

contact with the mould cavity.
Molding methods.
Mold materials.
Draft allowance is imparted on internal as well as
external surfaces; of course it is more on internal

Draft or Taper Allowance:

The taper provided by the pattern maker on all vertical

surfaces of the pattern so that it can be removed from the
sand without tearing away the sides of the sand mold and
without excessive rapping by the molder.
Figure (a) shows a pattern having no draft allowance
being removed from the pattern. In this case, till the pattern
is completely lifted out, its sides will remain in contact with
the walls of the mold, thus tending to break it.

Figure (a)
Pattern having
no draft on
vertical edges.

Draft or Taper Allowance (Cont..):

Figure (b) is an illustration of a pattern having proper draft
allowance. Here, the moment the pattern lifting commences,
all of its surfaces are well away from the sand surface.
Thus the pattern can be removed without damaging the mold

Draft or Taper Allowance (Cont..):

Draft or Taper Allowance (Cont..):

Fig: taper in design

Distortion or cambered allowance:

o A casting will distort or wrap if :

It is of irregular shape,


All it parts do not shrink uniformly i.e., some parts shrinks

while others are restricted from during so,


It is u or v-shape,


The arms possess unequal thickness,


It has long, rangy arms as those of propeller strut for the ship,


It is a long flat casting,


One portion of the casting cools at a faster rate as compared to

the other.

Distortion or cambered allowance (Cont..):

Distortion or cambered allowance (Cont..):

Shake allowance:

A patter is shaken or rapped by striking the same with a

wooden piece from side to side. This is done so that the
pattern a little is loosened in the mold cavity and can be
easily removed.

In turn, therefore, rapping enlarges the mould cavity

which results in a bigger sized casting.

Hence, a ve allowance is provided on the pattern i.e.,

the pattern dimensions are kept smaller in order to
compensate the enlargement of mould cavity due to

The magnitude of shake allowance can be reduced by

increasing the tapper.

Wall movement Allowance:

The walls of the mold cavity may move due to

When mold is under rammed while packing sand and molten

metal is poured the hydro-static pressure of liquid metal
causes mold cavity walls to get compressed and cavity get
enlarged. This is negative (ve) allowance.


If plaster of paris is used as mold material, it gets expanded

during curing operation and make mold cavity smaller.

Sharp edges and corners are to be avoided so these are filled with
fillets of wood or paste or such materials. The change in cross
sectional area should be smooth, there also chmpher or arc is
provided to avoid defects and stress concentration.

Pattern layout
Pattern construction

Pattern Layout:

Steps involved:

Get the working drawing of the part for which the

pattern is to be made.

Make two views of the part drawing on a sheet, using

a shrinkrule.A shrink rule is modified form of an
ordinary scale which has already taken care of
shrinkage allowance for a particular metal to be cast.

Add machining allowances as per the requirements.

Depending upon the method of molding, provide the

draft allowance.

Pattern Construction:

Study the pattern layout carefully and establish,

a. Location of parting surface.
b. No. of parts in which the pattern will be made.

Using the various hand tools and pattern making

machines fabricate the different parts of the pattern.

Inspect the pattern as regards the alignment of different

portions of the pattern and its dimensional accuracy.

Fill wax in all the fillets in order to remove sharp corners.

Give a shellac coatings(3 coats) to pattern.

Impart suitable colors to the pattern for identification

purposes and for other information.

Pattern colors

Pattern Colors:

Patterns are imparted certain colors and

shades in order to:


Identify quickly the main body of pattern and

different parts of the pattern.


Indicate the type of the metal to be cast.

iii. Identify

core prints, loose pieces, etc.,

iv. Visualize

the surfaces to be machined, etc.

Pattern Colors:



The patterns are normally painted with contrasting

colors such that the mould maker would be able to
understand the functions clearly.
The color code used is,
Red or orange on surface not to be finished and left as cast
Yellow on surfaces to be machined
Black on core prints for un-machined openings
Yellow stripes on black on core prints for machined
Green on seats of and for loose pieces and loose core prints
Diagonal black strips with clear varnish on to strengthen
the weak patterns or to shorten a casting.


Pattern types may depend on a simple materials classification.

a.Some patterns of the utilitarian type may be made of
wood. Both soft- and hardwoods, such as Norwegian pine,
mahogany, and cherry, are used.
b.Some patterns, especially those intended for long
production and machine applications, are made of certain
metallic alloys. Aluminum, magnesium, copper, and ferrous
alloys may be used.
c. Some patterns may be made of anyone of the several

Pattern Materials:

Patterns may be constructed from the following

materials. Each material has its own advantages,
limitations, and field of application.
Some materials used for making patterns are:


Metals and alloys,


Plaster of Paris,

Plastic and rubbers,

Wax, and resins.

Pattern Materials:

To be suitable for use, the pattern material should be:


Easily worked, shaped and joined


Light in weight


Strong, hard and durable


Resistant to wear and abrasion


Resistant to corrosion, and to chemical reactions


Dimensionally stable and unaffected by variations in

temperature and humidity


Available at low cost.


Selection of Pattern materials:

1. The selection of pattern material depends on number or
quantity of castings to be produced, both at first and in future
This is largely related to economic factors.
2. Pattern material for castings up to 600 mm on the major
dimension may be selected according to the following
production criteria:
1 99
Wood (soft or hard) patterns and core boxes
100 499
Hardwood or metal patterns and core boxes
500 and up
Metal patterns and core boxes

It is common procedure to reinforce or face wood patterns and

core boxes with metal at localized wear points in place of using
a metal pattern or box.


3. Some important pattern-materials characteristics are

compared in the following table to illustrate
problems of selection:

Pattern allowances and factors involved:


Patternmaker's shrinkage is an allowance added to

the pattern to compensate for the metal contraction
occurring during cooling after solidification. All
metals except bismuth and gallium shrink.
a.The amount of contraction varies with the
composition of the metallic alloy.
b.Contraction takes place in direct proportion to
the drop in temperature while the alloy is still

Pattern allowances and factors involved:

2. Some of the typical cast alloys and the approximate
shrinkage allowance used for each.
a.Gray iron commonly contracts 10 mm per meter
of dimension.
b.Steel commonly contracts 20 mm per meter, or
twice as much as cast iron.
c.Malleable iron commonly has a net contraction of
10 mm per meter. When cast as white iron it
contracts 6 mm, but subsequent heat-treatment
(annealing) causes an expansion-resulting in the net
contraction given above.
d.Aluminum and magnesium alloys commonly

Molding materials

2.1.2 Molding materials:


Molding sands,

Molding sands properties and sand testing;

Grain fineness;

Moisture content,

Clay content and

Molding sands:

Major production of castings is in sand molds.

About 4 to 5 tons of molding sand may be required to

produce 1 ton of castings.

Poor molding sand ------ poor castings.

Attention to preparing, controlling, handling, and
properly using the sand.

Several different types of molding sands are used.

Usually green sand.

Molding sands:
Composition of molding sand:
Molding sands are mixtures of three or more
A green sand contains

Principal sand constituent, SiO2.

Binder such as clay


These three components provide the bulk and

plasticity required of the molding sand.


Sand is defined as the granular particles resulting

from the breakdown of rocks.

Granular particles of sand, SiO2, principally,

comprise 50 to 95 percent of the total material in a
moulding sand.

The rest being the other oxides such as alumina,

sodium ( Na2O + K2O ) and magnesium oxide (MgO
+ CaO).

These impurities should be minimized to about 2

% since they affect the fusion point of the silica

Sand (Cont..):

In different molding sands, the sand particles may

differ in the following ways:

Average grain size( micrometer to millimeter),

2. Grain size distribution, (Grain sizes range from less than

53 microns to as large as 3,360 microns.
3. Grain shape( round, sub-angular, angular, very angular)
4. Chemical composition
5. Refractoriness and thermal stability.

Sand (Cont..):

Zircon sand is basically zirconium silicate

( ZrSiO4).
The typical composition is ZrO2 66.25 %, SiO 230.96 %, Al2O3 1.92 %, Fe2O3 0.74 % and traces
of other oxides. It is very expensive.
The advantages are high fusion point (2400 0C), low
coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal
conductivity, high chilling power, high density, and
requires a very small amount of binder (3 %).
It is generally used to manufacture precision steel
castings requiring better surface finish and for


Molding sands may contain about 2 to 50 per cent of


With suitable water content, it is the principal source

of the strength and plasticity of the molding sand.

Clay is thus the bond or binder of molding sands.

In some mineral deposits, clay and sand occur in

mixed proportions, so that the sand can be mined
and used directly for molding.

Clay (Cont..):
o Clays are defined as essentially aggregates of
extremely minute crystalline, usually flaked shaped
particles that can be classified on the basis of their
structure and composition into a few groups which
are known as clay minerals.

Some clays are composed of particles of a single

mineral, whereas others are mixtures of clay
minerals or contain admixtures of quartz, pyrite,
organic matter, etc.

Types of Clay

1. Fire clays or Kaolinites ( Al2O32SiO22H2O)

Clay (Cont..):

Kaolinite has a melting point of 1750 to 17870 C and Bentonite

has a melting temperature range of 1250 to 13000 C. Of the
two, Bentonite can absorb more water which increases its
bonding power.
There are two types of Bentonite available, one with sodium as
adsorbed ion which is often called western Bentonite
( volume increases some 10 to 20 times, high dry strength
which lowers the risk of erosion, better tolerance of variations
in water content, low green strength, high resistance to burn
out, which reduces consumption) and the other with calcium
ion called southern Bentonite( low dry strength, high green
The clay chosen for moulding sand should give it the requisite
strength for the given application taking into consideration the
metal being cast and thickness of the casting.


Water, present in amounts of about 1.5 to 8 percent,

activates the clay in the sand, causing the aggregate
to develop plasticity and strength.
Water in molding sand often refers to as tempering
The water is adsorbed by the clay up to a limiting
Only that water rigidly held by the clay appears to
be effective in developing strength.
Additional water, however, can act as a lubricant,
and makes the sand more plastic and more
moldable, though the strength may be lowered.

Special Additives:

Besides the three basic ingredients, other materials may be

present in molding sands.
They often referred to as additives and are used to develop
some specific property.
It acts as binder and is finely ground corn flour or gelatinized
and ground starch from corn. Cereals may be
used in molding sands for increased green or dry strength or
collapsibility in amounts up to 2 percent.
Ground Pitch:
Pitch is a by-product of coke making, being distilled from soft
coals at about 3500 C and above. Pitch is
used in amounts up to 3 percent to improve hot strength or
finish on ferrous castings.

Special Additives (Cont..):

It is a by-product of the distillation of petroleum. It is used for
the same purpose as pitch.
Sea Coal:
It is a finely ground soft coal used in molding sand for cast
irons, principally for the purpose of improving the surface
finish and ease of cleaning the castings. It is usually ground to
fineness similar to that of the molding sand in which it is
used. Percentages employed in sands are about 2 to 8 percent.
Synthetic or natural graphite may be used in percentages of
0.2 to 2.0 percent for the purpose of improving
the mouldability of the sand and surface finish of the castings.

Special Additives (Cont..):



Fuel Oil:
It is sometimes used in very small percentages, 0.01
to 0.10 per cent, and seems to confer improved
moldability to the sand.
Wood Flour:
Ground wood flour or other cellulose materials such
as cob-flour, cereal hulls, and carbonized cellulose
may be added in amounts of 0.5 to 2.0 per cent to
molding sands. They may function to control the
expansion of the sand by burning out at elevated

Special Additives (Cont..):




Silica Flour:
Pulverized silica, finer than 200 mesh, is called
silica flour. It may be used in amounts up to 35
percent for the purpose of increasing hot strength of
the sand. It also increases the density of the sand for
resisting metal penetration.
Iron Oxide:
Fine iron oxide is used in small percentage in some
sands to obtain added hot strength.
It is an expanded aluminium silicate mineral, useful

Special Additives (Cont..):


Molasses, Dextrin:
Cane molasses, unrefined and containing 60 to 70
per cent sugar solids, may be used for increases dry
strength of the sand and edge hardness of moulds.
Dextrins may be used for the same purpose.


Binders for Carbon Dioxide Molding:

In this process sodium silicate (water glass, SiO2 Na2O) acts as

This is essentially a quick process of mold preparation.
The mold is prepared with a mixture of sodium silicate and sand and
then treated with carbon dioxide for two to three minutes such that a
dry compressive strength of over 1.4 MPa is arrived at.
The carbon dioxide is expected to form a weak acid which hydrolyses
the sodium silicate resulting in amorphous silica which forms the
The introduction of CO2 gas starts the reaction by forming hydrated
sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 + H2O).
This gelling reaction increases the viscosity of the binder till it
becomes solid.
The compressive strength of the bond increases with standing time due
to dehydration.

Binders (Cont..):

Binders for Shell Molding:

The dry and fine sand (90 to 140 GFN) which is completely free of the
clay is used for preparing the shell molding sand.
The synthetic resins used in shell molding are essentially
thermosetting resins which get hardened irreversibly by heat.
The resin most widely used, are the phenol formaldehyde resins.
Combined with sand, they have very high strength and resistance to
The phenolic resins used in shell molding usually are of two stage
type, that is, the resin has excess phenol and acts like a thermoplastic
During coating with the sand the resin is combined with a catalyst
such as hexamethylenetetramine (hexa) in a proportion of about 14 to
16 % so as to develop the thermosetting characteristics.
The curing temperature for these moulds is around 150 0 C and the time
required would be 50 to 60 seconds.

Binders (Cont..):

Binders for Core Sand:

The core sands need to be stronger than the molding sand and
therefore the clay binder used in molding sands is not enough but
somewhat better binders need to be used.
The normal binders are organic in nature, because these would be
burnt away by the heat of the molten metal and thus make the core
collapsible during the cooling of the casting.
The amount of binder required depends to a great extent on the
fineness of the sand grains.
The amount of clay left in the sand increases the consumption of
the binder.
The binders commonly used are linseed oil, core oil, resins,
dextrin, and molasses, etc.
Core oils are mixtures of linseed, soya, fish, petroleum oil and coal

A Typical Composition of Molding Sand:

Molding sands properties or characteristics:

The properties that are generally required in molding

materials are:
a.Permeability is a condition of porosity and thus is related
to the passage of gaseous materials through the sand.
b.Granular particles (grains) of various sizes and shapes
provide variable interstices (voids) and thus affect the degree of

Grain sizes range from less than 53 microns to as large as

3,360 microns.


