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Kontra sa

Benevolent Assimilation

Aguinaldos manifesto Protesting the


United States Claim of Sovereignty

Mahigpit na tumutol si Hen Emilio


Aguinaldo sa pagpapasailalim sa
Pilipinas sa kapangyarihan ng
estados Unidos sapagkat naniniwala
siya sa kakayahan ng mga Pilipinong
lider na mapamahalaan nang maayos
ang Pilipinas. Ipinahayag niya ang
kaniyang pagtutol sa pamamagitan
ng isang manipesto

January 5, 1899
General Otis styles himself Military Governor of these Islands, and I
protest one and a thousand times and with all the energy of my soul
against such authority. I proclaim solemnly that I have not recognized
either Singapore or in Hong Kong or in the Philippines, by word or in
writing, the sovereignty of America over this beloved soil. On the
contrary, I say that I returned to these Islands on an American warship
on the 19th of May last for the express purpose of making war on the
Spaniards to regain our liberty and independence. I stated this in my
proclamation of the 24th of May last, and I publish it in my Manifesto
addressed to the Philippine people on the 12th of June. Lastly, all this
was confirmed by the American General Merritt himself, predecessor of
General Otis, in his Manifesto to the Philippine people some days before
he demanded the surrender of Manila from the Spanish General
Jaudenes. In that Manifesto it is distinctly stated that the naval and field
forces of the United States had come to give us our liberty, by
subverting the bad Spanish Government, And I hereby protest against
this unexpected act of the United States claiming sovereignty over these
Islands. My relations with the United States did not bring me over here
from Hong Kong to make war on the Spaniards for their benefit, but for
the purpose of our own liberty and independence. . .

GAWAIN 1: Sagutin:
1. Sino ang may-akda ng manipesto?

A. PANGULONG WILLIAM
MC KINLEY

C. HENERAL ELWELL OTIS

B. PANGULONG EMILIO
AGUINALDO

D. GOV. HEN. FERMIN


JAUDENES

GAWAIN 1: Sagutin:
1. Sino ang may-akda ng manifesto?

A. PANGULONG WILLIAM
MC KINLEY

C. HENERAL ELWELL OTIS

B. PANGULONG EMILIO
AGUINALDO

D. GOV. HEN. FERMIN


JAUDENES

GAWAIN 1: Sagutin:
2. KAILAN ISINULAT ANG
MANIPESTO?

A. DISYEMBRE 21,1898

C. HUNYO 12, 1898

B. MAYO 24, 1898

D. ENERO 5, 1899

GAWAIN 1: Sagutin:
2. KAILAN ISINULAT ANG
MANIPESTO?

A. DISYEMBRE 21,1898

C. HUNYO 12, 1898

B. MAYO 24, 1898

D. ENERO 5, 1899

GAWAIN 1; Sagutin:
3. ANO ANG NAIS ILAHAD NG
MAY-AKDA SA KANIYANG
MANIPESTO?

A. SANG-AYON SIYA SA PAGKAKAHIRANG KAY HEN. OTIS


BILANG GOB.MIL. NG
PILIPINAS

B. TINUTULAN NIYA NA MAPASAILALIM ANG PILIPINAS SA


KAPANGYARIHAN NG
ESTAOS UNIDOS

C. HINDI SIYA SANG-AYON NA


PALITAN SIYA NI HEN. OTIS
BILANG PANGULO NG
PILIPINAS

D. TINANGGAP NIYA NA MAPASAILALIM ANG BANSA SA


PAMAMAHALA NG
ESTADOS UNIDOS

GAWAIN1; Sagutin:
3. ANO ANG NAIS ILAHAD NG
MAY-AKDA SA KANIYANG
MANIPESTO?

