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The Elements

of Teaching and
Learning

The principal elements that make teaching and learning


possible and attainable are the teachers, the learners,
and a conducive learning environment. The teacher
serves as the prime mover of the educational wheel. The
learners are the key participants in the learning process.
The favourable environment provides essential features
and ingredients that could make headway in guiding the
processes and methodologies needed for a smooth
linkage among the three.

Teaching andlearning involves the


process of transferring knowledge
from the one who is giving to the one
who is receiving.
Teaching process cannot be
performed if there is one element
that is missing among the three of
the teaching and learning elements.

The Learner

The learners are considered as the key


participant in the teaching and learning
process.
They are considered as the primary subject or
the main reason why the process is
implemented.
The knowledge that acquired by the learners
will decide if the teaching and learning
objectives are achieved.
Learners vary from one another in the
aspects of learning. There are those learners

The Nature of the Learner


The learner is an embodied spirit, a union
of a sentient body and a rational soul.
His body experiences sensations, and
feels pleasure and pain. His soul is the
principle of spiritual acts, the source of
intellectual abstraction, self reflection,
and free rational volition.

The Fundamental Equipment of the


Learner
COGNITIVE FACULTIES

APPETITIVE FACULTIES

Feelings
Emotions
Rational Will

Five (5) senses


Instinct
Imagination
Memory
Intellect

All learners are equipped with cognitive as


well as appetitive faculties however, they
differ in the degree to which they are utilized
and expressed on the account of the learners
abilities, aptitudes, interests, values and
attitudes and home background.
1. Ability
The students native ability dictates the
prospects of success in any purposeful
activity. It determines their capacity to
understand and assimilate information for

2. Aptitude
It refers to the students innate talent or gift.
It indicates a natural capacity to learn certain
skills.
3. Interests
Learners vary in activities that are undertaken
due to a strong appeal or attraction. Lessons
that give the learners the chance to express
themselves will be more meaningful and
easily absorbed.

4. Family & Cultural background


Students who come from different
socioeconomic background manifest a wide
range of behaviour due to differences in
upbringing practices.
5. Attitudes
Attitude refers to an individual perspective
and disposition.
Some positive attitudes are curiosity,
responsibility, creativity & persistence.

There are certain fundamentalqualities of


a learner that can be considered as the
learners equipment in order for him/her to
absorbed knowledge in learning.
These fundamental equipment are the
a. Learners cognitive
b. learners appetitive faculties.
These faculties will naturally help or guide
the learner as he dealt with the learning
process.

The cognitive faculties of the


learners included his or her
1. five senses,
2. his memory,
3. his imagination
4. his intellect.
. All of these faculties is related to the basic
operation of the human brain and are
necessary for the learning process.

HIS SENSES
Through the learners five senses,
the learners can be able to see, to
hear, to taste and to smell.
He or she can be able to grasp
different information from his or her
surrounding environment using these
natural senses.

HIS IMAGINATION
With the learners imagination, he or
she can be able to form pictorial
representation of material objects in
his or her mind.
This ability is an important factor in
the learning process.

HIS MEMORY
The learners memory is one of the
important factors in learning.
With the use of the memory, the
learner can recall or retain post
mental actions in his or her mind.
The memory serves as the storage of
the prior knowledge of the learner.

HIS INTELLECT
The learners intellect is also an
important factor in learning.
With the use of the learners
intellect, he or she can be able to
form concepts of ideas as he or she
thinks as well make judgment from
given information and reason out.

APPETITIVE FACULTY
The appetitive faculty of the learner
that can also be considered as
equipment in learning includes the
feeling, the emotion as well as the
learners rational will.

Using the learners feelings as well as


his or her emotions, he or she can be
able to experience the pain or the
joy, as well as the feelings of being
happy, being sad or being angry to a
particular subject or situation.
With his or her feelings, he can be
able to identify and experience the
real feelings about a particular thing

Using the learners rational will, he or


she has the capacity to think and
choose what he or she thinks to be
desirable according to his or her own
analysis.
His or her rational will, will serve as a
kind of guiding force or a main
integrating force in his or her
character.

Gardners Multiple Intelligence


Theory

1. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence

2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence
3. Spatial Intelligence
4. Bodily-kinaesthetic Intelligence
5. Musical Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
8. Naturalist Intelligence

Howard Gardner of Harvard has


identified seven distinct
intelligences. This theory has
emerged from recent cognitive
research and "documents the
extent to which students possess
different kinds of minds and
therefore learn, remember,

According to thistheory, "we are


all able to know the world
through language, logicalmathematical analysis, spatial
representation, musical thinking,
the use of the body to solve
problems or to make things, an
understanding of other

Verbal-linguistic Intelligence

using words effectively.


These learners have highly developed
auditory skills and often think in words.
They like reading, playing word games,
making up poetry or stories.
They can be taught by encouraging them to
say and see words, read books together.
Tools include computers, games, multimedia,
books, tape recorders, and lecture.