Recognized sand-grain shapes are round, angular, subangular, or compound.

Molding sands properties or characteristics:

Fig. Sub-angular sand grains.

Fig. 3.3. Round sand
(Courtesy of New Jersey Silica Sand Co.)

c. Compactness or density of the sand grains is related to

permeability through the interstitial structure.
d.Moisture content in the molding sand affects permea
bility, since excess moisture tends to collect in the
e.Bond content of the molding sand affects permeability
through a similar result.

Molding sands properties or characteristics:


Cohesiveness can be defined as the holding together

of sand grains or strength of the molding sand.

b.Molding-sand strength is measured in many ways.

(1) Green strength under compression, shear, transverse load,

and tension are measurable.


(2) Green compression strength is the most used test on green



(3) Other strength tests include green deformation, dry or

baked tensile, shear and transverse, and Hot compression.

Molding sands properties or characteristics:

Fig. Schematic illustration of sand grains as they may appear under magnification.

c.Grain size and shape affects strength characteristics of

the sand to considerable extent.
d.Mixtures of various-size grains, called distribution, has
considerable effect on strength.
e.Bond content as well as type of bonding material
affects molding-sand strength:
f.Moisture content is a major factor in strength of sand

Molding sands properties or characteristics:

Green Strength:
The molding sand that contains moisture is termed as green sand. The
green sand particles must have the ability to cling to each other to impart
sufficient strength to the mold. The green sand must have enough strength
so that the constructed mold retains its shape.
Dry Strength:
When the molten metal is poured in the mold, the sand around the mold
cavity is quickly converted into dry sand as the moisture in the sand
evaporates due to the heat of the molten metal. At this stage the molding
sand must posses the sufficient strength to retain the exact shape of the
mold cavity and at the same time it must be able to withstand the metallostatic pressure of the liquid material.
Hot Strength:
As soon as the moisture is eliminated, the sand would reach at a high
temperature when the metal in the mold is still in liquid state. The strength
of the sand that is required to hold the shape of the cavity is called hot

Molding sands properties or characteristics:



It is the ability of the molding material to resist the
temperature of the liquid metal to be poured so that
it does not get fused with the metal. The
refractoriness of the silica sand is highest.
The molding sand should also have collapsibility so
that during the contraction of the solidified casting it
does not provide any resistance, which may result in
cracks in the castings. Besides these specific


Testing sand properties:


The molding sand after it is prepared, should be

properly tested to see that the requisite properties
are achieved.

These are standard tests to be done as per Indian

Sample preparation:
Tests are conducted on a sample of the standard

Sampling of Sand for Testing:

A.The fundamental criterion is a random
representative sample of the parent material.

B.This usually requires three I-quart samples:

one each from the front, center, and rear of the
sand heap, at a depth of not less than 6 inches, to
yield one representative sample when mixed.

C. These samples may also be taken directly

from the Muller, conveyor belt, or hopper of sand


Alternate shovel, quartering, or the use of a

Moisture content determination:

o Moisture is an important element of the molding
sand as it affects many properties.
Moisture content determination by heating:

To test the moisture of molding sand a carefully

weighed sand test sample of 50g is dried at a
temperature of 105o C to 110o C for 2 hours by
which time all the moisture in the sand would have
been evaporated.

The sample is then weighed. The weight difference

in grams when multiplied by two would give the
percentage of moisture contained in the molding

Moisture content determination by a chemical reaction :

Moiture Teller method (Mechanical method):

In this sand is dried by suspending the sample on a fine
metallic screen and allowing hot air to flow through the
This method of drying completes the removal of moisture
in a matter of minutes compared to 2 hours as in the
earlier method.
Moiture Teller method (Chemical method):
Another moisture teller utilizes calcium carbide to
measure the moisture content.
A measured amount of calcium carbide ( a little more than
actually required for complete reaction) in a container
along with a separate cap consisting of measured quantity
of moulding sand is kept in the moisture teller.
Care has to be taken before closing the apparatus that

Moisture content determination by a chemical reaction:


The apparatus is then shaken vigorously such that

the following reaction takes place:
CaC2 + 2 H2O C2H2 + Ca(OH)2

The acetylene ( C2H2) coming out will be collected

in the space above the sand raising the pressure.

A pressure gauge connected to the apparatus would

give directly the amount of acetylene generated
which is proportional to the moisture present.

It is possible to calibrate the pressure gauge directly

Moisture content determination by a chemical reaction:


Moisture content is read directly from a calibrated

scale on the instrument.

The instrument used is known as the Speedy

moisture tester.

Test made with this device is not affected by other

volatile materials.

b.Test is fast, is reasonably accurate, and requires a

minimum of skill.

Moisture content determination:


Other methods of determining moisture content.

1. Special equipment has been developed which
can be used to measure moisture content of sand
by utilizing the electrical conductivity of the moist
2. Other special devices may rely on evaporation,
chemical reaction, or conductivity, but they speed
up the test by oneFig.
or another.
equipment. (a) Laboratory
sand sifter;
laboratory sand washer.
(Courtesy of Harry W.
Dietert Co.)

Clay Content:

The clay content of the molding sand is determined

by dissolving or washing it off the sand.

To determine the clay percentage a 50 g sample is

dried at 105 to 1100 C and the dried sample is taken
in a one litre glass flask and added with 475 ml of
distilled water and 25ml of a one percent solution of
caustic soda (NaOH 25 g per liter).

This sample is thoroughly stirred.

After the stirring, for a period of five minutes, the

sample is diluted with fresh water up to a 150 mm
graduation mark and the sample is left undisturbed

Clay Content (Cont..):


The sand settles at the bottom and the clay particles

washed from the sand would be floating in the
water. 125 mm of this water is siphoned off the flask
and it is again topped to the same level and allowed
to settle for five minutes.

The above operation is repeated till the water above

the sand becomes clear, which is an indication that
all the clay in the molding sand has been removed.

Now, the sand removed from the flask and dried by


Fineness and grain-size distribution:


Fineness and grain-size distribution are determined

using the residue from the preceding test.

1. Fineness is measured in terms of grain sizes

and distribution.


Sand-grain particles range in size from 53 to




Pan-size particles (silt) range from 20 to 53 microns.


Clay particles are less than 20 microns in size.

2. The objective is to determine the per cent of

different sizes of sand, silt, and clay.

Fineness and grain-size distribution:


3. A stack of sieves in a shaker device provide a

continuum of decreasing mesh sizes from top to

Mesh numbers are 6, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, 70, 100,
200, and 270.



Smaller particles passing 270 mesh are caught in

the bottom of the stack.

a pan at

4. Residue from clay-content test is placed in top

sieve, device is shaken according to instructions,
and per cent of material retained on each sieve is

Fineness or Sand Grain Size:


To find out the sand grain size, a sand sample which

is devoid of moisture and clay such as the one
obtained after the previous testing is to be used.

The dried clay free sand grains are placed on the top
sieve of a sieve shaker which contains a series of
sieves one upon the other with gradually decreasing
mesh sizes.

The sieves are shaken continuously for a period of

15 minutes.

Fineness or Sand Grain Size (Cont..):


The sand retained on each sieve expressed as a

percentage of the total mass can be plotted against
sieve number.

But more important is the Grain Finesses Number

(GFN) which is a quantitative indication of the grain

To calculate the GFN each sieve has been given a

weightage factor as given in the Table IV.

Fineness or Sand Grain Size (Cont..):

Fineness or Sand Grain Size (Cont..):

GFN is the average grain size and corresponds to a

sieve number through which all the sand grains
would pass through, if they were all of the same

GFN value varies between 40 and 220 for those

Fineness or Sand Grain Size (Cont..):


Though the sand properties depend on both the grain

size and the grain size distribution, GFN is a very
convenient way of finding the sand properties since
it takes both into account.

GFN 41 : steel castings 50 Kg and
67 : Small steel castings ;
105: Light cast iron and copper
150: Aluminum alloy castings.

Permeability determination (Cont..):


A.Permeability is expressed as the volume of air

in cubic centimeters that will pass per minute
under a pressure of 1 gram per square centimeter
through a specimen of sand 1 square centimeter in
cross-sectional area and 1 centimeter in height.

1. There are four recognized conditions of

a.Base permeability is the permeability
measured with a specimen of packed dry sharp

b.Green permeability is the permeability

measured with a specimen made of moist molding

Permeability determination (Cont..):


d.Baked permeability is the permeability

measured with a specimen made of sand with
thermosetting binders and baked at some
temperature above 110C.
2. This test is made with the specimen, usually about
50 X50 mm size, still in the specimen tube.
3. The tube with specimen is placed in the
instrument cup which provides a mercury seal, and a
selected amount of air is forced through the
specimen under controlled conditions.
a. The rate of flow of the air is timed to calculate

Permeability determination (Cont..):

The rate of flow of air passing through a standard specimen

under a standard pressure is termed as permeability number.

The standard permeability test is to measure time taken by a

2000 cm3 of air at a pressure typically of 980 Pa to pass through
a standard sand specimen confined in a specimen tube.

The standard specimen size is 50.8 mm in diameter and a length

of 50.8 mm.

Then, the permeability number, P is obtained by

P = (Vx H) / x A x T
Where V = volume of air = 2000 cm3
H = height of the sand specimen = 5.08 cm
p = air pressure, g/cm2
A = cross sectional area of sand specimen= 20.268 cm 2
T = time in minutes for the complete air to pass through.

Permeability determination (Cont..):


Inserting the above standard values into the

expression, we get
=501.28/P x A

Figure: Permeability measuring

set up

Fig. One type of permeability

meter. (CourtesyofHarryW.

Preparation of Standard Test Specimens:


A mass of molding sand rammed to specified

size is called a standard test specimen.


1. One standard is the 2-inch-long by 2-inchdiameter specimen.


2. Another standard is the 2-inch-long by

11/8-inch- diameter specimen.


3. Other specimens of selected shape and size

are used in special tests.

Preparation of Standard Test Specimens (Cont..):


B.Diameter or other outside shape is controlled by

size of specimen tube or other container.
1. Specimen tube is closed at one end with a
pedestal; a quantity of sand is placed into the
assembly and rammed according to procedure for
the specimen being made.
2. Specimen rammer is a device that provides
controlled weight falling a prescribed distance
in order to ram sand in the tube. Exact procedure
and other details vary with the type of specimen
being made.

Preparation of Standard Test Specimens (Cont..):


1. Stripping post fits

inside the tube to push
specimen out when so

2. Stripped specimen
may be baked and tested
for various conditions as
a core specimen.

3. Stripped specimen
may be tested for green-

Figure : Sand rammer for

specimen preparation

Strength determination:

Measurement of strength of moulding sands can be

carried out on the universal sand strength testing

The strength can be measured in compression, shear

and tension.

The sands that could be tested are green sand, dry

sand or core sand.

The compression and shear test involve the standard

Strength determination (Cont..):

Green Compression Strength:


Green compression strength or simply green

strength generally refers to the stress required to
rupture the sand specimen under compressive


The sand specimen is taken out of the specimen tube

and is immediately (any delay causes the drying of
the sample which increases the strength) put on the
strength testing machine and the force required to
cause the compression failure is determined.

Strength determination (Cont..):



Green to the above test, a different adapter is fitted

in the universal machine so that the loading now be
made for the shearing of the sand sample.
The stress required to shear the specimen along the
axis is then represented as the green shear strength.
It Shear Strength with a sand sample similar may
vary from 10 to 50 KPa.
Dry Strength
This test uses the standard specimens dried between
105 and 1100 C for 2 hours. Since the strength
increases with drying, it may be necessary to apply
larger stresses than the previous tests.
The range of dry compression strengths found in

Strength determination (Cont..):

Figure : Sand strength testing set up

Strength determination (Cont..):

Figure 1.4.5: Universal sand strength measuring set up

Mould HardnessTesting:

The mould hardness is measured by a method

similar to the Brinell hardness test.

A spring loaded steel ball with a mass of 0.9 Kg is

indented into the standard sand specimen prepared.

The depth of indentation can be directly measured

on the scale which shows units 0 to 100.

When no penetration occurs, then it is a mould

hardness of 100 and when it sinks completely, the

Mould HardnessTesting (Cont..):

Figure : Mould and core hardness tester


Besides these, there are other tests to determine

such properties as deformation, green tensile
strength, hot strength, expansion, etc.

Core materials
Core making


Introduction (Definition, requirements, Types &
Core Design (Design, core materials, & core
supporting in mold)
Core Frames &Reinforcement
(Cores reinforcement , lifting & Supports)
Hand Core Making, Core Venting & Core Boxes.
Machine Core Making ( Core Jolter, Core
Blowers, Core Shooters & Core Extrusion
Core Handling & Core Baking or Drying

Core Definition:
Cores are sand (Refractory materials) bars or items designed
to form holes, slots recess and cavities in castings and also to
shape outer surfaces of cast pieces.
Core Materials:
Core sands
Core Binders, oil, clay & Resin binders, Synthetic Resin
Core cements to join split cores.
Core box parting sand, powders & Dust.
Cores Requirements:
Cores have to resist high temperature, chemical reaction with
molten metal, metal penetration, hydraulic pressure of molten
metal, permit escape of gases evolved from molten metal etc.

General Properties of Cores :

High gas permeability
o Strength
o Good deformability
o Collapsibility
Core Design Considerations:

To mold a casting with holes and cavities of the desired dimensions, as specified in
the casting drawing, it is necessary to properly locate the core in the mold, apart
from making it to accurate geometrical size.
For this the core must have a sufficient number of core extensions of certain length.
Also they must have such a shape as to exclude any shifting of the core.

Core Design Considerations:

The criterion for dimensioning core extensions is the least core

bearing surface which enables the pressure acting on the mold
portion at the junction with the core extension not to exceed 50
to 75 % of the sand compression strength c . The surface area
of a drag print depends on the core mass .

