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3G (WCDMA) Basic Principle

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

Presented by: Viswajit Kumar Dutta, NSN ID: 61432989

Objectives

After studying this course, you will be able to:

Know the similarities and differences


between the GSM and the WCDMA
technologies.
Master the basic principles of the CDMA
technology.
Master the structure and radio interfaces of
the WCDMA system.
Master the principle of WCDMA radio
resource management.
Know technical features of the WCDMA FDD.
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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 2

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA


Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles
Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical
Channel
Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource
Management
Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 3

Evolution from GSM to WCDMA

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

WCDMA

Mainly designed for the speech service


Theoretical rate/actual rate: 64 kbit/s/9.6 kbit/s
Supports higher data rates through the introduction of
packet channels
Theoretical rate/actual rate: 171.2 kbit/s/20 kbit/s-40 kbit/s

With the introduction of new modulation mode, the theoretical


rate is three times higher than that of the GPRS
Theoretical rate/actual rate: about 473.6 kbit/s/100 kbit/s
Has the capability of high-speed data access and
provide various services (like VAS)
Theoretical rate/actual rate:
R99 and R4: 2 Mbit/s/384 kbit/s
R5 (HSDPA): 14.4 Mbit/s/1 Mbit/s higher

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Multiple Access Technology - Distinguish


Different Users
FDMA
Power

TDMA

CDMA

Power

Power

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 5

Comparison of Multiple Access Technology Between


the GSM and the WCDMA
GSM: FDMA + TDMA
Bandwidth of a single carrier: 200 kHz
Weak anti-interference capability. C/I: >
9 dB
With eight timeslots for a single carrier,
the system capacity is relatively
fixed. It can be estimated according to
the timeslot quantity.
Since different users occupy different
timeslots, they rarely interfere with each
other.

WCDMA: FDMA + CDMA


Bandwidth of a single carrier: 5 MHz
Strong anti-interference capability. C/I: >
-8 dB
The capacity is not fixed (soft
capacity), closely related to user
distribution, service type, and
interference.
Users interfere with each other. They
must be well controlled.

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Comparison of Radio Access Technology Between


the GSM and the WCDMA
GSM

WCDMA

Source coding

FR: RPE LTP coding, 13 kbit/s


EFR: enhancing the voice quality, 13 kbit/s
HR: increasing the system capacity, 6.5
kbit/s
AMR coding

AMR: eight types of speech rates


Compatible with the coding of current main-stream
mobile communication systems, helpful for
designing multimode terminals
Provided with the traffic-adaptive capability:
able to automatically adjust the speech rate so
that the system can balance between the
coverage, capacity, and speech quality

Channel coding

Convolutional code (1/2)

Speech service: convolutional code (1/2 and 1/3)


High-speed data service: Turbo code

Channelization

Packed in the pulse mode, data is sent out


in different timeslots.

Through spread spectrum and scrambling, data is


combined and outputted.

GMSK, 8PSK (EDGE)

QPSK, 16QAM (HSDPA)

Slow power control (2 Hz)

Fast power control (1500 Hz): used to restrain


fading

Transmit diversity

Transmit diversity (BTS3012)

Transmit diversity

Receiving
technology (antifading)

Space diversity and polarization diversity


The effect similar to that of the frequency
diversity can be realized through frequency
hopping.

Space diversity and polarization diversity


Frequency diversity: rake receiver

Modulation
technology
Power control
technology

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Comparison Between GSM and WCDMA


Network Interfaces
WCDMA Core Network

GSM NSS
Gb

Iu PS

Iu CS

Iu

RNS

BSS

RNS
Iur

RNC

BSC
Abis
BTS

Abis
BTS

Sector = Cell. One cell can include


multiple carriers.

Iub
Node B

RNC
Iub
Node B

Iub
Node B

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Node B

One sector can include multiple cells. Cell = Carrier

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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3GPP R99 architecture:

A detailed description can be found in the technical specification document 3GPP TS-TS 23.002, 2002 V3.5.0 (www.3GPP.org).

