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Embedding an RISC

A RISC microprocessor provides speedy processing of instruction,

each in a single clock cycle

This facilitates by Pipelining and superscalar processing

RISC uses Thumb instruction set which have reduced code

density to perform intensive task

For example speech processing.

Embedding an ASIP

ASIP is a processor with an instruction set designed for specific

application area on a VLSI chip or core

ASIP is programmed using the instructions of the following



Control Signal processing

Discrete cosine transformation

Adaptive filtering

Communication protocol-implementation function

Embedding ASSP

The ASSP is dedicated to specific tasks alone provides faster solution.

The ASSP is configured and interfaced with the rest of the embedded system

For example:

Embedded system for real time video processing for television, HD tv decoders, DVD players, Settop box,
web phones, video conferencing and other systems.

Suitable encryption and decryptions to protect the output stream from passing to an unknown external

If the software alone is used for the above tasks, it may be take longer time than hardwired
solution for application specific processing

Besides embedding a software with ASSP, it is also require some RTOS features.

For example chip from i2chip i.e. w3100A is a unique hardwired internet connection solution

It needed TCP/IP stack processing software for networking tasks is thus available as a hardwire solution

gives speed five time faster than a software solution using the systems GPP.

Another example of ASSP is serial to Ethernet converter(IIM7100)

It does real time data processing by hardware protocol stack and doesnt require changes in application
software or firmware and provide the most economical and smallest RTOS solution

Comparison of various embedded


Power sources

Most of the system have their dedicated power supply

Some devices uses power rail of the system e.g. network card,
graphic accelerator

Some device uses charge pumps which consist a circuitry of diode

and capacitors which accumulates charges from the bus signal that
they are connected or uses wireless radiation e.g. RFID card

The supply has a specific operation range or ranges of voltage

5.0V 0.25V

3.3V 0.3V

2.0V 0.2V

1.5V 0.2V


There is generally inverse relation ship between propagation

delay in the gates and operational voltage

There are certain advantages of using low voltages

Therefore 5V system processor and units are used in most high

performance system.
When comparted to 5V, 2V CMOs circuit dissipation reduced by one
sixth [~(2V/5V)2] but it increases the time require to recharge the
battery by factor of 6.

Low voltage system processor with smaller geometry generates

less heat and can be packed in smaller packages.

Power Dissipation Management

Clever real-time programming by Wait and Stop instructions

Clever reduction of the clock rate during specific set of


Optimizing the codes and

Clever enabling and disabling of use of caches or cache blocks

Clock oscillator circuit and

clocking unit

After the power supply, the clock is the basic unit of the system

A processor needs a clock oscillator circuit which controls the

time for executing an instruction

The clock controls the various clocking requirement of the CPU,

system timers and CPU machine cycle

The machine cycles are for the fetching codes and data from memory
and then decoding and executing them at the processor and for
transferring the result to the memory.

For processing units, a highly stable oscillator is required and

processor clock out signal provides the clock for synchronizing all
system units with the processor.

System timers and real time clock