After pouring the metal into the mold, the core may be regarded
as a body submerged into a liquid. Then the upward force of the
core that acts on the cope is to be considered.

Knowing the number of cope prints and the compression stress

permissible for the cope, we can calculate the minimum bearing
surface for cope prints.

If the calculations show that the number of prints and their

surface area are insufficient and it is impossible to extend the
prints, the use of metal chaplets (same or similar metal of
casting) installed in the mold to support the core in the desired
position can remedy the situation .

Relation of Core Section with other sections of


Classification of Cores:
Cores are classified according to geometrical
dimensions, configuration, operating conditions in
the casting mold.
Class I:
This class includes the cores of intricate
configuration, and skeleton type cores with small
core prints. These cores form cavities to beleft as
cast, the surface finish of which must meet high
requirements. Cores for casting the parts of internal
combustion engines are a11example of the cores of
this class.

Class III:
These class of cores comprise the cores of
moderately complex configuration, which do not
have too thin members with massive core prints.
These cores form cavities whose as-cast surface
finish must satisfy rather high requirements.
Class IV:
These class of cores consist of the cores of simple
configuration. They form surfaces both subject and
not subject to machining, the roughness of which
need not comply with stern requirements.

Fig. Classification of cores

Characteristic of Classes of Cores:

The requirements placed on physico-mechanical properties of cores depend on the class of
the cores.
The cores of classes I and II must show high strength and gas permeability, low gas evolution
capacity, good deform ability and collapsibility.
A core sand in the green condition must display good flowability, that is, readily fill in
intricate pockets of the core boxes.
Class I & II ,Cores may have a somewhat lower strength, because gases can leave the cores
through well developed core prints. These cores must exhibit sufficient deformability and
In the initial state, the sands for class III cores may have a lower flowability than the sands
for class I cores.
The cores of classes IV and V may have a substantially lower strength and gas permeability
than class I cores (one-half or -one-third the values for the latter cores) because such cores
have massive bodies and core prints. But these cores must feature good deformability and
collapsibility because they usually form large and long cavities in the castings.
The above requirements placed on the physico-mechanical properties of cores can be
satisfied by choosing the requisite composition of the core sand and the core production
method, the choice being independent on the character of production (either piece, batch, or
mass production). The rational choice of the core sand and the production technology secures
a high quality of castings and the efficiency of production.

Types of Cores:

a.Cores are usually classified by the material

from which they are
(1) Green-sand cores, with the relatively
low strength
of green sand.
(2) Dry-sand cores, made with sand and
special binders
which develop strength when baked.

b.Cores may also be classified by their position

Types of Cores (Cont..):

Types of Cores (Cont..):

Core Frames:
These are the reinforcement means molded into cores to increase strength. The
frames are made from wire or shaped cast iron plates. The core reinforcement must
fulfill the following requirements: give sufficient strength and rigidity to the core,
not spring or come off the core sand (soft, annealed wire will do for the purpose),
deform readily to allow for contraction of the casting, not stand in the way of vent
holes being made, and permit easy shakeout of the core from the casting.
Thin cores are reinforced with 1 or 12-mm wire inserted into the core boxes during
core molding.
Small and moderately sized cores are made with 6 to 10-mm wire frames whose
separate parts are fastened with a thinner wire. The reinforcement means for large
sand-clay cores are iron and steel cast frames with 6 to 10-mm cast-in wire inserts.
The framework for medium-sized and large cores includes lifting arrangements by
which the cores are suspended on the crane for delivering them to the assembly site.
Fig. shows wire and cast frames made in various shapes. Wire frames are laid along
the length of the core. They should terminate at least 2 or 3 mm short of the core
ends. The frame should pass into the prints to add to the core strength. If the core
has two prints located opposite each other, the frame should extend into both.

Core venting:
While pouring the mold with molten metal, mold
walls and cores heat up rapidly and give off a large
volume of gases. Since the molten metal has a
particularly strong effect on cores, these must have
vent holes.
The venting consists in making holes with a vent
wire, with steel rods or pipes molded into the cores
and subsequently removed after core molding, by
inserting wicks (which form holes after wax melting
and cord removal), Capron (name of town) mesh
tubes, straw braids (in casting pipes and cylinders),
and by packing up coke ash inside large cores during

Fig. Layout of the vents in

cores and in the mold for an
iron casting
1-core plugs;
2-vertical vents;
3, 5, 6, 7-cores;
4, 8-inclined and horizontal

Finishing of cores:
After the corns are baked a certain number of
operations are performed on them before they can
be set in the mold.
These operations are termed as Corefinishing.
Finishing work may be classified as follows:


Sizing (making it dimenssionally accurate)

Core assembly

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Cleaning operations:

Cleaning operations include all work done on the core except sizing
or assembly of cores.

Work included in this category is trimming, brushing, venting,

coating, and mudding.

Trimming consists of removing fins, bumps or other sand projections

by rubbing them or filing; with an emery stone, core file, or other
abrasive tool.

Fins arise from loose joints or loose piece in the core box.

Blow holes and vent plugs often leave marks on the core which must
smoothed off.

Brushing cores with a brush of moderate stiffness is performed to

remove looee sand.

Brushing is required on core which, before baking, have been bedded

in sand rather than on a core drier.

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Cores coatings:
Cores may be coated with refractory or protective
materials which improve their resistance to molten
metal or produce a better casting.

These coatings may be applied by spraying, dipping,

or swabbing.

Mudding is a localized coating used to make the

core completely smooth.

Graphite or red talc moistened with water to a putty

consistency may be used to fill up any cavities,

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Cores coatings(Cont..):

Another mud consists of 94% silica flour, 3%

western bentonite, and dextrin moistened to a putty
with water.

The mud is applied by hand, rubbed into the

cavities, and smoothed off. Core which have been
coated or rubbed may cause trouble with defects in
the casting because of steam evolution when the
metal is poured.

Drying in a core oven for 20 min to 1 hr can

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Venting of cores:

Venting of core is sometime included as a cleaning


Baked cores which are to be assembled may be

vented into the core prints by scratching grooves on
the surfaces to be joined.

More often groove or vent holes are put into the

core before it is baked.

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Venting of cores (Cont..):

Then it may be desirable to inspcet the vents to see

that they are open.

Small holes may he reamed open with a wire or rod.

Wax vent holes are made by ramming up a string of

wax in the core.

The wax melts out when the core is baked and

leaves a vent hole.

It is frequently necessary during cleaning to open

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Sizing Operation:

Sizing is done to make cores dimensionally


Sizing usually involves gauging the core to see if its

size is correct and then removing material.

Sizing thus is part dimensional inspection.

Gauges may be used to check critical dimensions.

Templates, pieces of sheet metal cut out to the

contour required of the core, may be used to
determine whether the core has sagged or slumped

Finishing of cores (Cont..):

Sizing Operation (Cont..):

In some cores with large flat surfaces exact height is necessary so that
casting-wall thickness and location are accurate.

Such cores may be made slightly oversize and ground to correct


This may be done by hand filiug with a scraper or on a core-grinding

machine. In either ease the core is put into a fixture which positions
the core and the exccss material is removed.

Hand-sizing operations may be performed on cores which arc slightly

out of shape.

Crooked core plates or driers, vibration during baking. and weak

sands or ramming may cause cores to be off dimenntion and are good
reason for gauging and sizing.

Core Assembly:


Some cores are of one piece and may be set directly

into the mold after cleaning and sizing.
Other cores are assembled of two or more pieces
before they can be used. Core assemblies may be
held together by pasting, bolting, or leading.
Pasting is rnostly commonly used on small work.
A corc paste, usually a proprietary mixture of talc,
dextrin, flour, molases, water, or other ingredients, is
applied to the surfuces to be joined.
The paste may be put on with a paste bulb, brush,
the finger, or by means of dipping with a pasting
A pasting fixture consists of a metal rack which is

Core Assembly (Cont..):


Care must be exercised to avoid sealing off vent

hole and grooves when cores are pasted.
The parted surfaces are pressed together and
allowed to dry so that a strong assembly results.
Often it is desirable to mud the jotnt lines to prevent
metal penitration and give a smoother castig surface.
Pasted and mudded cores are best if dried to avoid
the danger of blow defects in the castings.
Cores may be bolted together if pasting does not
producc a sufficiently strong assembly. Bolting is
useful in larger core work. Recessed holes are left in
the cores so that they may be bolted together. The
bolt and nut heads are covered over with a core plug
or mud.

The gating system of a mold:

.The gating system of a mold (Cont..):

The gating system of a mold is made up of various openings
and passages which serve to deliver metal to the mold cavity.
1. The pouring cup, often called a pouring basin, is a flared
section of the top of the down sprue.
Pouring basin
is a term often used with the larger
openings, while pouring
cup applies to a smaller
opening serving the same purpose.
2. A vertical, usually tubular opening through the cope is
referred to as a down sprue, downgate, or sprue.
3. Metal, as it leaves the down sprue, is channeled through
runners, sometimes called cross gates, horizontally and
toward or around the mold cavity.
4. The ingate, or gate, is the opening, usually horizontal,
which carries the metal from the rumier to the mold

The gating system of a mold (Cont..):

5. The riser, or feedhead, is an opening through the

cope often directly above the cavity-whose main
purpose is to feed metal to the casting as it
a. Risers and feedheads are not usually
part of the gating system, although
they may be
placed in similar fashion in some
b. Riser requirements depend chiefly on the
alloy being poured and the shrinkage
values thus
c. Metal in a riser must be the last to
solidify; hence
the riser must be larger than the

The gating system of a mold (Cont..):

Types of gates:
1. Runners and gates which are formed at the parting plane
of the mold are known as parting-line gates.
a.Parting-line gates are the most frequently used. They
may be cut manually or formed with gate patterns on a
b.Parting-line gates take on many variations designed
to properly feed the casting, help control shrinkage, and
clean the metal as it flows into the cavity.
2. Top gates, which open directly into the cavity from above,
are not used so often as parting-line gates but on occasion
serve to feed the casting more efficiently. Common
variations are
wedge gates, finger gates, and pencil gates.
3. Bottom gates feed the metal into the cavity near the
bottom. A horn-shaped gate stick may be built into the
mold and
carefully removed to form a horn gate carrying
metal to the
bottom of the cavity, while ceramic gate
tubes or special-sand
cores serve to form other types of
bottom gates.

The gating system of a mold (Cont..):

Molds & Molding

Classification of casting Processes:

Casting processes can be classified into following FOUR




Conventional Molding Processes

Green Sand Molding
b. Dry Sand Molding
Flask less Molding
Chemical Sand Molding Processes
Shell Molding
b. Sodium Silicate Molding
No-Bake Molding
Permanent Mold Processes
Gravity Die casting
b. Low and High Pressure Die Casting
Special Casting Processes
Lost Wax
b. Ceramics Shell Molding

Conventional Molding Processes:

Green Sand Molding:

Green sand is the most diversified molding method

used in metal casting operations.

The process utilizes a mold made of compressed or

compacted moist sand.

The term "green" denotes the presence of moisture

in the molding sand.

The mold material consists of silica sand mixed with

a suitable bonding agent (usually clay) and

Green Sand Molding:


Most metals can be cast by this method.

Pattern costs and material costs are relatively low.

No Limitation with respect to size of casting and type of metal

or alloy used.


Surface Finish of the castings obtained by this process is not

good and machining is often required to achieve the finished

Applicationof Green sand moulding:

a. Green-sand molds may be used when casting
practically all of the ferrous and nonferrous
b. Green sand may be used when making small,
medium, and often large molds.
c. Various kinds of green sand are used more
extensively than any other type of molding

Skin-dry molds:
1. A sand mold with a dry-sand facing and a greensand backing is called a skin-dry mold.
2. Applications:
a. Skin-dry molds may be used when casting
practically all of the ferrous and nonferrous
b. Skin-dry molds are more common in large
since smaller molds may be made

Skin-dry molds (Cont..):

a.Skin-dry molds are less expensive to construct
than dry-sand molds but more expensive than
green-and molds of a given size.
b.Less equipment is needed than for making a
dry-sand mold.
c.The materials required for skin-dry molds are
cheaper than fot dry-sand molds.
d.Skin-dry molding takes less time than dry-sand
e.Less floor space is needed in skin-dry molding

Skin-dry molds (Cont..):

a.Skin-dry molds are not so strong as dry-sand
b.Since moisture may migrate through the dry skin,
these molds cannot be stored for later pouring.

Dry-sand molds:
l. A sand mold made entirely with sand that does not re
quire moisture to develop strength (the binder makes the
difference) is called a dry-sand mold.
2. Applications:
a.Dry-sand molds may be used for many alloys but are
more common in the casting of steel.
b.Dry-sand molds are used most in small and medium
sized operations, although for larger operations drysand
molds may be made in sections and assembled after the

Dry-sand molds (Cont..):

3. Advantages:
a.Dry sand tends to resist metal erosion.
b.Molds made of dry sand are stronger and may be handled
more easily and with less damage.
c.Dry sand eliminates the tendency for moisture-related
defects to occur.
4. Disadvantages:
a.Dry-sand molding requires extra operations, equipment, and
space not needed in green-sand and skin dry work.
b.Dry-sand molding materials are more expensive.
c.Labor costs may -run higher in dry-sand molding, since the
work requires more time.

Cement-bonded molds:

Silica sand bonded with portland cement is used as the

molding material. It dries in air.

2. Applications:
a.Can be used for casting any alloy but most commonly
used in very large ferrous work.
b.Can be used in pit molding and other cases where
baking is impossible.
3. Advantages:
a.Cement-bonded sand develops strength by air drying.
b.Cement-bonded sand generally provides the advan
tages of dry sand.

Cement-bonded molds:
4. Disadvantages:
a.Cement-banded-sand molds require storage space for
the air-drying operation.
b.The materials used in cement-banded-sand molds are
less reusable than materials used in molds made with
other types of sand.

