You are on page 1of 30

ABDOMEN

Dr. Junhel C. Dalanon

General Description
The abdomen is a roughly cylindrical
chamber extending from the inferior margin
of the thorax to the superior margin of the
pelvis and the lower limb

Functions
I. Houses and protects major viscera
II. Breathing
III. Changes in intraabdominal pressure

Component Parts
I. Wall
II. Abdominal Cavity
III. Pelvic Inlet

Abdominal Wall
The abdominal wall consists partly of bone
but mainly of muscle

Abdominal Cavity
- Central gut tube is suspended from the
posterior abdominal wall
- Peritoneum lines the abdominal cavity
a. Parietal Peritoneum
b. Visceral Peritoneum

Pelvic Inlet
- posteriorly by the sacrum,
- anteriorly by the pubic symphysis, and
- laterally, on each side, by a distinct bony
rim on the pelvic bone

Topographical Divisions
I. Four Quadrant Pattern
II. Nine Region Pattern

Four Quadrant Pattern


1.
2.
3.
4.

right upper quadrant


left upper quadrant
right lower quadrant
left lower quadrant

Nine Region Pattern


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Right Hypochondrium
Epigastric
Left Hypochondrium
Right Flank
Umbilical
Left Flank
Right Groin
Umbilical
Left Groin

Superficial Fascia of the


Abdominal Wall
I.

Superficial Layer Campers Fascia


Dartos Fascia in men, continues over the
penis and scrotum
II. Deep Layer Scarpas Fascia
A. Fascia Lata fuses with deep fascia
of
the thigh
B. Colles Fascia continues into the anterior
part of the perineum

Abdominal Wall Muscles


I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

External oblique
Internal oblique
Transversus abdominis
Rectus abdominis
Pyramidalis

Innervation
T7 to T12 and L1 spinal nerves

Blood Supply - Superficial


Superior Part of the Wall
- Musculophrenic Artery of the Internal Thoracic Artery
Inferior Part of the Wall
- Superficial Epigastric Artery of the Femoral Artery
- Superficial Circumflex Artery of the Femoral Artery

Blood Supply - Deep


Superior Part of the Wall
- Superior Epigastric Artery of the Internal Thoracic Artery
Lateral Part of the Wall
- 10th & 11th Intercostal Artery
- Subcostal Artery
Inferior Part of the Wall
- Inferior Epigastric Artery of the External Iliac Artery
- Deep Circumflex Artery of the External Iliac Artery

Groin
The groin (inguinal region) is the area of junction
between the anterior abdominal wall and the thigh. In
this area, the abdominal wall is weakened from
changes
that
occur during development and a
peritoneal sac or diverticulum, with or without
abdominal contents,
can
therefore
protrude
through it, creating an inguinal hernia. This type
of hernia can occur in both sexes, but it is most
common in males.

Inguinal Canal
I. Deep Inguinal Ring
II. Superficial Inguinal Ring
III. Anterior Wall
IV. Posterior Wall
V. Roof
VI. Floor
VII.Contents
VIII.Spermatic Cord

Contents of the Inguinal Canal


I. Men - Spermatic Cord
II. Women
A. Round ligament of the uterus
B. Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve

Contents of the Spermatic Cord


I. Ductus deferens
II. Artery to the ductus deferens
III. Testicular artery
IV. Pampiniform plexus of veins
V. Cremasteric artery and vein
VI. Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
VII.Sympathetic and visceral afferent nerve fibers
VIII.Lymphatics
IX. Remnants of the processus vaginalis

Abdominal Viscera
I. Peritoneum
II. Peritoneal Cavity
III. Omenta, Mesenteries, and Ligaments

Organs
I. Abdominal Esophagus
II. Stomach
III. Small Intestine
IV. Large Intestine
V. Liver
VI. Gall Bladder
VII.Pancreas
VIII.Spleen

Stomach

Intestines

Liver

Gallbladder

Pancreas

Spleen

Muscles of the Posterior


Abdominal Region
I. Psoas major
II. Psoas minor
III. Quadratus lumborum
IV.Iliacus