A simplified version of the CS


and PS Network scenarios for
3GPP R99 networks

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Comparison Between GSM and WCDMA Protocols


GSM

A/Iu-CS

Abis/Iub

WCDMA

L3: BSSAP

L3: RANAP

L2: MTP

L2: ATM

L1: E1

L1: E1 or STM 1

L3: BTSM

L3: NBAP

L2: LAPD

L2: ATM

L1: E1

L1: E1 or STM 1

L3: RR

RRC

L2 (data link layer): LAPDm

L2 (data link layer): RLC/MAC


L1 (radio frequency band) (MHz):

Radio
interface

L1 (radio frequency band) (MHz):


890-915/935-960
1710-1785/1805-1880

Major frequency band: 1920-1980 / 2110-2170


Supplementary frequency band: 1710-1785/18051880
(In China, only 30 MHz in the high frequency band
serves as a supplementary frequency band.)

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Major Differences Between WCDMA and GSM Air


Interfaces
GSM

WCDMA

Carrier spacing

200 kHz

5 MHz

Frequency reuse
coefficient

1-18

Method for differentiating


cells

Frequency + BSIC

Frequency + Scrambling code

Power control frequency

2 Hz or lower

1500 Hz

QoS control

Network planning (frequency


planning)

Algorithm of radio resource


management

Frequency diversity

Frequency hopping

The 3.84-MHz bandwidth enables


the network to use the rake receiver
for multipath diversity

Packet data

Timeslot-based scheduling in the


GPRS

Packet scheduling based on loads

Downlink transmit diversity

Not supported by the standards but


applicable

Supported for increasing the


capacity of downlinks

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 11

Allocation of 3G Spectrum
2050

2000

1950

1900

1850

2200

2150

2100

2250

2010 MHz

ITU

IMT 2000

2025 MHz

1885 MHz

1880 MHz

TDD
WLL

1918
1910

1895

1885
1890

1870

2170 MHz

IMT 2000
A

C PHS

1865

USA

1895

1885

Japan

FDD
WLL

CDMA
1960

FDD
WLL

1920

CDMA

2025 MHz

cellular(2)

1945

GSM
1800

MSS

1850

EF

1900

1950

E F

IMT 2000
A.

MSS

2000

Broadcast auxiliary

2050

Reserve

2100

2150

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

MSS

2165 MHz

1990 MHz

PCS
A

MSS

1980

cellular(2)

1865

China

UMTS

1980 MHz

1945

cellular(1)

MSS

2170 MHz

2110 MHz

MSS

1965

1805 MHz

UMTS

DECT

1970
1975

GSM 1800

1930

Europe

IMT 2000

MSS

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 12

MSS

2200

2250

Comparison of Frequency Computation


Between the WCDMA and the GSM
Computing WCDMA
frequencies
Main working bands:
1920 1980 MHz/2110 2170 MHz
Formula for computing WCDMA
frequencies:
Frequency number = Frequency x 5
Central frequency number of uplink: 9612
9888
Central frequency number of downlink:
10562 10838
Supplementary working bands:
1755 1785 MHz/1850 1880 MHz
The currently existing GSM frequency bands
of China Mobile and China Union can be
used for the WCDMA later.

Computing GSM
frequencies

GSM900:
BS reception: f1 (n) = 890 + n x 0.2
MHz
BS transmission: f2 (n) = f1 (n) + 45
MHz
GSM1800:
BS reception: f1 (n) = 1710 + (n 511) x 0.2 MHz
BS transmission: f2 (n) = f1 (n) + 95
MHz

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 13

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA


Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles
Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical
Channel
Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource
Management
Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 14

Overview of CDMA Principles

Radio Propagation Environment


Multiple Access Technology and Duplex

Technology
CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Multipath Environment

Tx signals

Rx signals
Intensity
Time
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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Frequency-Selective Fading
Intensity
Intensity

Intensity
Intensity
Large
Large fading
fading

Narrowband
system (GSM)
Tx
Tx signals
signals

Intensity
Intensity

Broadband
system
(CDMA)

Frequency
Frequency

Rx
Rx fading
fading signals
signals

Intensity
Intensity

Large
Large
fading
fading

Tx
Tx signals
signals

Frequency
Frequency

Rx
Rx fading
fading signals
signals

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Frequency
Frequency

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 17

Frequency
Frequency

Classification of Typical Radio Mobile Channels


Static channels (static)
Pedestrian channels in typical urban areas (TU3)
Vehicle-mounted channels in typical urban areas (TU30)
Vehicle-mounted channels in rural areas (RA50)
Vehicle-mounted channels on expressways (HT120)