Sand-molding methods:

Bench molding:
a. Relatively small molds made at a convenient bench
are called bench molds.
b. Green-sand, dry-sand, or skin-dry molds may be
made by bench molding.
c. Bench molding is usually slow and laborious, since
hand ramming with loose patterns is frequently

2. Machine molding:
a. Small, medium, and large molds may be made with
the aid of a variety of machines.
b. Green-sand, dry-sand, and skin-dry molds can be
made by machine methods.

Fig. A Penn State molding bench and tools.

Molding & Mechanization machines:

Semi-automatic coremaking machine

Molding & Mechanization machines:

Sand sliger machine

Jolt squeeze roto-lift machine

Ramming or Compacting Molding Machines:

Fig. Molding-sand hoppers and mold conveyors. (Courtesy at National Engineering Co.)

Sand-molding methods:

3. Floor molding:
a. Medium and large molds made directly on the
foundry floor are called floor molds. .
b. Green-sand, dry-sand, or skin-dry molds may
made on the floor with the proper flasks.
c. Floor molding is slow and laborious, since it
usually requires hand ramming with loose
4. Pit molding:
a. Very large molds made in a pit constructed for
the purpose are called pit molds.

2.2Casting practices:

2.2.1 Fundamental of metal casting, Sand casting,

Shell-Mold casting, Mold casting (plaster and
ceramic), Investment casting, Vacuum casting,
Permanent mould casting, Slush casting, Pressure
casting, Die casting, Centrifugal casting, Continuous
casting, Squeeze casting, Casting alloys.

Casting defects.

2.2.3 Design of casting, Gating system design, and

riser design.
2.2.4 Melting furnaces-rotary, Pit electric, Tilting
and cupola.

2.2.1 Fundamental of metal casting:


Sand casting,
Shell-Mold casting,
Mold casting (plaster and ceramic),
Investment casting,
Vacuum casting,
Permanent mould casting,


Slush casting,
Pressure Die casting,

Centrifugal casting,
Continuous casting,
Squeeze casting,

Shell-molding Process

Shell-molding Process:
A.Since its introduction this process has been called the Croning
process, C process, and finally shell process, or shell molding.
B.This process concerns making a mold that has two or more
thin, shell-like parts consisting of thermosetting resin bonded
1. The shells are single-purpose in application.
2. Shells are usually 3 to 6 mm thick, hard, and easily handled
and stored.
3. Shells are made so that matching parts fit together easily,
held with clamps or adhesives and poured in either a vertical or
horizontal position.
4. The shell molds may be supported in racks or in a mass of
bulky permeable material such as sand, steel shot, or gravel.

Shell-molding Process (Cont..):

C. Shell-molding patterns.
1. Patterns for the production of shells must be metal, since they are heated
to temperatures approaching 540C.
2. The patterns must have some provision, in the form of ejector pins, for the
removal of the shells from the surface of the pattern.
D.Shell-molding materials.
1. Clean, dry silica sand is the bulk material used in the making of shell
molds. Grain size and distribution can vary with use.
2. Various thermosetting synthetic resins serve as the sand binder.
a.The resins include the phenol formaldehydes, urea formaldehydes, and
b.From 3 to 10 per cent of the resin by weight is mixed with the sand.

c.Some resins may be used as dry mechanical mixes, while others

lend themselves to a pre-coating process that has the advantage of
non segregation during the molding process.

Shell-molding Process (Cont..):

E. Procedures and alloys that can be cast:
1. The sand-and-resin mix or coated sand is caused to fall against, or
is blown against, a heated metal pattern or core box.
Temperature of die pattern ranges from 75 to 315C.
2. Contact with the hot pattern causes an initial set and thus an
adhering layer of bonded sand in from 5 to 20 seconds.
3. The pattern, with this adhering layer of sand, is placed in an oven,
and the shell is cured by heating to proper temperature from 1 to 3
minutes. Time depends on resin type and shell thickness.
4. Assembly is removed from the oven and the shell stripped from
the pattern by ejector devices. Stripping may be a problem arid
can be aided by the use of a silicone parting agent.
5. All commonly cast metallic alloys can be cast" in these shell

Fig. Shell-molding equipment.

Shell-molding Process (Cont..):

F. Advantages and disadvantages:
1. Advantages:
a.Shell-cast parts can be produced with dimensional tolerances of
0.002 to 0.015 cms per cms, depending on casting size and other
b.Surface finish is an advantage, since a very smooth surface is generally
c.The dimensional accuracy and smooth surfaces possibly reduce cleaning
and machining costs.
d.Major savings in space, materials handling, and storage are possible
with shell-molding.
e.Cured resins do not absorb water during storage, and this ease of storage
permits a more flexible scheduling of production.
f.Shell-molding techniques are readily adaptable to mass production
by using automatic equipment that requires a minimum of skilled labor.

Shell-molding Process (Cont..):

2. Disadvantages:
a.Initial cost of metal patterns and other
specialized equipment can be a disadvantage.
b.The resin binder is more expensive than other
although the over-all materials cost is not a
major Issue.
c.In general, a size limitation is apparent. This

The Plaster Mold Casting Method

The Plaster Mold Casting Method:

This method is a method of producing Aluminum, Zinc or such low
melting point alloys by pouring liquid metal into plaster (70 to 80
%gypsum i.e. CaSO4 & 20 to 30 % strengthener plus water) molds.
Procedural Steps:
Step 1.Model or Master Pattern Making.
Step 2 Foundry Equipment for Patterns & Cores.
Step 3 Plaster Mold Making.
Step 4 Pour Molten Metal for making Casting.
Step 5 Secondary Operations.

or Master Pattern Making:
This is made from CAD file or Drawing.
Using the dimensional data of CAD file or
Drawing, pattern is made of wood.
Model is engineered to include following
A. Metal shrinkage
B. Mold taper if required.
C. Machining allowance or stock.

Step 2 Foundry Equipment for Patterns & Cores

1. Negative molds are made from the model
2. Core plugs are made from negative molds
3. A positive resin cope and drag patterns are made from the negative
4. Core boxes are made from the core plugs
5. Gating, runner system and flask are added as necessary.
6. Duplicate sets of the tooling can be made from the master negative.

Step 3 Plaster Mold Making

1. A liquid plastic slurry is poured around the cope & drag patterns
and in to the core boxes.
2. The plaster mold is then removed from the cope & drag patterns.
3 The plaster mold & cores are then baked to remove moisture.

Step 4 Pour Molten Metal for making Casting

1. Molten metal is prepared, degassed and sample of molten metal
taken for chemical analysis using spectrography.
2. The molten metal is then poured into the assembled plaster mold.
3. The plaster is removed by mechanical knocked-out & high pressure
water jet.
4. When the casting is cooled the runners & gates are then removed.

Step 5 Secondary Operations

1. The raw castings are inspected and labeled.
2. Flash & excess metals are removed by snagging.
3. Casting may be sent for following, if required,
a. Heat treatment, b. X-Ray testing
c. Dye Penetration test.
4. After inspection the castings are ready for following,
a. Machining b. Surface treatment such as plating or coating.
c. Assembly. D. Packing or placing on form Gasketing.

Ceramic mold casting:

Similar to plaster mold casting, except that ceramic material is
used (e.g. silica or powdered Zircon ZrSiO4). Ceramics are
refractory (e.g. the clay hotpot used in Chinese restaurants to
cook some dishes), and also have higher strength that plaster.
- The ceramic slurry forms a shell over the pattern;
- It is dried in a low temperature oven, and the pattern is
- Then it is backed by clay for strength, and baked in a high
temperature oven to burn off any volatile substances.
- The metal is cast same as in plaster casting.
This process can be used to make very good quality
castings of steel or even stainless steel; it is used for parts
such as impellor blades (for turbines, pumps, or rotors for

Precision Investment Casting Process

process is
variously called
Process: casting,
precision casting, or the lost-wax process.
B.The process concerns making a one-piece mold from which
the pattern is removed by a procedure which melts the pattern.
1. The molds are single-purpose molds.
2. The elimination of all parting planes provides improved
dimensional tolerances.
3. By using alined-particle-size investment material, smooth,
accurate surfaces can be produced.
4. Since the pattern is removed by melting or burning out,
precision is increased through eliminating draft, rapping, and

Precision Investment Casting Pattern Materials:

C. Pattern materials commonly used are:

1. Various waxes in a wide range of types and grades
common pattern material.

are the most

2. Certain plastics that burn without residue are used.

3. Some low-melting-point metallic alloys can be used as pattern
4. One investment process, called Mercast, uses mercury in a frozen
condition as the pattern material.
5. Patterns must be formed anew each time by casting or forging
the pattern material in dies made of metal, plastic, rubber, or wood.

Precision Investment (Slurry) Materials:


There are a number of materials applicable as investment


2. Fine-grain silica sand with a suitable binder is often used.

3. Plaster of paris and other gypsum products serve well as the
binder for investment molds used in the casting of nonferrous
4. Other binders may include sodium silicate and various
organic or inorganic chemical substances which satisfy
specific applications.
5. The investment materials are usually mixed into a fairly fluid
slurry which is poured into place and vibrated to promote
uniform packing and removal of air bubbles.
6. Investment molds as well as the materials from which they
are made are single-purpose and therefore cannot be reused.

Alloys that can be investment-cast and procedures:


With the proper investment material, all of the

commonly cast alloys can be formed in
investment molds.

2. Investment molds may be poured in three

different ways.
a.They may often be filled under simple
gravitational force such as is used with common
sand molds.
b.They may also be filled with metal under the
force of applied air pressure.

Advantages of Precision Investment Casting:


In general, investment casting provides for extreme

precision to tolerances as low as 0.00025 mm per

b.Tolerances of 0.004 mm per mm. are easily

maintained in average work.
c. Extremely smooth surfaces are easily produced in in
vestment-cast parts.
d.Investment casting makes possible the elimination
of most machining operations including thread
cutting and gear-tooth forming.
e. This process generally provides for an increased

Disadvantages of Precision Investment Casting:

a.The investment-casting technique is often more

costly, since materials as well as molds are
b.In investment-casting work, the larger objects
are impractical owing to equipment-size limits.
c.In this process the operators must be more
skilled and more technically trained.
d.There is a slower production cycle that makes

Hard Mould Or
Permanent Mould
Casting Process

Hard or Permanent Mould Casting Process :

Metal mould casting processes :

Permanent mould casting.

(i) Gravity Die Casting.
(ii) Low pressure casting.
(iii) Slush casting.
(iv) Die casting, die casting machines.

Permanent mould casting or Gravity Die Casting:

A casting made by pouring molten metal into a mould made of some metallic alloy
or other material of permanence is known as a permanent-mold casting.
Casting in metal molds or permanent molds is one of the techniques of manufacture
of castings with
close tolerances and
smooth finishes.
In contrast to sand molds which require fracturing after the production of every
casting, permanent molds can be poured repeatedly to obtain a few hundreds of
castings and even a few tens of thousands of castings.
The cavity of a permanent mold can be made to a high dimensional accuracy and
with a low surface roughness, so that the castings have accurate dimensions and
good surface finish in the cast state.
A high thermal conductivity of the mold material greatly facilitates the solidification
and cooling of the casting and in the main has a positive effect on its mechanical
properties. The permanent-mold process is 2 to 5 times as effective as the sand
casting process (at the same floor area of the shop).
Besides, this process secures a higher casting yield because it decreases machining
allowances and, in general, effects savings in metal, cuts down the cost of castings
and reduces the consumption of molding sands, makes itself available for
mechanization and automation, and improves the working conditions.

Permanent mould casting or Gravity Die Casting:

A high cost of metal molds, however, makes permanent molding

economically unfeasible in piece production.
Also, the process tends to form hard spots in iron castings, the
elimination of which calls for annealing of the cast products.
Economic and technical factors which govern the choice of this
process include the durability and design of' permanent molds, the
degree of mechanization and automation, and also the nature of
production (mass batch, or piece production).
Permanent mold casting makes an advantageous process if it
justifies expenses involved in the production of castings including the
cost of molds, machining costs, and the cost of waste metal.
Casting in permanent molds proves profitable if each mold gives
not less than 200 to 400 small castings and 50 to 200 large castings.
The entire production process involves the following stages:

Permanent mould casting or Gravity Die Casting:

Steps in Permanent Mold Casting:

1. Preparation of molds, which includes cleaning and
heating operations and application of facings and
paints to the working surfaces of molds.
2. Assembly of molds, which requires setting the
cores in a mold
closing it and fastening the entire mold or kept
under pressure.

Pouring of liquid metal into molds to fill the cavity

by gravitational force and solidification of

Permanent mould casting: The Mould

Permanent mould casting: The Mould:

Permanent molds are generally made of
Cast iron
Gray iron used for the production of molds must
have a pearlite- ferrite structure without traces of
free cementite since, otherwise, the iron of the mold
filled with liquid metal will undergo structural
transformation under heat of molten metal poured,
which may lead to warping of the mould.
The moulds used for ferrous metal are sand
lined, similar to

Permanent mould casting:

Permanent Molding produces a sound dense
casting with superior
mechanical properties.
The castings produced are quite uniform in shape
have a higher
degree of dimensional accuracy than castings
produced in sand
The permanent mold process is also capable of
producing a
consistent quality of finish on castings.

Low Pressure Permanent Mold Castings:

Similar to the Permanent Mold Casting process, the Low
Pressure Permanent Mold Casting process uses a permanent
mold made of iron or steel to produce a variety of aluminum
Instead of using the force of gravity to allow the metal to
flow into the cavity, a low amount of atmospheric gas or air
pressure is applied to the molten metal, which is contained in an
airtight chamber.
This pressure causes the metal to be forced into the mold
cavity. With the assistance of the added pressure, the metal fills
the mold and compensates for any possible shrinking and
casting defects.

Low Pressure Permanent Mold Castings:

Some Advantages of Low Pressure Permanent
Mold Castings:

Thin walled casting can be produced.

Mechanical properties are increased about 5% over

Permanent Mold

Excellent process for creating intricate designs

such as circular

Increased surface finish of as-cast castings.

