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Chapter3:

APPROPRIATENESS AND
ALIGNMENT OF
ASSESSMENT METHODS
OF LEARNING OUTCOMES

Five standard of quality


assessment
1. Clear purpose
2. clear learning targets
3. sound assessment design
4. effective communication of results
5. student involvement in the assessment process.

Identifying Learning Outcome


A learning outcome pertains to a particular level of
knowledge, skills and values that a student has
acquired at the end of a unit or period of study as a
result of his/her engagement in a set of appropriate
and meaningful learning experiences.

Four Steps In A Student


Outcomes
1. Create learning outcome statements
2. Design teaching/assessments to achieve these
outcomes statements
3. Implement teaching/assessment activities
4. Analyze data on individual and aggregate levels
5. Reassess the process

Taxonomy Of Learning Domains


Learning outcomes are statements of
performance expectations:
Cognitive
Affective

Psychomotor.

Blooms Revised Taxonomy

A. Cognitive (Knowledge-based)
The cognitive domain involves knowledge and
the development of intellectual skills (Bloom,
1956). This includes the recall or recognition of
specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts
that serve in the development of intellectual
abilities and skills.

Six Major Categories Of


Cognitive An Processes
There are six major categories of cognitive an
processes, starting from the simplest to the
most complex :
1. Knowledge
2. Comprehension
3. Application
4. Analysis
5. Synthesis
6. Evaluation

Marzano
and Kendall
Taxonomy

Table of the Revised Cognitive Domain


Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Remembering: Recall or retrieve previous learned Examples: Recite a policy. Quote prices from
information.
memory to a customer. Recite the safety rules.
Key Words: defines, describes, identifies, knows,
labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, recalls,
recognizes, reproduces, selects, states
Technologies: book marking, flash cards, rote
learning based on repetition, reading
Understanding: Comprehending the meaning,
translation, interpolation, and interpretation of
instructions and problems. State a problem in
one's own words.

Examples: Rewrite the principles of test writing.


Explain in one's own words the steps for
performing a complex task. Translate an equation
into a computer spreadsheet.
Key Words: comprehends, converts, defends,
distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends,
generalizes, gives an example, infers, interprets,
paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes,
translates
Technologies: create an analogy, participating in
cooperative learning, taking notes, storytelling,
Internet search

Table of the Revised Cognitive Domain


Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Applying: Use a concept in a new situation or


unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what
was learned in the classroom into novel situations
in the work place.

Examples: Use a manual to calculate an


employee's vacation time. Apply laws of statistics
to evaluate the reliability of a written test.
Key Words: applies, changes, computes,
constructs, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates,
modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces,
relates, shows, solves, uses
Technologies: collaborative learning, create a
process, blog, practice

Analyzing: Separates material or concepts into


component parts so that its organizational
structure may be understood. Distinguishes
between facts and inferences.

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by


using logical deduction. Recognize logical fallacies
in reasoning.Gathers information from a
department and selects the required tasks for
training.
Key Words: analyzes, breaks down, compares,
contrasts,diagrams, deconstructs, differentiates,
discriminates, distinguishes, identifies, illustrates,
infers, outlines, relates, selects, separates
Technologies: Fishbowls, debating, questioning
what happened, run a test

Table of the Revised Cognitive Domain


Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Evaluating: Make judgments about the value of


ideas or materials.

Examples: Select the most effective solution. Hire


the most qualified candidate. Explain and justify a
new budget.
Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes,
contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends, describes,
discriminates, evaluates, explains, interprets,
justifies, relates, summarizes, supports
Technologies: survey, blogging

Creating: Builds a structure or pattern from


diverse elements. Put parts together to form a
whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning
or structure.

Examples: Write a company operations or process


manual. Design a machine to perform a specific
task. Integrates training from several sources to
solve a problem. Revises and process to improve
the outcome.
Key Words: categorizes, combines, compiles,
composes, creates, devises, designs, explains,
generates, modifies, organizes, plans, rearranges,
reconstructs, relates, reorganizes, revises,
rewrites, summarizes, tells, writes
Technologies: Create a new model, write an
essay, network with others

B. Psychomotor Domain
The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes
physical movement, coordination, and use of the
motor-skill areas. Development of these skills
requires practice and is measured in terms of
speed, precision, distance, procedures, or
techniques in execution. Thus, psychomotor skills
rage from manual tasks, such as digging a ditch or
washing a car, to more complex tasks, such as
operating a complex piece of machinery or dancing.

Psychomotor Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Perception (awareness): The ability to use


sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges
from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to
translation.

Examples: Detects non-verbal communication


cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is
thrown and then moving to the correct location to
catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct
temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts
the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing
where the forks are in relation to the pallet.
Key Words: chooses, describes, detects,
differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates,
relates, selects.

Set: Readiness to act.It includes mental, physical,


and emotional sets. These three sets are
dispositions that predetermine a person's response
to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).

Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of


steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize one's
abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a
new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision
of Psychomotor is closely related with the
Responding to phenomena subdivision of the
Affective domain.
Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves,
proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.

Psychomotor Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Guided Response: The early stages in learning a


complex skill that includes imitation and trial and
error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by
practicing.

Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as


demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a
model. Responds hand-signals of instructor while
learning to operate a forklift.
Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react,
reproduce, responds

Mechanism (basic proficiency): This is the


intermediate stage in learning a complex
skill.Learned responses have become habitual and
the movements can be performed with some
confidence and proficiency.