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 18

Overview of CDMA Principles

Radio Propagation Environment


Multiple Access Technology and Duplex

Technology
CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 19

Duplex Technology Distinguish Users UL and


DL Signal
Frequency division duplex (FDD): Distinguish uplink and downlink according to
frequencies.
Adopted by the WCDMA and CDMA2000
Advantage: It can be easily implemented.
Disadvantage: The spectrum utilization is low when the uplink and downlink services (mainly the data
services) are asymmetrical.
Time division duplex (TDD): Distinguish uplink and downlink according to timeslots.

Adopted by the TD-SCDMA

Advantage: The uplink and downlink can be allocated with different numbers of timeslots when the
uplink and downlink services are asymmetrical. Therefore, the spectrum utilization is high.

Disadvantage:

It cannot be easily implemented and needs precise synchronization. In the CDMA system,
GPS synchronization is needed.

When it is used with the CDMA technology, it is difficult to control interference between the
uplink and the downlink.

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 20

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)


Multiple users share a same frequency at the same time. This greatly
improves spectrum utilization. Users are identified through pseudo
numbers.
The CDMA system supports soft capacity.
For all the users, the system performance deteriorates when the number of users increases.
Contrarily, the system performance improves when the number of users decreases.

That is, the CDMA system can obtain larger capacity by deteriorating parts of the system
performance.

Disadvantages of the CDMA system:


It occupies a wide bandwidth.
It is a self-interference system. This causes mutual interference between users.
It is difficult to implement such technologies as power control and load control.

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 21

Overview of CDMA Principles

Radio Propagation Environment


Multiple Access Technology and Duplex

Technology
CDMA Principles and Rake Receiver

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 22

Common Terms
Bit, symbol and chip
Bit (bit/s): the data that is obtained upon source coding and contains
information.
Symbol (sps): the data obtained upon channel coding and interleaving.
Chip (cps): the data obtained upon final spreading.
The spreading rate of WCDMA is: 3.84 Mcps

Processing gain
It refers to the ratio of the final spreading rate to the bit rate (cps/bit/s).
In the WCDMA system, the processing gain depends on the specific
service.

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Spreading Factor and Service Rate


Symbol rate = (service rate + check code) channel code repetition or
punching rate

For WCDMA, if the service rate is 384 Kbit/s and the channel code is
1/3 Turbo, the symbol rate is 960 Kbit/s.

For CDMA2000-1x, if the service rate is 9.6 Kbit/s and the channel code
is 1/3 convolutional code, the symbol rate is 19.2 Kbit/s.
Chip rate = symbol rate spreading factor

For WCDMA, if the chip rate is 3.84 MHz and the spreading factor is 4,
the symbol rate is 960 Kbit/s.

For CDMA2000-1x, if the chip rate is 1.2288 MHz and the spreading
factor is 64, the symbol rate is 19.2 Kbit/s.

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Page 24

Basic Block Diagram of CDMA System

Source
coding

Channel
Interleaving
coding
and
interleaving

Spreading

Scrambling

Modulation

RF
emission

Radio channel

Source
decoding

Dedeinterleaving
interleaving
Channel
decoding

De-spreading

Descrambling

Demodulation

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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RF
reception

Source Coding in WCDMA


The WCDMA system adopts the adaptive multi-rate (AMR) speech coding.

A total of eight coding modes are available. The coding rate ranges from 12.2 Kbit/s to
4.75 Kbit/s.
Multiple voice rates are compatible with the coding modes used by current mainstream
mobile communication systems. This facilitates the design of multi-mode terminals.
The system automatically adjusts the voice rate according to the distance between the
user and the NodeB, thus reducing the number of handovers and call drop.
The system automatically decreases the voice rate of some users according to the cell
load, thus saving power and containing more users.

Source
coding

Channel

Interleaving
coding and

Spreading

Scrambling

Modulation

interleaving

RF
emission

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Channel Coding in WCDMA

Channel coding can enhance symbol correlation to recover signals in the


case of interference.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Code type

Voice service: convolutional code (1/2 and 1/3).