Slush Casting

Slush Casting:

Definition: A variation of permanent mold casting involving mold

inversion before the castings have completely solidified which
allows molten metal to pour out and leave a hollow-shell casting.
Slush Casting:
Slush casting is a variant of the Permanent Mold casting process for
making hollow articles by inverting the mold after partial freezing
on the surface in order to drain out the still liquid metal at the center.
Solidification begins at the walls because they are relatively cool and
works inward, so the thickness of the shell is controlled by the
amount of time allowed before the mold is drained.
This is a relatively inexpensive process, however only low melting
point alloys with narrow freezing ranges can be used and it is a slow
method, requiring close temperature control of the liquid metal.
Metals casted by this method are Lead, Zinc and other low melting
point alloys.
The die cost is relatively low resulting in an advantage over other
permanent mold casting methods.

Procedural Steps for Slush Casting of Metals:


Clean the mold and apply a light coat of mould

release, if ejecting pins are not provided. Close the
mould parts placing cores, if any.


Quickly pour molten metal in to the mold.


After predetermined time, pour out the excess

molten metal form the mold.


Longer time may be permitted for freezing for

heavier wall thickness.


Remove the part from the mold. Do not use metal

tools for part removal or the mold surface may be

Procedural Steps for Slush Casting of Plastic Materials:






Clean the mold and apply a light coat of mould release.

Preheat oven to 200 C.
Place the mold in the hot oven for 10minutes. Use protective
Remove the hot mold from the oven. Place it over heat resistant
surface and quickly pour plastisol in to the mold.
After 5 minutes, pour the excess plastisol form the hot mold.
Set the oven to 175 C.
Return the mold to hot oven for 20 minutes. Steps 4 to 7 may be
repeated if heavier wall thickness is required.
Remove the hot mold from the oven and quench it in water.
Remove the part from the mold. Do not use metal tools for part
removal or the mold surface may be scratched.
Repeat the entire process to find the effect of longer preheat time
or greater temperature.

Slush Casting for Plastic Parts:

Similar to Rotational Molding

Slush (instead of powder) poured into


Slush is made from a mixture of resin

and plastisols

Mold rotated and tipped

Part forms on surface of mold
Extra slush poured free
Part removed

Pressure Die Casting

Pressure Die Casting:


Die casting may be defined as the use of a

permanent mold ( die) into which molten metal is
introduced by means of pressure.
1. The term gravitydiecastingis another name for
the process already defined as permanent-mold
casting, whereas the process defined under (A)may
be called pressurediecasting.
2. The pressure may be obtained by application of
compressed air or by pneumatically or
hydraulically operated pistons.

Types of Die Casting:

. Hot Chamber Die Casting

Hot Chamber Pressure Die Casting:

B.Hot-chamber die casting.

1. The melting unit is an integral part of the hot- chamber machine,
and molten metal is introduced directly from this melting unit by
means of a plunger mechanism into the die cavity. The process is
further characterized by a normal amount of superheat in the metal
and the need for a commensurately lower casting pressure.
2. Pressure on the molten metal in hot-chamber die-casting
machines may vary from approximately 3.450 to 41.400 MPa. An
average of approximately 13.800 to 17.250 MPa is common.
a.Air-injection pressures are normally limited to about 4.10 MPa.
b.Piston-type plunger-injection pressures of from 10.350 MPa and
up provide optimum soundness and good mechanical properties.
c. Die segments must be securely locked in closed position in
order to withstand the fluid pressure exerted.

Hot Chamber Pressure Die Casting:

3. Eighty per cent by weight of all die castings are

zinc-basealloy castings produced by the hotchamber method.

(C) Gooseneck or Hot Chamber Die casting Machine operated with direct air
(d) Hot Chamber Die casting Machine operated with air operated ram.

Cold Chamber Pressure Die Casting:


The melting unit is usually separate, and molten metal must be transferred to
the injection mechanism by ladle.
Further distinctive characteristics of the process are very high metal pressures
and the fact that the casting alloy may be at a temperature somewhat less than
normal superheat; the melt may even be in a semi-molten condition.

2. Pressure on the casting metal in cold-chamber die-casting machines may vary

from 20.70 to as high as 172.50 MPa and in some cases may reach 690.0 MPa.
a.Metallic alloys cast in a semi-molten condition require greater pressures to
compensate for the reduced fluidity resulting from low pouring temperatures.
b.Lower working temperatures and higher pressures produce castings of dense
structure, free of blowholes and porosity related to dissolved gases.
c. A piston-type plunger mechanism is commonly used to force the semi-molten
alloy, which has been introduced through the injection port, into the die cavity.
d.The lower temperatures of the melt reduce the possibility of excessive
damage to machine parts from thermal shock.

Cold Chamber Pressure Die Casting:

(a) Cold Camber Machine

(b) Cold Chamber Machine showing how metal actually squirts (to eject liquid
in a jet from a narrow orifice) in to the mould.

Metal alloys cast by die casting Techniques:

1. As of the present time no ferrous alloys have been

die cast.
2. Alloys of zinc, aluminum, copper, magnesium, lead,
and tin are the materials commonly die-cast. They are
in approximate order of their commercial importance
as die-casting alloys.
3. Zinc alloys are the most widely die-cast alloys.
a.They permit longer die life since they are easily
die- cast at low temperatures.
b.Relatively high strength can be obtained in zinc
alloys. Tensile strength second only to copper-base
alloys, running to about 310.50 MPa, is possible.

Metal alloys cast by die casting Techniques (Cont..):

4. Aluminum alloys are very popular especially in cold chamber

a. They are, as a class, among the lightest alloys.
b. Aluminum alloys have good corrosion resistance along with
relatively low melting temperatures of about 650C.
c. The chilling action of the dies promotes a fine grain structure,
which improves the mechanical properties of the
alloy. Strengths
of from 138.0 to 276.0 MPa are common.
5. Copper base alloys-the brasses and bronzes-possess some
outstanding properties when die cast.
a. Tensile strength of from 379.50 to 690.0 MPa, along with
good corrosion resistance, is. common in copper base alloys.
b. Fluidity is generally quite low, and therefore higher
temperatures are needed. This reduces die life.

Metal alloys cast by die casting Techniques (Cont..):

6. Magnesium alloys are noted for their extremely light weight, about
two-thirds that of aluminum.
a. They possess approximately the same mechanical properties as
aluminum alloys, and are cast in similar dies and at similar
b. Magnesium alloys are more valuable where higher strengthweight ratios are required.
c. These alloys have lower corrosion-resistance features, and
material costs are higher.
7. Lead alloys enjoy a limited production for specialty items such as Xray equipment and bearings.
a. Lead alloys generally possess relatively low tensile strengthsfrom 62.10 to 96.60 MPa, approximately.
b. Cost factor tends to place lead in a subordinate position to zinc.
c. Lead and its alloys must be handled with considerable care
owing to their toxicity.

Metal alloys cast by die casting Techniques (Cont..):

8. Tin alloys are generally comparable to lead

alloys as regards die-casting and physical
a.Tin alloys, have high corrosion-resistance
properties, excellent bearing properties, and can
be cast to close tolerances.
E.Dimensional tolerances possible in die casting.
1. Dimensional tolerances can be held to within
0.001 to 0.003 mm per mm, when all conditions
are ideal.

Advantages of Die Casting Techniques:


Production rates may be decreased over those generally maintained in other

casting processes.

b.Die casting requires less floor space than is required by other casting
processes, for equivalent production.
c.Die casting generally provides for precision of manufacture with a
consequent reduction in machining costs.
d.Die casting makes possible the casting of thin sections in fairly complex
e.In actual casting there is a low labor cost per casting along with a minimum
of job training.
f. Die casting provides for greatly improved surface finish when compared with
most other casting techniques.
g. Castings produced in the die-casting process are usually less defective, owing
to increased casting soundness.
h.The increased soundness and reduction of defects provides increased yield.

Disadvantages of Die Casting Techniques:

a. The relatively high die and equipment cost.
b.There is a rather limited range of nonferrous
alloys that can be used for die castings.
c.There are many complex features which limit the
application of die castings.
d.Die castings are definitely limited in size.
e. Die casting necessitates special skills in the
maintenance and supervisory personnel.

Comparison of Die Casting Methods:


Clamp force

Max. shot volume


Clamp stroke

Min. mold thickness


Platen size

Hot chamber





625 x 600

Hot chamber





750 x 750

Hot chamber





950 x 950

Cold chamber





575 x 575

Cold chamber





950 x 950

Cold chamber





1300 x 1300

Cold chamber





1850 x 1975

Cold chamber





2075 x 2075

A.Any process in which
molten metal is poured and
allowed to solidify while the mold is revolving is a
centrifugal-casting process.
B.Castings produced under this centrifugal force
are called centrifugal castings.
C. There are three recognized centrifugal casting

True centrifugal Casting

Semi-Centrifugal Casting

Centrifuging Casting

casting is that process wherein the
castings are made in a hollow, cylindrical mold
rotated about an axis common to both casting and

Cast-iron pipe is commonly made by this process.

b.The mold used may be either a permanent mold or a

sand-lined mold.
c. In true centrifugal casting, the axis of spin may be
horizontal, inclined, or vertical.
d.The centrifugal force will form a cylindrical center
line hole without the use of sand or permanent

True centrifugal casting:

f. The length and outside diameter are formed by the

shape of the mold, which is usually cylindrical.
g. The wall thickness can be controlled by the quantity
of metal that is introduced into the spinning mold.
h.In true centrifugal casting the inside circumference
is always circular.
i. When the mold is rotated on a horizontal axis, a
true cylindrical inside surface is produced; if rotated
on a vertical axis, a parabolic inside surface is

Semi-centrifugal or profiled-centrifugal casting:

Semi-centrifugal or profiled-centrifugal casting is

similar to the true centrifugal method, except that a
central core is used to form the inner surface or
The casting is not dependent upon centrifugal force
for its shape.

A good example of semi-centrifugal work is a cast

wheel-like casting.

b.The axis of spin for semi-centrifugal work is always

c.Although the yield is better than with static casting.
it is not so high as in true centrifugal casting.

or Pressure
or pressure
casting is casting:
applied to nonsymmetrical
The mold cavity is not rotated about its own axis but about the axis of
central down sprue common to the axis of spin, which feeds metal
the mold cavity under centrifugal force.
a.Centrifuging can be done only about a vertical axis.
b.Centrifugal force provides high fluid pressure to force the molten
alloy into the mold cavity.

Characteristics of Centrifugal Casting:


The casting is relatively free from defects.

2) Non metallic impurities which segregate toward the bore can be

machined off.
3) Less loss of metal in tundish compared to that in gating and risering in
conventional sand casting.
4) Better mechanical properties.
5) Production rate is high.
6) Can be employed to manufacture bimetallic pipes.
7) Centrifugal casting process can be used for fabricating functionally
gradient metal matrix composite material.

Molds for centrifugal-casting applications:

Centrifugal molds may be made of sand, metal (permanent), graphite and
combinations of the three materials.
Metal molds are frequently made of commercial grades, of carbon steel or alloy steel.
Metal molds, tending to chill the poured metal, increase rate of solidification and
thus increase production rates.
The life of metal molds may be increased with proper coating of surfaces, which
coating provides a smoother casting surface.
The rapid solidification that metal molds promote introduces metallurgical factors that
mayor may not be advantageous.
One of the most successful metal-mold applications for the manufacture of cast-iron
pipe is called the DeLavaud method.

Molds for Centrifugal-Casting applications (Cont..):

3. Sand molds for centrifugal casting are produced by
conventional molding techniques in special flasks.
a.Both green-sand and dry-sand mixtures may be used,
depending on the product and other factors.
b.Sand molds generally provide a much slower cooling rate
and thus do not create the metallurgical problems of chilling.
c.Since sand molds may be made to collapse, the hazards of
pre-stressing or tearing of the casting are reduced.
d.Sand molds lend themselves to the casting of more
complex shapes.
e.Like all sand molds, they are single-purpose molds and
thus must be remade for each casting.

Molds for Centrifugal-Casting Applications Cont..):

4. Graphite molds are usually formed by machining from
commercially available stocks of compressed graphite.
a.One source of graphite for this purpose is electrodes used in
electric-furnace melting.
b.The cooling rate in graphite molds is between that of sand
molds and metal molds.
c.Under favorable casting conditions, graphite molds may be
used several times before they must be replaced.
d.The ease with which graphite may be machined and the
relatively high strength of the mold provide the major economy.
e.Graphite-mold surfaces are resistant to wetting by most metals
and are thus more durable.
f.This type of mold is not applicable to the casting of alloys such
as the ferrous alloys, which react with or dissolve carbon.

Molds for Centrifugal-Casting Applications Cont..):

5. Mold washes are generally used on all types of

molds used in centrifugal-casting processes.
a.Mold washes tend to improve casting finish,
increase mold life,
aid in removal of the casting, and reduce
cooling rate.
b.Washes commonly consist of fine silica and
clay, graphite and

Speed & Its Calculations:

E.Speeds employed in the centrifugal-casting

processes decides following:

of the casting.
Structure of the casting.
Distribution of slag inclusion.
Distribution of gas & shrinkage cavities.
Segregation in alloy castings.
Factors affection selection of speed:
The position of the axis of rotation.
Metal or alloy to be casted.
Casting dimensions.

Speed Calculations:

1. Spinning speeds will vary considerably according

to the application; speed is governed by the casting
to be produced.
2. Common practice favors a centrifugal force of
between 50 to 100 times the force of gravity G, with
75G very common.
3. Centrifugal force acting on a rotating body is
proportional to the radius of rotation and to the
square of the velocity,
m mass (kg), V peripheral speed (m/s), r radius

Speed Calculations:

Solving, further we get

N = 42.3 (G factor/D)
Thornton suggested 50 100 G speed range for
die cast (metal mould) and 25 50 G for sand
cast pots and shaped castings.
Too high speed results in excessive stresses and
hot tears in outside surfaces.

