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PROJECT REPORT ONVOCATIONAL

TRAINING

IN
INDIAN RAILWAY

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am very much thankful to the concerning


officers and staff of INDIAN RAILWAY AGRA
CANTT for their valuable guidance and advice,
especially to Mr. Pradeep chhabra without
their help I would never have completed my
training. I am also thankful to Sr. Divisional
Electrical Engineer North Central Railways for
allowing me for this training.

INTRODUCTION

Indian Railway is the worlds fourth largest commercial, by


number of employees with over million employees. Railways
were first introduced in India in 1853. Indian Railways
operates both long distance and suburban rail system on a
multi-gauge network of board meter and narrow gauges.

Form 20th Dec 2010, the railways had developed a 5 digit


numbering system. This need is required because IR RUNS
10,000 trains daily

AGRA CANTT SUBSTATION

The 2 x 25KV autotransformer system


may be used on 25 kv lines to reduce
energy losses. It should not be confused
with the 50 kv system. The voltage
between the overhead line(3) and the
feeder line (5) is 50 kv but the voltage
between the overhead line (3) and the
running rails (4) remains at 25 kv and this
is the voltage supplied to the train. This
system is used by Indian Railways

FEEDER
The

feeders that receives the power form CESC,


and the power is step down with the help of step
down transformer and then supplied to various
colonies, piller box, etc. This process is shown
with the help of above connection diagram .

6kv

from CESC goes to HT ocb 400A with the


hwlp of HT busbar 400A is divided into two 200A
and sent to two transformer each of 250 kva
then sent to various parts.

OIL TYPE TRANSFORMER


Transformer oil or insulating oil is usually a highly-refined mineral oil
that is stable at high temp and has excellent electrical insulating
properties. It is used in oil-filled transformers, circuit breakers. Its
function are to Insulate, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a
coolant.
The oil helps cool the transformer because it also provides part if the
electrical insulation between internal live parts, transformer oil must
remain stable at high temp for an external radiation through which the
oil circulates by natural convection.
The flash point(min) and pour point(max) are 140 c to -6 c respectively.
The dielectric strength of new untreated oil is MV/m (RMS)and after

Testing and oil quality


Transformer oils are subjects to electrical and mechanical stresses while a
transformer is in operation. In addition there is contamination caused by
chemical interaction with windings and other solid insulation, catalysed by high
operating temp. As a result the original chemical properties of transformer oil
change gradually, rendering it ineffective for its intended purpose after many
years. Hence this oil has to be periodically tested to ascertain its basic
electrical properties,
These tests can be divided into
1.

Dissolved gas analysis

2.

Furan analysis

3.

PCB analysis

4.

General electrical and physical tests:colour and appearance


Breakdown Voltage
Water content

TRACTION

In Overhead Electrification System, the supply of electricity is


through an overhead system of suspended cables known as the
catenary.
The loco uses a Pantograph, to make contact with the overheat
contact cable and draw electricity from it to power its motors.

The return path for the electricity is through the


body of the loco and the wheels to the tracks,
which are electrically grounded.

Conductivity may be reduced in cases of dirt and


debris on the rails.

There are 2 types of Electrification


system in Indian railways

DC System: In DC system with overhead catenary, the basic


principle is the same, with the catenary being supplied electricity
at 1.5kv DC. The current from the catenary goes directly to the
motor OR convert the DC supply to AC internally using inverters
or a motor-generator combination which then drives AC motors.

Single system(AC): The overhead catenary is fed electricity at


25kv AC(single-phase) from feeding posts which are positioned at
frequent intervals alongside the track.

A Remote Control Centre, has facilities for controlling the


power supply to different sections of the catenaries fed by
several substations in the area.

VOLTAGE USED FOR ELECTRIC


TRACTION IN
INDIA

Voltages used are 1.5kv DC and 25kv AC for mainline


trains.

The 1.5kv DC overhead system is used around


Bombay.

The Calcutta metro uses 750V DC traction with a thirdrail mechanism for delivering the electricity to the
EMUs.

The Calcutta trams use 55V DC with an overhead


catenary system with underground return conductors.

Delhi metro uses 25KV AC overhead traction.

NO LOAD TESTING SCHEDULE OF A


ASSEMBLED
TRACTION
MOTOR

The motor is run at 1500 rpm, if running is smooth the motor is


run for 30 min.

The rotation of the motor is changed and run at 1500 rpm for
another 30 min. Steady state temp rise, should motor exceed
35 degree centi.

The speed is increased to 2000 rpm and run up to 15 min.

The speed is increased to about 2725 rpm.

APPARATUS USED

PANTOGRAPH

MAIN TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

REVERSER

CLR

WINDING CHANGE-OVER SWITCH

BATTERY & BATTERY CHARGER

PROTECTION CIRCUIT AND RELAY

SWITCH GROUP 1& 2

DISC JUNCTION
PANTOGRAPH

SMOOTHING
REACTOR

ADDITIONAL
SMOOTHING
REACTOR

CURRENT
TRANSFORMER

MAIN
TRANSFORMER

RECTIFIER

TAP
CHANGER

REVERSER

MOTOR

BLOCK DIAGRAM

TRACTIVE EFFORT DISTRIBUTION


IN E.M.U.