Data service: Turbo code (1/3).

Source
coding

Channel coding
Interleaving
and
interleaving

Spreading

Scrambling

Modulation

RF
emission

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Interleaving
Interleaving is used to disarrange symbol correlation and reduce the impact caused by fast
fading and interference of the channel.
11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 ...
...

...
... 452
452 453
453 454
454

Ist interleaving
A4

A5

A6

A7

B0
1
9
17
25
.
.
449

....

B1

B2

2
10
18
26
.
.
450

B3

3
11
19
27
.
.
451

B4

4
12
20
28
.
.
452

B5
5
13
21
29
.
.
453

B6
6
14
22
30
.
.
454

B7

C0

7
15
23
31
.
.
455

8
16
24
32
.
.
456

C1

C2

....

2nd interleaving

{A4,B0}
{A4,B0} {A5,B1}
{A5,B1} {A6,B2}
{A6,B2} {A7,B3}
{A7,B3} {B4,C0}
{B4,C0} {B5,C1}
{B5,C1} {B6,C2}
{B6,C2}

{B7,C3}
{B7,C3}

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

C3

Page 28

Spreading Principle

Users who need to send information: UE1, UE2 and UE3


UE1 uses c1 for spreading: UE1 x c1
UE2 uses c2 for spreading: UE2 x c2
UE3 uses c3 for spreading: UE3 x c3
c1, c2 and c3 are orthogonal to each other
Information sent: UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3

Source
coding

Channel

Interleaving
coding and

Spreading

Scrambling

Modulation

interleaving

RF
emission

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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De-spreading Principle
UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading.

(UE1 x c1 + UE2 x c2 + UE3 x c3) x c1

= UE1 x (c1 x c1) + UE2 x (c2 x c1) + UE3 x (c3 x c1)


= UE1 x 1 + UE2 x 0 + UE3 x 0
= UE1
In the same way, UE2 uses c2 for de-spreading and UE3 uses

c3 for de-spreading to get their own signals.

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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Spreading and De-spreading (DS-CDMA)


Symbol

Data

-1
Chip

Spreading
1

Spreading code

-1
1

Spreading signal
= Data x Code word

-1

Despreading

Spreading code

-1
Data
= Spreading signal x
Code word

1
-1

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Spreading Principle
____________
1
_____________
1

UE1:
UE2:
c1:
c2:
1
UE1c1:
1
UE2c2:
1
UE1c1 UE2c2:

1
1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1

2 0

2 0

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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De-spreading Principle
UE1c1 UE2c2

UE1 de-spreading with c1:

+1 -1 +1

-1

+1

+2 0

-2 0

De-spreading result:

-2 0
+2

+4

Integral:
Decision:

-2

+2 0 +2

-1 +1 -1
-2

-4

+4/4 = +1

-4/4 = -1

UE2 de-spreading with c2: +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1


De-spreading result:
Integral:
Decision :

-2
-4

-4/4 = -1

-2

0 +2

0 +2

+4
+4/4 = +1

Question: How to generate those orthogonal codes like c1 and


c2?
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If error codes occur in the propagation process


UE1 c1 + UE2 c2:

2 0

0 2 0

UE1 c1 + UE2 c2 error code: 2

2 0

0 2 0

UE1 uses c1 for de-spreading: c1 1 1 1 1


De-spreading result:

Integral detection:

2 0
6

Normalization:

+6/4=1.5

1 1 1 1

0 2 0

4
- 4/4= -1

UE1 uses c2 for de-spreading: c2 1 1 1 1


De-spreading result:
Integral detection:
Normalization:

2 0
2

2/4= 0.5

1 1 1 1

0 2 0

4
4/4=1

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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OVSF and Walsh


Cch,4,0 =(1,1,1,1)
Cch,2,0 = (1,1)
Cch,4,1 = (1,1,-1,-1)
Cch,1,0 = (1)
Cch,4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
Cch,2,1 = (1,-1)
Cch,4,3 = (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 1

SF = 2

SF = 4

OVSF codes (Walsh) are completely orthogonal and their mutual correlation is zero.

Over downlink channels, OVSF codes are used to differentiate users.