Speed Calculations & Applications of Centrifugal Castings:

F.Centrifugal casting can be used to produce parts

made of both the ferrous and the nonferrous-alloys
1. Cast-iron pipe, gun barrels, automotive-cylinder
walls, jet-engine
rings, piston rings, and brake
drums are common parts centrifugally cast.
G. Investment molds are frequently poured by
adapting them to centrifugal-casting techniques.
H.Advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal


Improved physical properties
Formed under pressures many times that of gravity combined with directional
solidification, two unique characteristics of the centrifugal casting process, the
products exhibit a denser, closer grained structure, with absolutely no porosity.
Because of high structural uniformity, physical properties such as tensile
strength, yield strength, elongation, reduction of area, and other desirable
properties are improved by up to 30% over conventional gravity or static
casting methods.
Longer Life
Parts made from centrifugal process, with the castings closer grained, denser
structure provide more reliable service life and withstand greater stress and
impact without fracturing.
Due to higher reliability and life of the components produced using this
process, total costs over the life of the end product is much lower due to fewer
end-of-life/failure situations and lower maintenance.
Competitive Product Pricing and lower lifetime costs
Centrifugal casting process coupled with inherently low metal wastage
characteristics of this process allow to produce highly reliable products at
competitive pricing as compared with traditional casting methods such as sand


Faster Delivery
Due to the short mold set up and preparation time required for
centrifugal castings, delivery can be scheduled to meet the customers
needs. The customer benefits from reduced manufacturing lead time
and avoids the high cost of maintaining inventory.
Minimum Developmental Lead-time and Expense
The molds are made in-house, which minimizes the lead time in
developing new items and on continuous off take the customers are
free of developmental expenses.
Reduced Rejects
As the molten metal is poured, centrifugal forces distribute the molten
metal against the walls of the mold with tremendous force, thereby
displacing the lighter oxides and impurities, causing them to surface
on the inside diameter of the hollow cylinder being cast. The trapped
oxides and impurities are easily removed in the machining process.
Production Flexibility
The centrifugal process allows economical production of a diversified
range of sizes, shapes and quantities.

Centrifugal Casting
COMPARISON with Sand Casting:

Sand / Static Casting

Spongy and uneven
micro structure.
Linear & nonuniform grain flow.
Low tensile strength.
Low and nonuniform hardness.
Doesn't sustain
impact loads.
Segregation is

Dense & Even micro structure.

Radial & uniform grain flow.
Better tensile strength.
Hardness is more & uniform.
Withstands impact loads.
No effect of aggregation.
Pattern is not required.
Excellent surface finish.
Free from micro porosity.
Life is better.

static casting defects
like internal shrinkage, gas porosity and
in Centrifugal

nonmetallic inclusions are less likely to occur in centrifugal casting.

Hot Tears Hot tears are developed in centrifugal castings for which the highest
rotation speeds are used.

Longitudinal tears occur when contraction of casting combined with the

expansion of the mould, generates hoop stresses exceeding the cohesive strength
of the metal at temperatures in the solidus region.

Segregation - Centrifugal castings are under various forms of segregation thus

pushing less dense constituents at centre.

Banding Sometimes castings produce zones of segregated low melting point

constituents such as eutectic phases and sulphide and oxide inclusions. Various
theories explain this, one states vibration is the main cause of banding.


Principles of Continuous Casting:

Definition: Continuous casting is the process
whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, slab or beam blank.
Prior to the introduction of continuous casting in the
1950s, steel was poured into stationary moulds to
form "ingots".
Since then, "continuous casting" has evolved to
achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and
cost efficiency.
Nowadays, continuous casting is the predominant
way by which steel is produced in the world.

Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

Figure: Schematic representation of the continuous casting process

Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

In the continuous casting process, illustrated in

Figure, molten metal is poured from the ladle into
the tundish and then through a submerged entry
nozzle into a mould cavity.
The mould is water cooled so that enough heat is
extracted to solidify a shell of sufficient thickness.
The shell is withdrawn from the bottom of the
mould at a "casting speed" that matches the inflow
of metal, so that the process ideally operates at
steady state.
Below the mould, water is sprayed to further extract
heat from the strand surface, and the strand
eventually becomes fully solid when it reaches the
''metallurgical length''.

Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

To start a cast, the bottom of the mould is sealed by a steel

dummy bar. This bar prevents liquid metal from flowing out
of the mould and the solidifying shell until a fully solidified
strand section is obtained.
The liquid poured into the mould is partially solidified in the
mould, producing a strand with a solid outer shell and a liquid
In this primary cooling area, once the steel shell has a
sufficient thickness, the partially solidified strand will be
withdrawn out of the mould along with the dummy bar at the
casting speed.
Liquid metal continues to pour into the mould to replenish the
withdrawn metal at an equal rate.

Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

Upon exiting the mould, the strand enters a roller
containment section and secondary cooling
chamber in which the solidifying strand is
sprayed with water, or a combination of water
and air (referred to as "air-mist") to promote
Once the strand is fully solidified and has passed
through the straightener, the dummy bar is
disconnected, removed and stored.

Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

The shape of the tundish is typically rectangular.
Nozzles are located along its bottom to distribute
liquid steel to the mould. The tundish also serves
several other key functions:
- Enhances oxide inclusion separation.
- Provides a continuous flow of liquid steel to the
during ladle exchanges.
- Maintains a steady metal height above the
nozzles to the mould, thereby keeping steel flow

Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

The main function of the mould is to establish a solid shell sufficient in strength
to support its liquid core upon entry into the secondary spray cooling zone.
The mould is basically an open-ended box structure, containing a water cooled
inner lining fabricated from a high purity copper alloy.
The inner face of the copper mould is often plated with chromium or nickel to
provide a harder working surface, and to avoid copper pickup on the surface of
the cast strand, which can otherwise facilitate surface cracks on the product.
Mould oscillation is necessary to minimize friction and sticking of the solidifying
shell, and avoid shell tearing, and liquid steel breakouts, which can wreak havoc
on equipment and machine downtime due to clean up and repairs.
Friction between the shell and mould is reduced through the use of mould
lubricants such as oils or powdered fluxes.
Oscillation is achieved either hydraulically or via motor-driven cams or levers
which support and reciprocate (or oscillate) the


Principles of Continuous Casting (Cont..):

Product Types
Depending on the design of the casting machine, the as-cast
products of the continuous cast process are slabs, blooms, billets,
or beam blanks. The cross sections of these products are shown
in Figure in the next slide.
Billets have cast section sizes up to about 200 mm square.
Bloom section sizes typically range from approximately 200 mm
to 400 mm by 600 mm.
Round billets include diameters of approximately 140 mm to
500 mm.
Slab castings range in thickness from 50 mm to 400 mm, and
over 2500 mm wide.
The aspect ratio (width-to-thickness ratio) is used to determine
the dividing line between blooms and slabs.
An aspect ratio of 2.5:1 or greater constitutes an as-cast product

of Continuous
: ContinuouslyCasting
cast sections

By casting
directly into
semi-finished shapes, the
following steps are eliminated:

ingot teeming,
stripping, and transfer,
soaking pits,
primary rolling.

Other benefits are:

Considerable energy savings

Less scrap produced, i.e. improved yield
Improved labor productivity
Improved quality of steel
Reduced pollution
Reduced capital costs
Increased use of purchased scrap when
Output is maximized.

Comparison of Casting Processes:

Type of

Labour cost
per unit



Accuracy - mm

Section mm

Sand (green)



500 -1000






100 -300






100 -500






25 -125

0.06 - 25mm sect


Die casting



100 -250

0.4 +.05 per 25mm


Die casting
Low Press



40 -100

0.05 + 0.05 per



Die casting

very low

very high

40 -100

0.05 + 0.05 per






100 -200

0.12 per 25mm


Squeeze casting

Squeeze casting :

Squeeze casting or squeeze forming or liquid metal

forging is a combination of casting and
forging process.

Squeeze casting is a process in which liquid melt is

metered into the permanent mould cavity usually
made of metal and pressure applied through the
upper punch on the solidifying molten metal so as to
produce good soundness and dimensionally accurate
product .

Squeeze casting consists of two stages:

The first of which is mould filling-the mould is filled with the

required quantity of molten metal;

Squeeze casting (Cont..):

Squeeze casting (Cont..):

Squeeze casting (Cont..):


Working of Squeeze Casting Process:

* The process makes use of two dies bottom die and top die, cast
and machined in such a way that upon melting leaves a cavity similar
to the shape of the desired casting.

* The bottom die is preheated around 200 - 250 OC with the help of a torch
and sprayed by a water based graphite lubricant to facilitate easy removal of
casting after solidification.

* Measured quantity of molten metal is poured into the bottom die. As the
metal starts solidifying, pressure is applied to the top die casting it to move
rapidly towards the bottom die. This causes molten metal to get squeezed
and fill the mould cavity.

* The squeezing pressure is applied until solidification is completed.


* The casting is ejected by operating the lift pin provided in the bottom die,
and the die is then made ready for the next cycle.

Squeeze casting (Cont..):


Controlling both stages is of major importance for obtaining

sound parts with the required geometry and mechanical
The prediction of temperature distribution and solidification rate
in metal casting is very important in modern foundry
This helps to control the fundamental parameters such as the
occurrence of defects, as well as, the influence on final properties
of cast products and the mould wall / cast metal interface contact
The rate at which molten metal solidifies affects the grain size
that forms. A slow cooling rate that leads to a small degree of
under-cooling at the onset of solidification yields a large grain
size. A rapidly cooling rate on the other hand leads to a high
degree of under-cooling, leading to the formation of small grains.

Squeeze casting (Cont..):


The grain size of squeeze cast specimen is small as

compared to that of sand casting. Sand casting cools slowly,
due to the insulating properties of the sand mould. Squeeze
casting solidifies quickly because of the contact of the molten
metal with the metal mould. Heat is rapidly dissipated to the
steel mould in contact with the molten metal, which is
convected out at the outer surface of the steel mould.

Squeeze casting parameters that can be controlled for the

production of sound products include; melt quality, pressure
level and duration, time of pressure application, press speed,
molten metal temperature, tooling temperature.
Squeeze casting is commonly used for casting aluminum and
magnesium alloys, cores can be used in this process to
produce holes and recesses.

Squeeze casting (Cont..):


Advantages of Squeeze Casting:

* Metal which has poor fluidity characteristics can be cast by

this process.

* Low shrinkage and gas porosity, due to the applied pressure during

* Enhanced Mechanical properties because of fine grain structure

caused by rapid solidification.

* Good Surface Finish.

Disadvantages of Squeeze Casting:

* Process is costlier. Manufacturing dies to accurate dimensions

involves complex processes.

* Accurate metering of molten metal is a slight difficult problem.

* Un-economical for small quantity production.

Squeeze casting :

Casting Defects:

Definition: Casting defects may be defined as those

characteristics which create a deficiency or imperfection exceeding
quality limits imposed by design and service requirements.
Casting defects may be classified into three basic types.

1. The major, or most severe, defects, which result in scrap ping

of the casting.

a. Metal penetration and rough surfaces that interfere

with machining and finishing operations are included
this group.

b. A casting that fails to meet physical requirements, by

reason of pour short or misrun, is usually scrapped.

c. A casting that fails to meet functional requirements,

by reason of porosity or shrinkage, is usually scrapped.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


2. Intermediate defects, which permit salvaging of the

casting, providing the cost of necessary repairs is not pro

3. Minor defects, which permit the casting to be easily and

economically repaired. Salvage is always an expense, and
economical salvage means that a profit is still realized.

4. The elimination and control of casting defects is a problem

that the foundry engineer may approach in several ways.

a. The common procedure is to rely on salvage

techniques that appear to provide immediate savings.
b. Remedial procedures in the molding, core making,
melting, or pouring areas of the foundry are
frequently neglected but highly desirable in the
control of

Casting Defects (Cont..):


1. A shift results in a mismatch of the sections of

a casting, usually at a parting plane.
a.Misalignment of pattern parts, due to worn
or dam aged patterns, may cause shifts.
b.Misalignment of flask equipment is another
likely cause of shifts.
c.Shifts may be caused by poorly fitting mold
jackets and improper handling of molds while they
are being jacketed or poured.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


A core shift is an abnormal variation of the

dimensions which are dependent on core position.
a.Core shifts may be caused by misalignment
of cores in assembling cored molds.
b.Core shifts are also the result of undersized
and over sized core prints.
c.If the incorrect-size chaplet is used, a core
shift will result.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


A swell is an enlargement of the mold cavity by

metal pressure resulting in localized or general
enlargement of the casting.
a.Swells may be caused by insufficient
ramming of the sand.
b.If the molten metal is poured too rapidly or
too hard, a swell may also occur.
c.Excessive pressure of the metal may result
from a sprue height too great for proper
functioning of other forces and a swell will be

Casting Defects (Cont..):



Shrinkage is a void in the casting or a dishing on the surface of a

casting resulting from concentrated contraction of the metal during
a.Shrinks may be caused by improperly located and/or improperly
sized gates and runners.
b.Inadequate risers or lack of risers when needed will cause shrink
c.Poor design, such as abrupt changes of section thickness, may result
in shrink defects.
d.Inadequate or improper filleting of corners may cause shrinkage.
e.A general lack of directional solidification will promote shrinkage
f.Incorrect metal composition and other similar factors will contribute
to shrink defects. ,
g. Improper pouring temperatures will contribute to shrink defects.

Casting Defects (Cont..):

Casting Defects (Cont..):


A blow may take the form of an internal void,

dispersed internal porosity, or a surface depression,
as the result of excessive gaseous materials that
cannot escape.
a.Excess moisture, hard ramming, or other factors
that reduce the permeability of the molding sand
may cause blows.
b.Excess carbonaceous or other organic material in
the molding or core sand can create gases that may
cause blows.
c.Excess gas dissolved in the melt may be rejected
during solidification and cause some types of blows.