Logical-mathematical Intelligence

reasoning, calculating.
Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to
see and explore patterns and relationships.
They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask
cosmic questions.
They can be taught through logic games,
investigations, mysteries.
They need to learn and form concepts before
they can deal with details.

Spatial Intelligence/Visual Intelligence


think in terms of physical space, as do
architects and sailors. Very aware of their
environments.
They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read
maps, daydream.
They can be taught through drawings, verbal
and physical imagery.
Tools include models, graphics, charts,
photographs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video,

Bodily-kinaesthetic Intelligence
use the body effectively, like a dancer or
a surgeon.
Keen sense of body awareness.
They like movement, making things,
touching.
They communicate well through body
language and be taught through
physical activity, hands-on learning,

Musical Intelligence
show sensitivity to rhythm and sound.
They love music, but they are also sensitive
to sounds in their environments.
They may study better with music in the
background.
They can be taught by turning lessons into
lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out
time.
Tools include musical instruments, music,

Interpersonal Intelligence
understanding, interacting with others.
These students learn through interaction.
They have many friends, empathy for others,
street smarts.
They can be taught through group activities,
seminars, dialogues.
Tools include the telephone, audio
conferencing, time and attention from the
instructor, video conferencing, writing,

Intrapersonal Intelligence
understanding one's own interests, goals.
These learners tend to shy away from others.
They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have
wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong
will, confidence and opinions.
They can be taught through independent study and
introspection.
Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy
and time.

Naturalist Intelligence
Interest in the study of nature
Environment play a very important
role in the childs development.
It focuses on the childs interest on
magnets, trees, sky, planets etc.

Learning Styles
1. Sensing-thinking (Mastery Learner)
2. Intuitive thinking (Understanding
Learner)
3. Intuitive-Feeling (Self-Expressive
Learner)
4. Sensing-Feeling (Interpersonal
Learner)

David Kolb's Model

TheDavid A. Kolb styles model is


based on the Experiential Learning
Theory.
These learning styles are as follows:
1. Converger;
2. Diverger;
3. Assimilator;
4. Accommodator

Convergersare characterized by abstract


conceptualization and active
experimentation. They are good at making
practical applications of ideas and using
deductive reasoning to solve problems.
Divergerstend toward concrete experience
and reflective observation. They are
imaginative and are good at coming up
with ideas and seeing things from different
perspectives.

Assimilatorsare characterized by
abstract conceptualization and
reflective observation. They are
capable of creating theoretical
models by means of inductive
reasoning.
Accommodatorsuse concrete
experience and active
experimentation. They are good at

Peter Honey and Alan


Mumford's Model

Two adaptations were made to Kolb's


experiential model. Firstly, the stages in the
cycle were renamed to accord with
managerial experiences of decision
making/problem solving. The Honey &
Mumford stages are:
Having an experience
Reviewing the experience
Concluding from the experience
Planning the next steps.

Secondly, the styles were directly


aligned to the stages in the cycle and
namedActivist,Reflector,Theoris
tandPragmatist. These are
assumed to be acquired preferences
that are adaptable, either at will or
through changed circumstances,
rather than being fixed personality
characteristics.

Neil Fleming's VAK/VARK


Model

One of the most common and widelyusedcategorizations of the various


types of learning styles is Fleming's
VARK model (sometimes VAK) which
expanded upon earlier Neurolinguistic programming (VARK)
models:

visual learners;
auditory learners;
reading-writing preference learners;
kinesthetic learners ortactile
learners

Fleming claimed that


1. Visual Learners have a preference
for seeing (think in pictures; visual aids
such as overhead slides, diagrams,
handouts, etc.).
2. Auditory Learners best learn
through listening (lectures, discussions,
tapes, etc.).

3. Tactile/kinesthetic learners prefer to learn via


experiencemoving, touching, and doing (active
exploration of the world; science projects;
experiments, etc.). Its use in pedagogy allows
teachers to prepare classes that address each of
these areas.
4. Reading-Writing Preference Learner
- Students can also use the model to identify
their preferred learning style and maximize their
educational experience by focusing on what
benefits them the most.

Cognitive approach to
learning styles

Anthony Grasha and Sheryl


Reichmann, in 1974, formulated the
Grasha-Reichmann Learning Style
Scale.
It was developed to analyze the
attitudes of students and how they
approach learning.
The test was originally designed for
college students.

The concepts of various learning styles are


as follows:
- avoidant
- participative
- competitive
- collaborative
- dependent
- independent
The conclusion of this model was to
provide teachers with insight on how to

See you next meeting


class!

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING:


1. Discuss the nature of the learner.
2. Discuss the fundamental
equipment of the learner.
3. What is the educational
implications of knowing Gardners
Multiple Intelligences Theory. Discus
each one in your own words.
4. Discuss at least two (2) Learning