Over uplink channels, OVSF codes are used to differentiate the services of a user.
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Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Scrambling in the WCDMA System


Downlink: Different cells (sector carrier frequencies) have different downlink

scrambling codes.

Each cell is configured with a unique downlink scrambling code. The UE identifies a
cell based on the scrambling code.

OVSF codes are used to differentiate different users in a cell.

Uplink: Scrambles are used to differentiate different users.

In a cell, each user is configured with a unique uplink scrambling code.

OVSF codes are used to differentiate the services of a user.

Source
coding

Channel

Interleaving
coding and

Spreading

Scrambling

Modulation

interleaving

RF
emission

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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WCDMA Scrambling Code: Gold Sequence


Over downlink channels, OVSF codes are used to differentiate users.

There are 224 uplink long scrambling codes and 224 uplink short
scrambling codes.
Over downlink channels, scrambling codes are used to differentiate cells

(sectors/carriers).
There are (218 - 1 = ) 262143 scrambling codes on the downlink.
Currently, however, only the primary scrambling codes in the
scrambling codes from No.0 to No.8191 are used.
A scrambling code is repeated every 10 ms. It is 38400 chips long.

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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Primary and Secondary Scrambling Codes


Primary scrambling
code 0
Secondary scrambling
code 1

Downlink
scrambling code

Set 0
Set 1

Set 511

Secondary scrambling
code 15

Primary scrambling
code 51116
Secondary scrambling
code 51116 1

8192 scrambling
codes

512 sets

Secondary scrambling
code 51116 15

Currently, the system mainly uses primary


scrambling codes.
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Each set contains 1


primary scrambling
code and 15
secondary
scrambling codes.

Primary Scrambling Codes and Scrambling Code Groups


Primary scrambling
code 0
Primary scrambling
code 1

Downlink
scrambling code
512 scrambling
codes

Group 0
Group 1

Group 63

64 groups

Primary scrambling
code 7

Primary scrambling
code 504
Primary scrambling
code 505

Primary scrambling
code 511

Scrambling code planning in the network planning is to


plan and allocate the 512 primary scrambling codes.
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3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

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Each group
contains eight
scrambling codes,
one of which is the
primary scrambling
code.

Spreading/De-spreading Principle
Explanations for Frequency Domain
Eb/No = Ec/Io Gain

De-spreaded user

Power spectrum

a2Tbit = Ebit
Eb/No
required
Allowed maximum interference level

Gain

Other user
interference signals

Power sharable for all


users

Echip

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Rake Receiver
Receiving path 1

Receiving path 2

Signal synthesizer

Front-end receiver
Receiving path 3
Compute delay and
phase deflection

Delay estimator

s(t)

s(t)

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Consolidate
signals

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA


Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles
Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical
Channel
Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource
Management
Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

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Mapping of Channel Function Between the GSM and


WCDMA
GSM
FCCH: frequency correction channel
Cell
SCH: synchronization channel
search
BCCH: broadcast control channel
Paging PCH: paging channel

WCDMA
(P )CPICH: (Primary) common pilot channel
SCH: synchronization channel, but has different
functions from that in the GSM system
P-CCPCH: primary common control physical channel
PICH: page indicator channel, helpful for power saving
on a terminal
S-CCPCH: secondary common control physical channel

Access

Uplink: RACH: random access channel


SDCCH: stand-alone dedicated
control channel

Uplink: PRACH: physical random access channel

Downlink: AGCH: access grant channel


SDCCH: stand-alone dedicated
control channel

Downlink: AICH: acquisition indication channel


S-CCPCH: secondary common control
physical channel

Speech
TCH: traffic channel
service
Data
PDCH: packet data channel
service

DPDCH: dedicated physical data control channel


DPDCH: dedicated physical data control channel
HS-PDSCH: high-speed physical downlink shared
channel
HS-SCCH: high-speed shared control channel
HS-DPCCH: high-speed dedicated control channel

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Classification of WCDMA Channels


In terms of protocol layer, the WCDMA radio interface has three
channels:

Logical channel: Carrying user services directly


According to the types of the carried services, it is divided into two types: control
channel and service channel.

Transport channel : Provided service for MAC layer by the physical


layer
According to whether the information transported is dedicated information for a user
or common information for all users, it is divided into dedicated channel and
common channel.