A. SANG-AYON SIYA SA PAGKAKAHIRANG KAY HEN. OTIS


BILANG GOB.MIL. NG
PILIPINAS

B. TINUTULAN NIYA NA MAPASAILALIM ANG PILIPINAS SA


KAPANGYARIHAN NG
ESTADOS UNIDOS

C. HINDI SIYA SANG-AYON NA


PALITAN SIYA NI HEN. OTIS
BILANG PANGULO NG
PILIPINAS

D. TINANGGAP NIYA NA MAPASAILALIM ANG BANSA SA


PAMAMAHALA NG
ESTADOS UNIDOS

GAWAIN 1; Sagutin:

4. ALIN SA MGA SUMUSUNOD ANG


DALAWANG PATUNAY NA KAYA SIYA
BUMALIK SA PILIPINAS UPANG MAKIDIGMA SA ESPANYOL AT MAKAMIT
ANG KALAYAAN NG BANSA?

A. ANG KANIYANG PROKLAMASYON


NOONG MAYO 24, 1898

B. ANG PAGKALUPIG
NG HUKBONG ESPANYOL
SA MGA AMERIKANO
NOONG MAYO 1, 1898

C. ANG PAGLATHALA NG MANIPESTO


NOONG HUNYO 12,1898

D. ANG PAGTALAGA KAY HEN.


OTIS BILANG GOBERNADOR
MILITAR

GAWAIN 1: Sagutin:

4. ALIN SA MGA SUMUSUNOD ANG


DALAWANG PATUNAY NA KAYA SIYA
BUMALIK SA PILIPINAS UPANG MAKIDIGMA SA ESPANYOL AT MAKAMIT
ANG KALAYAAN NG BANSA?

A. ANG KANIYANG PROKLAMASYON


NOONG MAYO 24, 1898

B. ANG PAGKALUPIG
NG HUKBONG ESPANYOL
SA MGA AMERIKANO
NOONG MAYO 1, 1898

C. ANG PAGLATHALA NG MANIPESTO


NOONG HUNYO 12,1898

D. ANG PAGTALAGA KAY HEN.


OTIS BILANG GOBERNADOR
MILITAR

GAWAIN 1: Sagutin:

5. ANO ANG HINDI INAASAHAN NI


PANGULONG AGUINALDO NA
GAGAWING HAKBANG NG MGA
AMERIKANO SA PILIPINAS NOONG
PANAHONG IYON?

A. IPAGKALOOB NG ESTADOS UNIDOS


ANG KALAYAAN NG PILIPINAS

C. IPOPROKLAMA ANG PAGSASAILALIM NG PILIPINAS SA


KAPANGYARIHAN
NG ESTADOS UNIDOS

B. IPAHAYAG ANG KALAYAAN NG


PILIPINAS SA KAWIT CAVITE

D. PATATALSIKIN NG MGA
AMERIKANO ANG MGA
ESPANYOL SA PILIPINAS

Gawain 1:Sagutin:

5. ANO ANG HINDI INAASAHAN NI


PANGULONG AGUINALDO NA
GAGAWING HAKBANG NG MGA
AMERIKANO SA PILIPINAS NOONG
PANAHONG IYON?

A. IPAGKALOOB NG ESTADOS UNIDOS


ANG KALAYAAN NG PILIPINAS

C. IPOPROKLAMA ANG PAGSASAILALIM NG PILIPINAS SA


KAPANGYARIHAN
NG ESTADOS UNIDOS

B. IPAHAYAG ANG KALAYAAN NG


PILIPINAS SA KAWIT CAVITE

D. PATATALSIKIN NG MGA
AMERIKANO ANG MGA
ESPANYOL SA PILIPINAS

GAWAIN 2:
-Happy face-kung damdamin ni Aguinaldo
-sad face kung hindi,pagkaraan ipaliwanag ang
General Otis styles
himself Military Governor of these Islands,
sagot
and I protest one and a thousand times and with all the energy
of my soul against such authority.
Paliwanag
And I hereby protest against this unexpected act of the United
States claiming sovereignty over these Islands.
Paliwanag
My relations with the United States did not bring me over here
from Hong Kong to make war on the Spaniards for their benefit,
but for the purpose of our own liberty and independence. . .
Paliwanag

GAWAIN 3: Ipalagay mo na ikaw si Aguinaldo, Ano ang


mangyayari sa iyo at sa bansa batay sa sumusunod na
sitwasyon?

