Mapping

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Mapping

© All Rights Reserved

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Coordinate Systems

Geodesy - the shape of the earth and

definition of earth datums

Map Projection - the transformation of a

curved earth to a flat map

Coordinate systems - (x,y) coordinate

systems for map data

Learning Objectives:

By the end of this class you should know:

how to calculate distances on a spherical earth

the basic types of map projection

the properties of common map projections

the terminology of common coordinate systems

how to use ArcGIS to convert between

coordinate systems

Projection +

For consistent analysis

the spatial reference

Coordinate

system of

ArcGIS does projection on the fly so can display

data with different spatial references properly if

they are properly specified.

ArcGIS terminology

Define projection. Specify the projection for some

data without changing the data.

Project. Change the data from one projection to

another.

(1) Global Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z) for

the whole earth

(2) Geographic coordinates (, z)

(3) Projected coordinates (x, y, z) on a local

area of the earths surface

The z-coordinate in (1) and (3) is defined

geometrically; in (2) the z-coordinate is

defined gravitationally

Greenwich

Meridian

X

Equator

24 satellites in orbit around the earth

Each satellite is continuously radiating a

signal at speed of light, c

GPS receiver measures time lapse, t, since

signal left the satellite, r = ct

Position obtained by intersection of radial

distances, r, from each satellite

Differential correction improves accuracy

r2

Number

of

Satellites

1

2

3

4

Object

Defined

Sphere

Circle

Two Points

Single Point

r3

r4

r1

Geographic Coordinates (, z)

Latitude () and Longitude () defined

using an ellipsoid, an ellipse rotated about

an axis

Elevation (z) defined using geoid, a surface

of constant gravitational potential

Earth datums define standard values of the

ellipsoid and geoid

We think of the

earth as a sphere

It is actually a spheroid,

slightly larger in radius at

the equator than at the poles

Ellipse

An ellipse is defined by:

Focal length =

Distance (F1, P, F2) is

constant for all points

on ellipse

When = 0, ellipse =

circle

For the earth:

Major axis, a = 6378 km

Minor axis, b = 6357 km

Flattening ratio, f = (a-b)/a

~ 1/300

b

O

F1

X

F2

Ellipsoid or Spheroid

Rotate an ellipse around an axis

Z

b

a O a

X

Rotational axis

Standard Ellipsoids

Ellipsoid

Major

Minor

Flattening

axis, a (m) axis, b (m) ratio, f

Clarke

(1866)

GRS80

Professional Paper 1395, p.12

An earth datum is defined by an ellipse and

an axis of rotation

NAD27 (North American Datum of 1927)

uses the Clarke (1866) ellipsoid on a non

geocentric axis of rotation

NAD83 (NAD,1983) uses the GRS80

ellipsoid on a geocentric axis of rotation

WGS84 (World Geodetic System of 1984)

uses GRS80, almost the same as NAD83

Definition of Latitude,

m

S p

n

r

there the tangent plane, mn

(2) Define the line pq through S and normal to the

tangent plane

(3) Angle pqr which this line makes with the equatorial

plane is the latitude , of point S

P

Prime Meridian

Equator

Meridian

plane

Definition of Longitude,

= the angle between a cutting plane on the prime meridian

and the cutting plane on the meridian through the point, P

-150

180E, W

150

-120

120

90W

(-90 )

90E

(+90 )

-60

-30

-60

30

0E, W

Meridian of longitude

Greenwich

meridian

=0

Parallel of latitude

-90

=0

W

=0

-180

Equator

R

=0

=0-180E

S

0

9

0=

- Geographic longitude

- Geographic latitude

Y

R - Mean earth radius

O - Geocenter

(Lat, Long) = (, )

Length on a Meridian:

AB = Re

(same for all latitudes)

Length on a Parallel:

CD = R Re Cos

(varies with latitude)

30 N

0N

Re

C

B

Re

A

on a meridian and on a parallel at 30N, 90W?

Radius of the earth = 6370 km.

Solution:

A 1 angle has first to be converted to radians

radians = 180 , so 1 = /180 = 3.1416/180 = 0.0175

radians

For the meridian, L = Re km

For the parallel, L = Re Cos

Cos

km

Parallels converge as poles are approached

(from A to B)

Shortest distance is along a

Great Circle

intersection of a sphere with a

plane going through its

center.

1. Spherical coordinates

converted to Cartesian

coordinates.