Physical channel: It is the final form of all kinds of information when


they are transmitted on radio interfaces.

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Logical Channels

Broadcast Control Channel BCCH


Paging control channel

(PCCH)

Dedicate control channel

(DCCH)

Common control channel

(CCCH)

Dedicated traffic channel

(DTCH)

Common traffic channel

(CTCH)

CCH

TCH

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Transport Channels
Dedicated Channel

(DCH)

-DCH can be uplink or downlink channel

Broadcast channel

(BCH)

Forward access channel


Paging channel

Dedicated transport
channel

(FACH)
(PCH)

Random access channel

Common transport
channel

(RACH)

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Physical Channels
Physical channels are divided into uplink and down physical channels.
A physical channel can be determined by a carrier, codes (channel code and
scrambling code), and a phase. Most channels consist of radio frames and
timeslots. Each radio frame has 10 ms and consists of 15 timeslots.

Data

Data

T timeslot = 2560 chips


The timeslot concept in
the WCDMA system
differs greatly from that
in the GSM system.
Timeslot 0

Timeslot 1

Timeslot i

Timeslot 14

T = 10 ms, 38400 chips


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Uplink Physical Channel


Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel
Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel
(Uplink DPDCH)
Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel
(uplink DPCCH)
Uplink Physical Channel

Uplink Common Physical Channel


Physical Random Access Channel
(PRACH)

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Downlink Physical Channel

Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (downlink


DPCH)

Downlink Common Physical Channel


Common Control Physical Channel
(CCPCH)

Downlink Physical
Channel

Synchronization Channel (SCH)


Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)

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Functions of Physical Channels

Cell broadcast channel (CBCH)


P-CPICH: primary common pilot channel
S-CPICH: secondary common pilot channel
P-CCPCH: primary common control physical channel
SCH: synchronization channel
Paging channel (PCH)
S-CCPCH: secondary common control physical channel
PICH: paging indicator channel
Random access channel (RACH)

NodeB (BS)

User equipment (UE)

PRACH: physical random access channel


AICH: acquisition indication channel
Dedicated access channel
DPDCH: dedicated physical data channel
DPCCH: dedicated physical control channel
High-speed downlink shared channel
HS-SCCH: high-speed shared control channel
HS-PDSCH: high-speed physical downlink shared channel
HS-DPCCH: high-speed dedicated control channel

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Functions of Common Physical Channels


SCH: used for cell search

Divided into P-SCH and S-SCH


CPICH: used to identify scrambling codes
Divided into P-CPICH and S-CPICH
P-CPICH: Their channel codes are fixed to be Cch,256,0. They use primary
scrambling codes.
P-CPICH is the power benchmark of other physical downlink channels. SCPICH: used for smart antennas

P-CCPCH: used to carry system messages


channel codes are fixed to be Cch,256,1.
Each cell must be configured with all these channels, but only one
for each type.
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Functions of Common Physical Channels

S-CCPCH: used to carry downlink signaling messages


PICH: used to carry paging indicators. A PICH must be configured with
an S-CCPCH as a pair.
PRACH: used to carry uplink signaling messages
The interval for timeslot access is 5120 chips, indicating that the
maximum coverage radius of a WCDMA BS is 200 km.
AICH: used to carry acquisition indications of PRACH prefix. An AICH
must be configured with a PRACH as a pair.
Each cell must be configured with all these channels, at least one
for each type.

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Functions of Dedicated Physical Channels


DPDCH: used to carry users' service data. The maximum data rate of a
single code channel is 384 kbit/s.
DPCCH: used to carry control information, and provide control data such
as demodulation and power control for DPDCHs
On the uplink, DPDCHs and DPCCHs transmit signals over different code
channels. On the downlink, DPDCHs and DPCCHs transmit signals in
the mode of time multiplexing.
When the required data rate is higher than the maximum data rate of a
single code channel, the system can use multiple code channels for
transmission.