Kung tinanggap ko ang


Pamamahala ng mga
Amerikano?

Kung hindi ko
tinanggap ang
pamamahala ng mga
Amerikano

ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE

-Sa pagtatapos ng buwan ng Pebrero1899,


napakalaking bilang ng mga Pilipino ang
nagbuwis ng buhay sa panahon ng pananakop ng
Estados Unidos sa Pilipinas.
-Sa gitna ng mga trahedyang naganap sa buhay
nating mga Pilipino , may mga tanyag na tao na
bumuo ng American Anti-Imperialist League
katulad nina Mark Twain, William James at
Andrew Carnegie na nagpahayag ng pagtutol sa
ginawang pananakop ng Estados Unidos sa
Pilipinas .

Address to the People of the United States Issued by the AntiImperialist League November 19, 1898 ----A true republic of free men must rest upon the principles that all
its citizens are equal under the law, that a government derives its
just powers from the consent of the governed, and that there
must be no taxation without representation. These principles
abandoned, a republic exists but in name, and its people lose their
rights as free men.
Planting itself upon these lasting truths, the people of the United
States solemnly declared in their Constitution that the citizens of
each State should have the privileges and immunities of citizens of
the several States; that all persons born or naturalized in the
United States and subject to its jurisdiction should be citizens of
the United States and of the several States; and that the rights of
none should be abridged on account of race, color, or previous
conditions of servitude. The Constitution gives to the United
States, no more than to the individual, the right to hold slaves or
vassals, and recognizes no distinction between classes of
citizens,--one with full rights as free men, and another as subjects
governed by military force.

We are in full sympathy with the heroic struggles for liberty of the people
in the Spanish Islands, and therefore we protest against depriving them of
their rights by an exchange of masters. Only by recognizing their rights as
free men are all their interests protected. Expansion by natural growth in
thinly-settled contiguous territory, acquired by purchase for the expressed
purpose of ultimate statehood, cannot be confounded with, or made
analogous to, foreign territory conquered by war and wrested by force
from a weak enemy. A beaten foe has no right to transfer a people whose
consent has not been asked, and a free republic has no right to hold in
subjection a people so transferred.
No American, until today, has disputed these propositions; it remains for the new
Imperialism to set up the law of might and to place commercial gain and a false
philanthropy above the sound principles upon which the Republic was based. In
defence of its position it has already urged the fallacy of the Declaration of
Independence and proclaimed a wisdom superior to that of the framers of the
Constitution. As solemnly as a people could, we announced the war to be solely for
humanity and freedom, without a thought, desire, or purpose of gain to ourselves;
all that we sought has been accomplished in Cuba's liberation. Shall we now prove
false to our declaration and seize by force islands thousands of miles away whose
peoples have not desired our presence and whose will we have not asked?

Whatever islands we take must be annexed or held in vassalage to


the Republic. Either course is dangerous to the physical and moral
safety of the nation, inconsistent with our professions, and must
result in foreign complications which will imperil and delay the
settlement of pressing financial, labor, and administrative
questions at home.
Impressed with the importance of these views, and recalling the
declaration of the President that the war with Spain could never
degenerate into a war of conquest, we have deferred action until it
has become apparent that pressure was being brought to bear
upon the President, to convince him that public opinion demands
the inclusion of alien territory and great masses of alien people
into the territory of the United States.
We stand by the President's declaration, and in order to give
evidence of the opposition to a foreign expansion policy by a vast
body of our people, have organized an Anti-Imperialist League,
upon the following general plan:
1. The centre of the movement to be at Washington, with a local
secretary there for executive work.