Casting Defects (Cont..):

Casting Defects (Cont..):


A hot tear is an internal or external ragged

discontinuity in the metal casting resulting from
hindered contraction occurring just after the metal
has solidified.
a.Poor design as evidenced by abrupt changes in
section, inadequate filleting of inside corners, and
improper placement of chills may cause hot tears.
b.Poor collapsibility of mold and core materials will
place extra stress on certain details and cause hot
c.Improper metallurgical and pouring temperature

Casting Defects (Cont..):

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Cold cracks are similar to hot tears except that

the discontinuity is less ragged and the defect occurs
below about 265C.
a.Most of the causes mentioned for hot tears are
also causes of cold cracks in some castings.
b.Severe handling of the casting prior to stress
relieving will promote cold cracks.
c.Some poor design features will contribute to the
formation of cold cracks.
d.Sudden chill due to too rapid removal of castings

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Misruns and cold shuts occur when the mold cavity

is not completely filled and an incomplete casting
results. The cold shut is an extreme limit of a misrun
in which the metal fronts kiss but do not fuse
a.Low metal fluidity, caused by low tapping and
pouring temperature, improper alloy analysis, and
similar factors are the chief cause of misruns and
cold shuts.
b.Slow pouring and/or small gates may contribute
to misruns and cold shuts.
c.Poor design in the form of thin casting sections or

Casting Defects (Cont..):

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Pour short: When a mold cavity is not completely

filled because of insufficient metal, it is called a
pour short.
a.Interruptions during the pouring operation may re
sult in a pour short.
b.Insufficient metal in the ladle or ladles being used
to pour the mold will obviously result in pour short.

Casting Defects (Cont..):

Metal penetration results when the alloy being cast

tends to penetrate the interstices of the sand grains and
causes a fused aggregate of metal and sand on the surface of
the casting.


Soft rammed sand may promote metal penetration.

b.Molding sand and core sand that is too coarse will

promote metal penetration.

c.Improper use of mold and core washes will cause


d.Excessive metal temperature and other factors that cause

increased fluidity of the metal will promote penetration.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Runouts and bust-outs permit drainage of the metal from

the cavity and result in incomplete castings.
a.A pattern that is too large for a given flask or a pattern placed
too close to the flask edge may result in a weak spot and a
consequent runout.
b.Match-plate surfaces that are out of parallel or uneven may
result in a poorly formed parting plane and cause a runout.
c. Inadequate mold weights or clamps will permit cope lift,
which results in runout.
d.Improper sealing of mold joints or foreign particles that serve
to wedge the mold joints will promote runouts.
e.Excessive pouring pressures caused by any of several
factors will cause runout.
f.Misalignment of cope and drag or shift of cope due to poorly
fitting jackets may promote a runout.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Rough surface finish, not to be confused with

penetration, is merely lack of sufficient smoothness in
the as cast condition.
Soft ramming and/or coarse sand, to a lesser degree
than in penetration problems, will cause rough

b.Rough surfaces are sometimes a result of hard

pouring or too high metal fluidity.

c. Improper use of mold and core washes will often

promote rough casting surfaces.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Fin or Flash: A thin projection of metal not intended as

part of the casting is called a fin. Fins usually occur at the
parting of mold or core sections.
A runout may often be considered as the extreme limit of
a fin.
b.Poor fitting mold and core sections will cause fins.
c. Poor kiss of the parting plane of a mold will cause a
partial runout and result in a fin.
d.High metal pressures due to high sprue, hard pouring,
and insufficient weights or clamps will promote formation
of fins.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Gas Defects
These defects are due to lower gas passing
tendency of the mould which is caused by lower
venting , lower permeability of the mould and
improper design of the casting.
The lower permeability of the mould is due to use
of finer size grains of sand, higher percentage of
clay & moisture and excessive ramming of the

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Rat tail: It is a long shallow angular depression normally

found in a thin casting. The reason for its formation is the
same as that of buckles. Here, instead of the expanding sand
up heaving, the compressed layer fails by one layer, gliding
over the other.

Scab: This refers to the rough thin layer of a metal,

protruding above the casting surface, on top of a thin layer of
sand. The layer is held onto the casting by a metal stringer
through the sand. A scab results when the upheaved sand is
separated from the mould surface and the liquid metal flows
into the space between the mould and the displaced sand.

Swell: Under the influence of metallo-static forces, the

mould wall may move back causing a swell in the dimensions
of the casting.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


As a result of the swell, the feeding requirements of the

casting increase which should be taken care of by the proper
choice of risering. The main cause of this defect is improper
ramming of the mould.
Drop: An irregularly shaped projection on the cope surface
of a casting is called a drop. This is caused by dropping of
sand from the cope or other overhanging projections into the
mould. An adequate strength of the sand and the use of
gaggers can help in avoiding the drops.
Dross: Lighter impurities appearing on the top of a casting
are called dross. It can be taken care of at the pouring stage by
using items such as a strainer and skim bob.
Dirt: Sometimes sand particles dropping out of the cope get
embedded on the top surface of a casting. When removed,
these leave small, angular holes, known as dirts.

Casting Defects (Cont..):


Hard spots:These are caused by the chilling of the

casting. For example, with grey cast iron having
small amounts of silicon, very hard white cast iron
may result at the chilled surface. This hard spot will
interfere with subsequent machining of this region.
Proper metallurgical control and chilling practices
are essential for eliminating the hard spots.

The remedies of some defects are also causes of

others. Therefore one has to analyze the casting
from the viewpoint of its final application and thus
arrive at a proper moulding procedure to eliminate

Design of casting, Gating system design, and riser design.

Casting Pattern Design:

The casting patterns must be designed in a way to enhance
the solidification and casting process reliability of the casting,
costs related to tooling and production are reduced, and stress
concentrators are condensed.
The casting pattern designer has to observe the flow of metal
into the mold to avoid turbulent flow and producing rapid fill.
During the process of solidification, a mold must have been
designed to suitably place the appropriate sized risers to
supply the molten metal into casting.
The pattern engineer also has a responsibility of
determining the process of metal casting. He identifies the
original designs of the casting by making some
considerations. Once those considerations are identified, "a
required set of decision steps" are developed for a casting
design and a pattern design for creating the mold.

Casting Pattern Design: Decision steps required

To locate the direction of the parting line and adjust

the component within the mold.
Draft angles and radii of the sharp edges are
properly examined.
To recognize and abolish the hotspots within the
To encourage the directional solidification in the
casting component.
Appropriately sized risers are placed in a way to
enhance sufficient metal feed throughout the process
of solidification.
To appropriately place and size the runners; and

Casting Pattern Design:


The shape of the cast product is similar to the

sand casting pattern.

The sand mold cavity is manufactured by stuffing

sand along the region of the pattern.

Logically, pattern design can be defined as the set

of transformations beginning from the shape of the
product to obtain the final shape of the mold cavity.

A mathematical representation of this definition

would be:
[Pattern] = [Thole] [Tshrinkage] [Tmachining]

Process of Pattern Design:


Removing the holes : Removing all the holes

formed by cores from the product is required.
Also, as the pattern design is required to produce
the cored characteristics in reference to the design of
the core support in the mold.
The volume equivalent to the entire core is to be
added to the geometry of the pattern to achieve the
desired pattern shape.
Shrinkage solidification : Since the castings have a
tendency to shrink away from the wall of the molds,
this implies that internal dimensions of the castings

Process of Pattern Design:


Machining allowance : This refers to

accumulating extra material to part the surface
direction with respect its normal direction. This
added amount of extra material depends on the final
tolerances of the process dimensions, quality of subsurface, size of the component and the kind of
machining required.
Draft : A draft angle is provided to all faces of the
product, which are parallel to the draw direction for
facilitating the process of withdrawal. Its value lies
between 0.5 Degrees to 3 degrees depending upon

Casting Core Design and Analysis:


An expansion of the core body generally along its

axis is known as print.

The design of this print is dependent upon the

axis direction and the quantity of openings present.

Each of these opening for the core support, are

related to individual print.

Considerations for Core print design:

To hold the core in place during the mold assembly process, the
print design is required to maintain a balance in the body.
The print must be strong enough to resist the buoyancy force of
the molten metal during casting process.
The print should be stable enough during the process of filling
the mold.
The deflection of the core must be minimized.
The transfer of the heat from the core to the mold should be
There should be a provision for escaping the internal gases
within the core.
To avoid inaccurate assembly structure, unsymmetrical holes
should have infallible prints.
Combining the prints of adjacent cores to form single structure.

Considerations for Core print design:

Furthermore, design of the core print depends on

the type of core classified as:

Horizontal simply supported core

Horizontal overhanging core

Vertical doubly supported core

Vertical hanging core

Vertical bottom core

The cored holes and undercuts increase the cost of the tooling and
production time; hence, they should be minimized in terms of

Casting Core Design and Analysis: Quality problems & criterions to avoid:

They also direct quality problems, which can be avoided by

tracking following criterions:

Diameter of the core :

The process of removing and cleaning small sand cores, generally in
thick sections of a casting, is a difficult process.
This is done by accumulation of high heat within the core enclosed by
molten metal.
In the process of die-casting, the molten metal contracts on to the core
of the metal, absorbing it tightly, and thus make it difficult to remove the
Another important consideration is that it may lead to cost-savings to
machine small holes rather than producing them by cores.
The factor that affects the core size depends on the part, metal casting
process, measurement of thickness of the section, and the length of the

Quality problems & criterions to avoid:


Core aspect ratio :

The cores having larger lengths as compared to
their diameter are likely to become distorted during
the process of mold filling, under high pressure.

Sand cores, which are narrow in nature, may even

break down.

The limiting aspect ratio of the cores depends on

the type of core, material of the core, cast metal and
pressure range while filling process.

Quality problems & criterions to avoid:


Inter-core distance :
There are many considerations affecting the
limiting distance between two or more cores.
Too close holes lead to thin sections and thus
having following issues :

The metal may not completely fill the section.

Due to shrinkage porosity, hot spots may be formed.

A marginal shift in the cores positioning reduces the thickness

of the walls and hence exaggerating the above two issues.
The wall thickness of the sections should always be greater
than the diameter of the core.

Design of Gating & Risering

system for Iron

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:


Two types of gating systems are used in ductile
iron castings:


These are also known as gate-runner and

sprue-runner systems, respectively.
The difference between the two systems is the
location of the choke, which is the minimum crosssectional area in the rigging system that determines
the mold-filling time.
For gate-runner systems, the choke is located

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Sprue-runner systems are used where a large

number of small castings are cast in the same mold
with small choke area requirements. In most other
cases, gate-runner systems are used.

A combination of both sprue-runner and gaterunner systems can be used for castings that require
a complicated runner system.

Pouring time should be as fast as possible. Figure

3 can be

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:


Parting Plane Rules:


Minimize the need for cores.


Place heavy sections in the drag.


Try to put all or most of the casting in the cope

for quiet mold filling.


The disadvantage of this placement is that the

yield will be small for castings that require a short

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:


Sprue Rules:


Locate the sprue symmetrically.


2. For sprue-runner systems, the choke cross-sectional area can be

estimated using ghaphs of pouring weight to choke cross-sectional
For multiple casting molds, the total choke area is the sum of all
the choke areas downstream of the sprue.


3. Sprue should not act as choke.


4. The minimum sprue cross-sectional area can be calculated using

the following equation: Asprue = Achoke (H / h)
where Asprue : cross-sectional area of the sprue


Achoke : total choke cross-sectional area

h : height of metal in the pouring basin
H : vertical height of molten metal in the sprue.
For downward tapered sprues, h is measured to the smallest

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:


For sprue-runner systems, the choke area can be located

the bottom of the sprue for tapered sprues or between the sprue
box and the runner.


Sprue area calculated using Equation 9 can be taken as the

minimum cross-sectional area for upward taper, downward taper
and parallel sprues.


Avoid use of parallel sprues.

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Riser Rules:

Risering should be designed one of three ways:

conventionally, as in steel castings; riserless23 with
multiple gates, for castings not poured in green sand; or
with a single riser and multiple gates.

2. Risering principles for green sand castings are presented

by Heine.
3. Minimize the number of risers by feeding multiple
sections of the casting with a single riser, if possible.
4. Sizing should be done using modulus calculations.
5. The M-C method can also be used for sizing the risers

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Riser Rules (Cont..):
6. It is desirable to make the height of the riser larger than its
7. Standard risers can be used to expedite the volume and
modulus calculations.
8. Break-off or Washburn cores are used to reduce the cost of
riser removal and cleaning.
9. Use blind risers.
10. Side risers should be connected to the casting with a short
passage choked at the middle section (riser contact).
11. Selection of the risering method (pressure control, directly
applied, or riserless) can be made using the casting modulus.

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Gate Rules:
1. If multiple, identical castings are cast in the same mold,
gate all of them in the same manner.
2. Minimum gate length should be five times the gate
3. Recommended gate thicknesses can be determined for a
given pouring temperature using graph of pouring
temperature vs minimum gate thickness.
4. For gate-runner systems, the choke area obtained from
ghaphs of pouring weight to choke cross-sectional area,
is the total choke area, i.e., the sum of the gate crosssectional areas.
For multiple chokes, each choke area is selected using

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Gate Rules (Cont..):
5. For gate-runner systems, the junction between a gate and
a runner should be such that the bottom surface of the
gate should be placed on the same plane as the bottom
surface of the runner.
6. For gate-runner systems, gates should come off the runner at a
right angle.
7. For sprue runner systems, the gates bottom surface should be
placed on the top surface of the runner.
8. For gate-runner systems, the total area of gate overlap on the
runner should be about 10% more than the choke area.

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Gate Rules (Cont..):
9. For gate-runner systems, gate overlap on the runner is
slightly more than the height of the gate.
10. For gate-runner systems, two gates should not be
located on opposite sides of a runner at the same point.
11. For gate-runner systems, gates should be thin and wide.
A height-to-width ratio of 1:4 is reasonable.

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Gate Rules (Cont..):
12. For gate-runner systems, two thin and narrow gates
should be preferred to one thick and wide gate.
13. For gate-runner systems, the gates can be as long as
needed but the minimum gate length should be equal to
the gate width.
14. For gate-runner systems, the gates can be straight or
15. For sprue-runner systems, gates are always located in
the cope.

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Runner Rules:
1. Avoid use of curved runners.
2. If curved runners are necessary, locate gates as far from
the curved sections as possible.
3. Avoid use of stepped runners.
4. For gate-runner systems, use tall, narrow runners. A
height to-width ratio of 2:1 is reasonable.
5. For gate-runner systems, the cross-sectional area of a
runner should be three to four times the sum of the
cross-sectional areas of the gates on that runner.
6. For gate-runner systems, the ratio of the runner cross-

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Runner Rules (Cont..):

For gate-runner systems, use tapered blind ends with

approximately 20% slope.