2. Vector dot product used to

calculate angle from latitude

and longitude

B

A

where R=6370 km2

R cos1 (sin

Longley et al. (2001)

Mean Sea Level is a surface of constant

gravitational potential called the Geoid

Sea surface

Ellipsoid

Earth surface

Geoid

Earth surface

Ellipsoid

Ocean

Geoid

Gravity Anomaly

a standard shape of the earth (ellipsoid) and a surface

of constant gravitational potential (geoid)

Definition of Elevation

Elevation Z

P

z = zp

z = 0 Land Surface

Elevation is measured from the Geoid

http://www.csr.utexas.edu/ocean/mss.html

A vertical datum defines elevation, z

NGVD29 (National Geodetic Vertical

Datum of 1929)

NAVD88 (North American Vertical Datum

of 1988)

takes into account a map of gravity

anomalies between the ellipsoid and the

geoid

Corps program Corpscon (not in ArcInfo)

http://crunch.tec.army.mil/software/corpscon/corpscon.html

elevation difference between

NGVD 29 and NAVD 88

= NAVD 88 terrain elevation

Geodesy - the shape of the earth and

definition of earth datums

Map Projection - the transformation of a

curved earth to a flat map

Coordinate systems - (x,y) coordinate

systems for map data

Map Scale:

Map Projection:

Scale Factor

Representative Fraction

= Globe distance

Earth distance

(e.g. 1:24,000)

Map distance

Globe distance

(e.g. 0.9996)

()

Map Projection

(x, y)

Types of Projections

Conic (Albers Equal Area, Lambert

Conformal Conic) - good for East-West

land areas

Cylindrical (Transverse Mercator) - good

for North-South land areas

Azimuthal (Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area)

- good for global views

Conic Projections

(Albers, Lambert)

Cylindrical Projections

(Mercator)

Transverse

Oblique

Azimuthal

(Lambert)

Earth Properties

Area - correct earth surface area (Albers

Equal Area) important for mass balances

Shape - local angles are shown correctly

(Lambert Conformal Conic)

Direction - all directions are shown correctly

relative to the center (Lambert Azimuthal

Equal Area)

Distance - preserved along particular lines

Some projections preserve two properties

Two datasets can differ in both the

projection and the datum, so it is

important to know both for every

dataset.

Geodesy - the shape of the earth and

definition of earth datums

Map Projection - the transformation of a

curved earth to a flat map

Coordinate systems - (x,y) coordinate

systems for map data

Coordinate Systems

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) - a

global system developed by the US Military

Services

State Plane Coordinate System - civilian

system for defining legal boundaries

Texas Centric Mapping System - a

statewide coordinate system for Texas

Coordinate System

A planar coordinate system is defined by a pair

of orthogonal (x,y) axes drawn through an origin

Y

Origin

(xo,yo)

(o,o)

Universal Transverse

Mercator

Uses the Transverse Mercator projection

Each zone has a Central Meridian (o),

zones are 6 wide, and go from pole to pole

60 zones cover the earth from East to West

Reference Latitude (o), is the equator

(Xshift, Yshift) = (xo,yo) = (500000, 0) in the

Northern Hemisphere, units are meters

UTM Zone 14

-99

-102 -96

Origin

-120

-90

Equator

-60

Defined for each State in the United States

East-West States (e.g. Texas) use Lambert

Conformal Conic, North-South States (e.g.

California) use Transverse Mercator

Texas has five zones (North, North Central,

Central, South Central, South) to give

accurate representation

Greatest accuracy for local measurements

Designed to give State-wide coverage of

Texas without gaps

Lambert Conformal Conic projection with

standard parallels 1/6 from the top and 1/6

from bottom of the State

Adapted to Albers equal area projection for

working in hydrology

Defined for a feature

dataset in ArcCatalog

Coordinate System

Projected

Geographic

X/Y Domain

Z Domain

M Domain

Coordinate Systems

Geographic

coordinates (decimal

degrees)

Projected coordinates

(length units, ft or

meters)

X/Y Domain

(Max X, Max Y)

of 231 = 2,147,483,645

(Min X, Min Y)

Maximum resolution of a point = Map Units / Precision

e.g. map units = meters, precision = 1000, then

maximum resolution = 1 meter/1000 = 1 mm on the ground

Summary Concepts

The spatial reference of a dataset comprises

datum, projection and coordinate system.

For consistent analysis the spatial reference

of data sets should be the same.

ArcGIS does projection on the fly so can

display data with different spatial references

properly if they are properly specified.

ArcGIS terminology

Define projection. Specify the projection for

some data without changing the data.

Project. Change the data from one projection

to another.

Two basic locational systems: geometric or

Cartesian (x, y, z) and geographic or

gravitational (, z)

Mean sea level surface or geoid is

approximated by an ellipsoid to define an

earth datum which gives (and distance

above geoid gives (z)

To prepare a map, the earth is first reduced to

a globe and then projected onto a flat surface

Three basic types of map projections: conic,

cylindrical and azimuthal

A particular projection is defined by a datum,

a projection type and a set of projection

parameters

Standard coordinate systems use particular

projections over zones of the earths surface

Types of standard coordinate systems:

UTM, State Plane, Texas State Mapping

System, Standard Hydrologic Grid

Spatial Reference in ArcGIS 9 requires

projection and map extent

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