2. Committees of correspondence to conduct the work in such manner


as to bring together the united efforts of men of repute throughout the
country, without regard to party, to deal with the subject in all its
aspects, as follows: The moral iniquity of converting a war for humanity
into a war for conquest; the physical degeneration, the corruption of the
blood, and all the evils of militarism which will ensue if troops are to be
kept in the Philippines and elsewhere longer than absolutely necessary
to enable government to be established which will protect life and
property; the political evils and the necessity of preserving the Union
upon the principles of its framers; the clear necessity of large increase of
taxes for the support of armies and navies, with a great probability that
voluntary enlistment will have to be supplemented by drafts.
Committees of correspondence have begun work under the name of the
Anti-Imperialist League, the first measure being to organize the moral
forces of the country, for purpose of presenting the following protest to
the President and to the Congress of the United States:-- To the
President and to the Congress of the United States: The undersigned,
citizens of __________, in the State of _________, protest against any
extension of the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippine
Islands, in any event, or other foreign territory, without

the free consent of the people thereof, believing such


action would be dangerous to the Republic, wasteful of
its resources, in violation of constitutional principles,
and fraught with moral and physical evils to our people.
Name and residence. Occupation.
Every citizen believing in the above is urged to copy it,
obtain immediately as many signatures as possible and
send forward the signed protest to the secretary of the
Anti-Imperialist League, Washington, D.C., where the
names will be enrolled, without liability to assessment,
as members of the League, and the protest presented
to the President and Congress.
Submitted on behalf of the Executive Committee of the
Anti-Imperialist League, of which Hon. G. S. Boutwell is
President. Erving Winslow, Secretary. Boston,
November 19, 1898.

Sagutin:

1. Batay sa sipi, Ano ang kahulugan


ng Imperyalismo?
2. Sa panahong iyon, ano ang isang
sitwasyon na nagpapakita ng
kaisipang imperyalismo ng mga
AMERIKANO?
3. Tungkol saan ang Anti-Imperialist
League?
4. Sang-ayon ba ang mga kasapi ng
Anti-Imperialist League sa balak na
pananakop ng Estados Unidos sa
Pilipinas? Bakit mo nasabi?

5. Aling pahayag sa sipi ang


nagpapatunay sa pagtanggi ng AntiImperialist League na pangasiwaan ng
Amerikano ang Pilipinas?
6. Kung isa ka sa mga Amerikanong
nabuhay sa panahong iyon, nais mo bang
maging kasapi ng Anti-Imperialist
League? Bakit?
7. Kung isa ka sa mga Pilipinong nabuhay
sa panahong iyon, ano ang nais mong
sabihin sa mga kasapi ng Anti-Imperialist
League?

Pahayag ni Mark Twain


October 15,1900
(The New York Herald)

I wanted the American eagle to go screaming into the Pacific ... Why not
spread its wings over the Philippines, I asked myself? ... I said to
myself, Here are a people who have suffered for three centuries. We can
make them as free as ourselves, give them a government and country of
their own, put a miniature of the American Constitution afloat in the
Pacific, start a brand new republic to take its place among the free
nations of the world. It seemed to me a great task to which we had
addressed ourselves. But I have thought some more, since then, and I
have read carefully the treaty of Paris [which ended the
Spanish-American War], and I have seen that we do not intend to free,
but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to
conquer, not to redeem. It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and
duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own
domestic questions in their own way. And so I am an anti-imperialist. I
am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land

Sagutin:
1.
Saan inihalintulad ang Estados
Unidos?
2. Ano ang ginawa ng Estados
Unidos?
3. Ano ang gusto niyang gawin ng
Estados Unidos sa Pilipinas?
4. bakit gusto niyang gawing malaya
Ang Pilipinas?
5. Bakit niya sinabing Great Task
ang gusto niyang mangyari?