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Draft System in Boilers

What is draft ?
Draft is the difference between atmospheric
pressure and static pressure of combustion
gases in a furnace ,gas passage, flue or
stack

Why draft is necessary ?


An adequate flow of air and combustion
gases is necessary for complete and
effective burning of fuel
This flow is created and sustained by a
sufficient differential pressure across the
system which is known as draft

Three components of draft


Forced draft Fan
Induced draft fan
Stack or chimney

Four methods of producing draft

Natural draft
Forced draft
Induced draft
Balanced draft

Natural draft
The flow of air and gases is achieved by the
difference in pressure caused by the
difference in elevation between two
locations in the vertical duct
It is due to the difference in density of cold
air and hot gases

Advantages of natural draught

No external power required


No capital investment
Zero maintenance cost
Comparatively higher chimney is required
which prevents pollution of nearby locality

Limitations of natural draught


The draught produced is hardly 10 to 20
mm of water column
The exit temperature is high to maintain the
draught resulting in high flue gas loss
The velocity of air and flue gases is low and
results in higher specific fuel consumption
Cannot cater to fluctuating loads

Some salient points


Size of ID fan is approx 1.3 times that of FD fan
Water cooled bearings are used in ID fans
Forced draught ensures better and uniform mixing
of air and fuel
No chance of air leakage in case of FD system
Continuous ingress of air in ID system through
leakages causing dilution
ID fan is located to handle gas with lowest
temperature

Total Draft loss


H = hv + hb +he +hd where :
H : Total draught loss
Hv : Velocity head of exit gas from chimney
hb : Fuel bed resistance
He : Head loss in equipments
Hd : Head loss in ducts and chimney

Fuel bed resistance


Depends on :
Type of boiler
Fuel size
Combustion rate

Head loss in equipments


Loss in boiler, air heater, ESP
Data are supplied by manufacturers
Varies as square of velocity of gas flow

Forced draft
Air is forced through the boiler at sufficient
pressure to maintain the flow of air and hot
gases through the system
The total system operates above
atmospheric pressure

Velocity head loss


Is given by V2/2g
Draught system is designed to give
minimum velocity head loss
Exit velocity must be sufficient to diffuse
and mix the exit gases with the atmospheric
air
Depends on the natural air velocity at a
given chimney height

Head loss in ducts and chimneys


Due to friction in air and gas ducts and
chimney
Is given by Fanning's Equation
hd = f.

L
4Rh

( v2 )
2g

Chimney or stack
It is a vertical tubular structure made of
masonry, brick, steel or reinforced concrete
It encloses a column of hot gases to produce
the draught
It is high enough to discharge the flue gases
to the atmosphere to prevent air pollution

The draught produced by a chimney is due to


the temperature difference between the hot
gases and cold atmospheric air
The draught produced depends on
1. Temperature of gases at exit of chimney
2. Temperature of atmospheric air

pa

STATIC DRAUGHT

P1= Pa +Hag
H

Net pressure : P = p1 p2
= H(a - g) g

pa
P2= Pa +Hgg

The static draught can be increased by :


Increasing the height of chimney (H)
Reducing the density of hot gases (g)
which means higher exit temperature of
flue gases

Condition for maximum


discharge
Tg/Ta = 2(1 + 1/ma)
Tg : Temperature of hot gases
Ta : Temperature of cold air
Ma: Mass of air supplied per kg of fuel
Draught required
Hw = 176.5H/Ta mm of water

Induced Draft
Air is sucked in from the outlet side of the
gas ducts and maintains a sub atmospheric
pressure which causes the air flow
The whole boiler and gas path operates at
sub atmospheric pressure
Air infiltration occurs in the system through
any leakages

Limitations of Induced draft

Balanced draft
It is combination of forced and induced draft
In this system air is forced through the boiler and
the combustion gases are sucked from the outlet
The static pressure of gases is above atmospheric
at inlet and progressively decreases and is sub
atmospheric at the outlet
Almost all modern power stations employ this
system

Why Balanced draught?