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Mapping Between Logical Channels and


Transport Channels
Logical Channels

Transport Channels

CCCH (uplink)

RACH

DCCH/DTCH (uplink)

RACH
DCH

BCCH (downlink)

BCH

PCCH (downlink)

PCH

CCCH/CTCH (downlink)

FACH

DCCH/DTCH (downlink)

DCH
FACH

DTCH (downlink)

HS-DSCH

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Mapping Between Transport Channels and Physical


Channels
Transport Channels
DCH

Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)

RACH

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

BCH

Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)

FACH

Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)

PCH
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)
Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)

HS-DSCH

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH)


HS-DSCH-related Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for Hs-DSCH
HS-DPCCH

For internal use


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Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA


Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles
Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical
Channel
Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource
Management
Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

For internal use


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Overview of Radio Resource Management


RRM Radio Resource Management
Since the WCDMA system is a self-interference system, the use of power
is incompatible in WCDMA system.
On one hand, increasing the Tx power for a user can improve the quality of service
(QoS) of this user.

On the other hand, as WCDMA is self interference system, power


enhancement will interfere other user and make the reception quality
worse. .
Power is a final radio resource. The only way to make radio resources
utility is to strictly control the use of power.
The RRM is to manage the power by combining QoS objectives.

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Purposes of RRM

The RRM is intended to:


Ensure the QoS requested by the CN
Enhance the system coverage
Improve the system capacity

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Tasks of RRM
Channel configuration: To ensure the QoS requested by the CN, the RRM
maps the QoS into some features of the access stratum and thus uses
the resources at the access stratum to serve the local connection.
Power control: When the QoS requested by the CN is ensured, the RRM
minimizes the Tx power of a UE to reduce the interference of this UE to
the entire system, and to improve the system capacity and coverage.
Mobility management: The RRM maintains the QoS when a UE moves.
Load control: After a certain number of UEs access to the system, the RRM
must ensure that the load of the entire system retains at a stable level to
ensure the QoS of each connection in the system.

QoS assurance and power saving run through the entire RRM.
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Classification of WCDMA Handover


Soft handover:
Soft handover
Softer handover
Hard handover:
Intra-frequency hard handover
Inter-frequency hard handover
Inter-system handover

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Soft Handover

Source BS

Data
received/
sent by
the UE

Target BS

Time

The UE moves
Data
received/
sent by
the UE
Source BS

No GAP of communication

Target BS

Time

The UE moves
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Hard Handover
Data
received/s
ent by the
UE
Source BS

Target BS

Time

The UE moves
Data
received/s
ent by the
UE
Source BS

GAP of communication

Target BS

Time

The UE moves
For internal use
62

Nokia Siemens Networks 2011

Detail discussion in another


presentation
3G (WCDMA) Basic and 2G-3G Co-relation / Viswajit Kumar Dutta_ID: 61432989

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction: GSM and WCDMA


Chapter 2 Overview of CDMA Principles
Chapter 3 WCDMA Radio Interface Physical
Channel
Chapter 4 Overview of Radio Resource
Management
Chapter 5 Technical Features of WCDMA FDD

For internal use


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Technical Specifications of WCDMA FDD


BS synchronous mode: supports asynchronous and synchronous BS
operation
Signal bandwidth: 5 MHz; chip rate: 3.84 Mcps
Transmit diversity mode: TSTD, STTD, and FBTD
Channel coding: Convolutional code and Turbo code
Modulation mode: QPSK for both the uplink and the downlink
Power control: uplink and downlink closed and open loop power control
Demodulation mode: coherence demodulation assisted by pilots
Speech coding: AMR

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Speech Evolution of the WCDMA System


Adopts AMR speech coding and supports the voice quality of
4.75 kbit/s to 12.2 kbit/s
Adopts soft handover and transmit diversity to improve the
capacity
Provides high-fidelity voice modes
Supports fast power control

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Data Evolution of the WCDMA System


Supports up to 14.4 Mbit/s data services (HSDPA)
Supports packet switching
Provides QoS control
Better supports Internet packet services (HSDPA) through the CPCH
and DSCH.
Provides mobile IP services (dynamic assignment of IP addresses)
Determines dynamic data rates provided by the TFCI domain.
Provides high quality support for symmetric uplink and downlink data
services, including the voice, videophone, and video conference.

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Summary

This course introduces the WCDMA system briefly.


The course contents include the basic key technologies of
mobile communication systems, basic principles of the
CDMA system, and the FDD mode of the WCDMA system.
After studying this course, you can have a general
understanding of the 3G system, thus make a good
foundation for further study.

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