For gate-runner systems, a well can be employed at the

end of the blind end (runner well), which is of
particular use when there is not much space in the mold
for proper runner extension.


For gate-runner systems, the minimum distance between

the sprue and the first gate on the runner should be about
four times the height of the runner.

10. For gate-runner systems, the minimum blind-end

Design of Gating & Risering system for Iron:

Runner Rules (Cont..):
11.For gate-runner systems, the length of the runner
extension and the distance between the sprue and the
first gate are preferably the same. If this cannot be
attained, the latter can be made one-half of the former.
12. For sprue-runner systems, the runner cross section is
square at the choke section.
13. For sprue-runner systems, the runner is always placed
in the drag.
14. For sprue-runner systems, the runner is tapered such
that right after the choke, the runner height is four
times the height at choke, and past the last gate, it is

Melting furnaces

Melting furnaces:




Tilting and


Rotary furnace:

A rotary furnace consists of a refractory lined

rotating shell, which is rotated at very low rpm.

The rotary furnace consists of a cylindrical body

with two conical ends.

An electric motor drives two of the support rollers

which rotate the drum. Hydraulic cylinders enable
the furnace to he tilted forward or backward along
its longitudinal axis.

Support rollers prevent the furnace from slipping in

the longitudinal direction charging is done through
the waste gas aperture, after the furnace has been
tilted forwards by 30.

Rotary furnace (Cont..):


Vibrating conveyors have proved to be successful

for charging, these being mounted above the furnace
may be used.

The charged material is uniformly distributed by

tilting the furnace backwards. If necessary, this
position is also used for hot repairs to the lining.

Heat is generated by burning liquid fuel inside the

shell. Waste products of combustion are used to
provide highly preheated combustion air to the
burner resulting in a high flame temperature.

In this way fuel savings of 10% to 20% or more can

Rotary furnace (Cont..):

Rotary furnace (Cont..):


As the volume of the molten charge increases, direct

heat transfer is reduced by the slag cover.

As the heated refractory lining rotates under the

molten metal, heat is transferred by conduction and

The rotation of the furnace provides a continuous,

uniform and rapid heat transfer to the metal and
insures a consistent temperature differential between
the refractory and molten metal.

The life of the lining is usually long and frequent

Rotary furnace (Cont..):


Melting losses of silicon and carbon can be as high

as 10% to 15% for each.

The longer the metal is superheated, the higher will

be the carbon and silicon losses.

When adding carbon to the furnace, there is about a

60% pickup.

Tapping is through one of the two tap holes in the

front cone.

The slag is first tapped out through the front


Rotary furnace (Cont..):


The melting capacity and energy consumption of a rotary

furnace are influenced by the following parameters:
Tapping temperature
Temperature of refractory lining
Scrap lumpiness and specific surface
Percentage of steel scrap
Furnace geometry
Degree of filling
Flame temperature
Furnace rpm
Flame shape and length
Carburization time.

Rotary furnace (Cont..):


With an oxygen burner it is not possible to use both oil/natural gas

and propane as a fuel.
The high percentage of radiated heat in the oxygen flame, at a
flame temperature of around 2800oC and the high emission
coefficients of the CO2 and H20 rich furnace atmosphere, permits
the use of natural gas and propane, which also minimizes pick up of
The specific fuel and oxygen consumptions are reduced as the
charge weight increases. According to the charge weight, the
furnace efficiency (i.e. the relationship of utilized to input heat)
amounts to between 50 and 64%, which is very high.
The rotary furnace is a closed melting facility where, for the same
melting capacity, the oxygen burner reduces the waste gas volume
to around 20% of that with a comparable air burner. Consequently,
dust removal from the flue gas is easier and more cost effective
than with the cupola and even the induction furnace

Crucible Furnaces:
Crucible furnaces are small capacity typically used for small
melting applications.
Crucible furnace is suitable for the batch type foundries
where the metal requirement is intermittent.
The metal is placed in a crucible which is made of clay and
The energy is applied indirectly to the metal by heating the
crucible by coke, oil or gas.
The heating of crucible is done by coke, oil or gas. .

Crucible Furnaces:
Coke-Fired Furnace(Figure ) .
Primarily used for non-ferrous metals
Furnace is of a cylindrical shape
Also known as pit furnace
Preparation involves: first to make a deep bed of
coke in the furnace
Burn the coke till it attains the state of maximum
Insert the crucible in the coke bed
Remove the crucible when the melt reaches to
desired temperature

Crucible Furnaces:

Figure : Coke Fired Crucible Furnace

Oil-Fired Crucible Furnace:

Primarily used for non-ferrous metals

Furnace is of a cylindrical shape
Advantages include: no wastage of fuel
Less contamination of the metal
Absorption of water vapor is least as the metal melts
inside the closed metallic furnace

Oil/Gas fired tilting crucible furnace:

Crucible Furnaces (Cont..):


The crucible is lifted out and used as a ladle for pouring the
molten metal.
Common fuels used in crucible melting are coke, gas, and oil.

Crucible furnaces are most commonly used when melting the

various nonferrous alloys. Temperatures are sufficient to melt
some of the ferrous alloys.

Crucible-furnace capacities are based on the approximate

weight of molten aluminum that the largest crucible which fits
the furnace will hold. Crucibles range in size from No. 1 (1.25
pounds of aluminum) to No. 400 (400 pounds of aluminum).

Crucible melting is economical for the melting of relatively

small quantities of nonferrous alloys, and provides for close

Electric Furnaces:

Melting furnaces which utilize electricity as fuel are

called electric furnaces, regardless of construction

There are three major types:


Indirect-arc, and


Electric Furnaces (Cont..):

1. This furnace gets its name from the fact that

carbon electrodes project vertically through the roof,
and an electric arc passes directly from them into the
metal bath.
2. Direct-arc furnaces range in size from a capacity
of a few pounds (laboratory sizes) to as much as 100
tons per batch. In the foundry industry, sizes from a
3- to 10-ton capacity are the most popular.
3. Acid melting (utilizing the common silica linings)
and basic melting (utilizing magnesite or dolomite

Electric Furnaces (Cont..):

5. Among the advantages of direct-arc melting are

high melting rate, high pouring temperatures, and
excellent control of metal analysis.
6. The average time per heat in such furnaces ranges
from 20 to 70 minutes per ton of melt.
7. Duplexing and triplexing, wherein the melting is
done in a cupola and refinement is accomplished in
a second or third furnace, often employ direct-arc
furnaces as the final step.

Electric Furnaces (Cont..):

Electric Furnaces (Cont..):

1. The indirect-arc rocking furnace is a horizontal

barrellike structure, lined with a suitable refractory
and designed to rock through a 1800 arc about its
horizontal axis.
2. Carbon electrodes project into the furnace from
both sides, and heat is obtained from an arc
maintained at the ends of the two electrodes. Some
of the heat is reverberated from the furnace lining.
3. Indirect-arc furnaces vary from laboratory
models that melt a few pounds of metal to sizes that

Electric Furnaces (Cont..):

Electric Furnaces (Cont..):


Induction furnaces may be used to melt relatively

small quantities of special alloys of any type, with a
minimum of contamination.
1. An induction coil is built in the furnace structure
around the crucible portion.
2. Both high-frequency and low-frequency types
are successfully employed. High-frequency types
utilize electric current at 1,000 to 10,000 cycles,
while low-frequency types utilize electric current at
60 to 100 cycles.

The Cupola:

The cupola is a 6 to 12 meter vertical cylindrical steel-plate

stack, lined with refractory material and provided with a means
of introducing a blast of air near the bottom.
The cupola is used to melt most of the gray iron that is produced
in the United States and Canada. This amounts to more than 15
million tons annually.
Several factors are responsible for the wide use of the cupola as
a melting furnace.
1. The cupola is very easy to operate and is the fastest of the
melting furnaces.
2. Cupolas are generally very economical, since installation,
maintenance, and operating costs are low.
3. The cupola method is the only method of melting that is
continuous' in operation. In this respect it is related to the
common blast furnace.

The Cupola (Cont..):


Cupolas vary in size and production figures.

1. Shell diameters normally vary from 27 to 108 inches and
may be lined to diameters ranging from 450 to 3000 mm.
2. Since the cupola may be operated on different fuel-to
metal ratios, available sizes are capable of producing from 1
to nearly 35 tons per hour.

Special experimental cupolas are sometimes used for

demonstration and research. Such special cupolas may be
so small as to have a 150 mm inside diameter after lining.

Among the smaller cupolas in existence is one at The

Pennsylvania State University which has an 200 mm inside
diameter with a melting rate of 10 kg of gray iron per hour.

The Cupola (Cont..):

Figure : Schematic of a Cupola

The Cupola (Cont..):

Operational cycle for cupola melting:

1. The cast-iron bottom doors are first closed and propped.

2. A sand bottom is rammed into place on these doors.
a.The bottom must be sloped 1 inch per foot toward the tap hole.
b.Bottom made of relatively low-strength molding sand with
increased coarse silica grains to improve permeability.
Kindling of light-weight dry lumber is placed in an inverted, cone like
structure on the sand bottom. Gas, oil, or electric coke igniters are being
used more extensively now, in place of the wood.
Half of bed charge of coke is placed on the kindling or other cokeigniting material or mechanism. Coke is ignited by method in use.
a. The total bed charge of coke is determined by the height it reaches
above the tuyeres (air inlets), and varies from 700 to 1325 mm depending
upon cupola size and other factors determined by experience.
b.After the first half of the coke is thoroughly ignited, the remainder of
the coke is added.

The Cupola (Cont..):


When the coke has burned through, charges of iron, flux, and
additional coke are added in alternate layers.
a.The metal charge consists essentially of pig iron, scrap cast (either
domestic or purchased), and steel, in various proportions to meet the
approximate analysis prescribed by the metallurgist.
b.Pig iron provides the balance in the control of analysis with respect
to such elements as silicon, manganese, and phosphorus.
c.The flux charge of limestone, fluorspar, or soda ash is generally
about 20 per cent of the coke charge by weight.
(1) Flux reacts with the slag to lower its fusion point, thus providing
for removal of the slag, which carries the impurities out.
(2) Natural slag formed from sand, dirt, iron oxides, coke ash, and
eroded lining has a very high melting point, and would readily freeze
in the cupola blast.
(3) If the slag is not removed it seals the coke from the air and lowers
the oxidation rate, thus causing cold melting.

The Cupola (Cont..):

d.Iron-coke ratios of 6: 1, 8: 1, 10: 1 and 12: 1 by

weight are commonly used in cupola melting. The 8:
1 ratio is perhaps most typical.
e.The selection of coke of proper size is important.
A common rule to follow is to select coke that is
approximately *2 the diameter of the cupola. Coke
with a minimum of moisture and volatile material is
also desirable.

A blast of air is introduced through the wind box

and tuyre located near the bottom of the cupola.
a.The function of the air is to react chemically with

The Cupola (Cont..):

c.The total tuyre area of the cupola is important, and this varies
from 1/8 to 1/4 the cross-sectional area of the cupola.
d.The air required to melt one ton of iron is approximately 10,000
cubic meter, and this figure is the basis for determining the capacity
of blowers needed in cupola work.
7. Soon after the blast is turned on, molten metal collects in the
cupola well and is tapped out into a receiving ladle.
a.The melting rate is partially governed by cross-sectional area,
and will range from 2 to 2.8 kg per square meter per minute, or
approximately 7.5 gm per square mm per hour.
b.As metal is tapped off and fuel consumed, new charges may be
added at the charging level to provide a continuous operating cycle.
8. At the end of the melting operation the air blast is shut off, and the
bottom doors are opened to allow all residual materials left in the
cupola to drop onto the floor.

The Cupola (Cont..):

9. The hot drop is removed from under the cupola, and the
inside lining is allowed to cool.
10. Major steps in maintenance involve repairing the
refractory lining where needed.
a.Spalling of refractories, slag reactions, adhering
aggregate of slag and extraneous materials, and eroded areas
produce an irregular lining surface usually just above the
b.The cupola lining must be prepared for patching by
chipping away all this adhering slag and extraneous
c.Patching over slag is useless, since the slag has a
lower melting point than the refractory and will cause
excessive spalling of patch during the next cycle.

The Cupola (Cont..):

12. Melting operations may be started several hours after patching has
been completed.
o Calculation of cupola charges.
1. The metal-charge make-up in common cupola melting.
a.Pig iron, product of the blast furnace, is available in
approximately ten grades and numerous sub-grades of known analysis.
b.Domestic scrap cast includes sprues, risers, and scrapped
castings from previous operations. It also is of known analysis.
c.Purchased scrap, consisting of steel and cast-iron materials
shipped in as needed, can be obtained in several grades. The grades are
based on the source and age of the scrap, and analysis
must be
2. Losses and pickup of various elements that occur during melting
a.Carbon up to the maximum of 4.3 per cent balances out, since
oxidation loss equals pickup from the coke.

The Cupola (Cont..):

b.Silicon up to the desired maximum of 3 per cent

must be maintained. Oxidation loss of 10 per cent
occurs and can be compensated for by additions of
pig iron, ferrosilicon, or silicon briquettes.
c.Manganese normally varies between 0.5 and 0.75
per cent. Loss due to oxidation and reaction with
sulfur amounts to 20 per cent of original amount.
Compensation can be made by additions of pig iron,
ferromanganese, or manganese briquettes.
d.Phosphorus, sometimes desirable to a maximum of
1 per cent, undergoes little change during melting.
Oxidation loss is negligible, and total amount
charged will be retained.

The Cupola (Cont..):


Therefore, 0.04 X 0.005 X kg of coke will equal the weight

of the sulfur picked up.
3. The following is an example of cupola-charge
calculations using an approximation method:
Silicon: 6.5 -;- 300 X
100 = 2.17%
Manganese: 1.60 -;- 300
X 100 = 0.54%
Phosphorus: 1.40 -;- 300
X 100 = 0.47%
Sulfur: 0.14 -;- 300 X
100 = 0.048%