In case of Forced draught furnace cannot be
opened for firing or inspection since it may cause
puffing and blow-off of fire
Incase of Induced draught also furnace cannot be
opened as cold air will rush in and cause dilution
of combustion
Balanced draught takes care of the above by
employing a Forced draught fan and Induced
draught fan

Advantages of Mechanical
Draught

Better rate of combustion


Air flow can be regulated
Independent of atmospheric temperature
Low grade fuel can be burnt
Low flue gas loss with increased efficiency
Height of chimney can be reduced

Disadvantages of Mechanical
Draughts
High capital cost
High running costs of fans
High maintenance costs of Fans especially
ID fans which handle air with ash particles

Draft loss
It is the reduction in static pressure of a gas
caused by friction and other nonrecoverable
losses which are associated with gas flow
under real conditions

Variation of Draught across boiler

0
+ve

-ve

Top of stack

ID Fan Inlet

Furnace

Boiler Inlet

FD Outlet

FD Inlet

The Stack Effect

P se= g/gc Z( a - b) where


Pse : Stack draft effect driving pressure -

N/m2

g : acceleration due to gravity


gc :constant = 1

M/s2
Kgm/Ns2

Z : difference in elevation between two points


a : density of air at ambient conditions
b : density of flue gas

3
Kg/m

3
Kg/m

Fans
A fan moves a quantity of air or gas by
adding sufficient energy to the stream to
initiate motion and overcome resistance to
flow

Components of fan

Bladed rotor or impeller


Casing to collect and discharge the fluid
Shaft on which the impeller is mounted
Bearings to support rotor

Power required by fans


1.
2.
3.
4.

Depends on :
Volume of fluid handled per unit time
Pressure difference across the fan
Efficiency of the fan
Efficiency of the drives

Types of fans
Centrifugal
Axial Flow

Centrifugal Fan

Axial Flow

Centrifugal Fan
The mass of fluid is accelerated from the
heel of the blades towards the tip
The flow of discharge fluid is perpendicular
to the axis of the fan rotor

Axial Flow Fan


The fluid is accelerated in a direction
parallel to the fan rotor axis

Specific Speed

Specific Diameter

Fan characteristics
Characteristic curves depicting
Static head developed
Shaft horsepower
Static efficiency
as a function of volumetric capacity

Fan Performance Laws


Capacity varies directly with speed
Pressure varies as square of the speed
Power varies as cube of speed

Fan size variation


Capacity varies as square of diameter
Power varies as square of diameter
Rpm varies inversely as diameter

Density variation
Capacity remains constant
Pressure varies directly as gas density
Power varies directly as gas density

Shaft HP

Static Pressure
Static
Efficiency %

Types of Impeller
Forward Curved
Backward Curve
Radial

RADIAL BLADE

Radial blade

Vane angle is 90
Simple and cheapest of all types
Has low efficiency
Low speed and low pressure
Used in exhausters for suction type mills
and some blowers

BACKWARD CURVED VANE

Backward curved vane

Vane angle is acute


Have long vanes
Have low outlet velocity
High speed
High efficiency
Used in Forced draft fans

Forward curved vane

Forward Curved Vanes

Vane angle is obtuse


Low speed high volume
High outlet velocity
Used in Induced draught fans

Axial Flow Fan


Size is smaller than a comparable
centrifugal fan
Less cost
Impeller blades can be of variable pitch
Noise level is higher
Impeller blades subject to erosion at tips
Pitch change gear mounted on impeller hub
is to be properly sealed

Centrifugal Fans
Efficiency is higher than axial fans
Easy maintenance at site
Less noise

Centrifugal Fans- Disadvantages


Higher capital cost
Higher operating costs
Size is more than comparable axial flow fan

Comparison of Characteristic Curves


300
Rated HP%

250

Forward
Curve

200

150

Backward Curve
Radial Tip

100

50

Axial Flow
50

100
Rated Capacity %

150

200

250

Rated static Pressure %

Comparison of Characteristic Curves


200
Backward curve

150

Radial Tip
Forward curve

100

50
Axial Flow
50

100

150

Rated Capacity %

200

250

Selection Criteria
Reliability for continuous service
Profile of blades should not allow accumulation
of dirt
High efficiency of a wide range of output
Stability of operation : Pressure to vary uniformly
with flow rate over the capacity range
Overloading : to have self-limiting horsepower
characteristics

Graph depicting self limiting characteristics of fan


120

Shaft HP

80

40

20

40
60
Flow output x 1000 ft3/min

80

Fan Control

Damper Control
Inlet vane control
Variable speed control
Blade Pitch control

Damper Control

Simple method
Varies system resistance by throttling
Highly inefficient
System is unsuitable for large capacity
boilers

Damper control- Advantages

Low initial cost


Easy operation
Least expensive type of fan drive
Continuous or step less control

Variable speed control


Most efficient method
Lowest power consumption at fractional
output compared with other controls
High initial cost
Can be mechanical Hydraulic coupling
Can be electrical Variable speed motors

120
100
80

Damper
Control

60

Hydraulic
coupling

40

Inlet vane controlvariable speed

20

Motor Input Power % of Full


Load

Inlet vane
control- single
speed

20

40

60

Fan volume output % of Full Load

80

100

Blade Pitch control


Applicable in axial flow fans
Impeller blades are tilted to vary the angle
of entry
Hydraulic servomotor helps in achieving
this through an external oil system

Inlet vane Control


Principle is same as in damper control
Requires less power at fractional output than
damper control
Vanes are located radially at inlet eye
All the vanes are connected to a vane control ring
Vane control ring can rotate by a small degree
Costlier than damper control
Leakage of vanes is a problem

Speed Control
System
Resistance

Static Pressure
Flow output

Variable Speed
By varying motor speed
By varying fan speed

Variation of motor speed

Motor shaft rpm is given by :


N =120f/p

Motor speed can be varied by :


1) By varying frequency
2) By varying no of poles

Variable Frequency Drive


The input supply frequency is varied to
obtain different speed of motor

DC
AC50 Hz

AC
DC
Filter

Converter

Inverter

Thyristor

Transistor
IGBT
IGCT

Output AC
with required
frequency

x Hz 3 Ph AC
Speed Feedback
VVVF Controller

50Hz 3 Ph
AC Supply

Process Input

Installation Of VVVF Controller


at TGS

Location : 1B ID Fan
Date of Commissioning :April, 2007
Location : 1A ID Fan
Date of Commissioning : August, 2007
Model : ACS 800
Maker : ABB Ltd

Axial Flow Fans


For reduction in auxiliary power
consumption
Control is by variable pitch of impeller
vanes
For a 250MW PF boiler approximate
savings is about 3-4% as compared with
centrifugal fans

80%

75%

System
Resistance

85%

83%

87%
86%

100

Total Head %
50

25

20
15

-25
0
-20

50

-15

-10
100

Volume Flow %

-5

10

Advantages of VP Control
High efficiency over wide boiler range
Large control range both above and below
the maximum efficiency
Due to the steep nature of fan curves there
is little change in flow for change in
resistance
Flow change with blade angle is linear

Stall in axial flow fans


Aerodynamic phenomenon of flow
separation occurring around the blades
Occurs when the fan performs beyond its
performance limits
Under this condition the fan no longer
operates on its curve and becomes unstable
Results in excessive vibrations and rotating
blade damage

Actual Stall Curves


Normal Curve

Total Head %

s
10

-25
5
0
-5
-10

Volume Flow %

Stall Curve

15

Occurrence of stall in boiler operation


s
Total Head %

X
X1
B1
A1
B
Volume Flow %

Possibility of stall
Fan is oversized
System resistance increases significantly
Improper operation of fans

Requirement of Operation to
prevent stall
Visual indication of
Head developed
Volume handled
Blade angle

Power savings for a typical 500 MW PF boiler


Total Fan power in Kw

Backward curved inlet


vane centrifugal fan
4000
Kw

Variable pitch
Axial flow fan

6000
Kw

50
Boiler Load %

100

Fan blade wear

Dust loading in gas


Particle hardness
Particle size distribution
Relative blade particle velocity
Blade material
Angle of attack

Control of Blade wear

By proper functioning of ESP


By periodic cleaning
By maintaining relative high temperature
By abrasion resistance coating on erosion
prone areas

Dampers
Used to isolate or control flow through
air/gas duct

Types of Dampers

Isolating
Control
Balancing
Modulating

Shapes of Dampers
Louver
Round
Guillotine