Examples: Use a personal computer.Repair a


leaking faucet. Drive a car.
Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs,
dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats,
manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes,
sketches.

Psychomotor Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Complex Overt Response (Expert): The skillful


performance of motor acts that involve complex
movement patterns.Proficiency is indicated by a
quick, accurate, and highly coordinated
performance, requiring a minimum of energy.This
category includes performing without hesitation,
and automatic performance.For example, players
are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives
as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football,
because they can tell by the feel of the act what
the result will produce.

Examples:Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel


parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and
accurately. Displays competence while playing the
piano.
Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates,
constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes,
grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends,
mixes, organizes, sketches.
NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism,
but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate
that the performance is quicker, better, more
accurate, etc.

Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the


individual can modify movement patterns to fit
special requirements.

Examples:Responds effectively to unexpected


experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the
needs of the learners. Perform a task with a
machine that it was not originally intended to do
(machine is not damaged and there is no danger in
performing the new task).
Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges,
reorganizes, revises, varies.

Psychomotor Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Origination: Creating new movement patterns to


fit a particular situation or specific problem.
Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based
upon highly developed skills.

Examples:Constructs a new theory. Develops a


new and comprehensive training programming.
Creates a new gymnastic routine.
Key Words: arranges, builds, combines,
composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate,
makes, originates.

Other Psychomotor Domain


Taxonomies
As mentioned earlier, the committee did not produce a
compilation for the psychomotor domain model, but
others have. The one discussed above is by Simpson
(1972). There are two other popular versions by Dave
(1970) and Harrow (1972):

Dave (1970)

C. Affective Domain
The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia,
1973) includes the manner in which we deal
with things emotionally, such as feelings,
values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations,
and attitudes.

Affective Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Receiving Phenomena: Awareness, willingness


to hear, selected attention.

Examples: Listen to others with respect. Listen for


and remember the name of newly introduced
people.
Key Words: acknowledge, asks, attentive,
courteous, dutiful, follows, gives, listens,
understands

Responds to Phenomena: Active participation


on the part of the learners. Attend and react to a
particular phenomenon. Learning outcomes may
emphasize compliance in responding, willingness
to respond, or satisfaction in responding
(motivation).

Examples: Participates in class discussions. Gives


a presentation. Questions new ideals, concepts,
models, etc. in order to fully understand them.
Know the safety rules and practice them.
Key Words: answers, assists, aids, complies,
conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels,
performs, presents, tells

Affective Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to


a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior.This
ranges from simple acceptance to the more
complex state of commitment. Valuing is based on
the internalization of a set of specified values,
while clues to these values are expressed in the
learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable.

Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic


process. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural
differences (value diversity). Shows the ability to
solve problems. Proposes a plan to social
improvement and follows through with
commitment. Informs management on matters
that one feels strongly about.
Key Words: appreciates, cherish, treasure,
demonstrates, initiates, invites, joins, justifies,
proposes, respect, shares

Organization: Organizes values into priorities by


contrasting different values, resolving conflicts
between them, and creating an unique value
system. The emphasis is on comparing, relating,
and synthesizing values.

Examples: Recognizes the need for balance


between freedom and responsible behavior.
Explains the role of systematic planning in solving
problems. Accepts professional ethical standards.
Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities,
interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to
meet the needs of the organization, family, and
self.
Key Words: compares, relates, synthesizes

Affective Domain
Category

Examples, key words (verbs), and


technologies for learning (activities)

Internalizes Values (characterization): Has a


value system that controls their behavior. The
behavior is pervasive, consistent, predictable, and
most important characteristic of the learner.
Instructional objectives are concerned with the
student's general patterns of adjustment
(personal, social, emotional).

Examples: Shows self-reliance when working


independently. Cooperates in group activities
(displays teamwork). Uses an objective approach
in problem solving. Displays a professional
commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis.
Revises judgments and changes behavior in light
of new evidence. Values people for what they are,
not how they look.
Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays,
influences, modifies, performs, qualifies, questions,
revises, serves, solves, verifies

Types Of Assessment Methods


Assessment methods can be categorized according
to the nature and characteristics of each method.
McMillan (2007) identified four major categories:
1. selected-response
2. constructed-response
3. teacher observation
4. student self-assessment.

1. Selected Response Format


In a selected-response format, students select
from a given set options to answer a question
or a problem. Because there is only one
correct or best answer, selected-response
items are objective and efficient. The items
are easy to grade. The teacher can assess
and score a great deal of content quickly.

Example Of Selected Response


Format

2. Constructed-Response
Format
A constructed response is a type of open-ended
essay question that demonstrates cognitive
knowledge and reasoning. The answer must be
provided using information that can be found in a
particular text or other prompt (map, picture,
graphic organizer, etc.) and is not meant to
demonstrate opinion, but to show how you are
able to extract information and use this as the
basis for forming a complete answer.

Example Of ConstructedResponse Format


Here is an example from the reading test:
*Using information from the story, give two
reasons
explaining why Denise wants to take Sweet
Magnolia
home with her and two reasons why she changes
her
mind.

Categories Of Constructed
Response Format
Brief-constructed response items - Require only short
responses from students. Example include sentence
completion where students fill in a blank at the end of a
statement; short answer to open-ended questions;
labelling a diagram; or answering a Mathematics problem
by showing their solutions.
Performance assessments - require students to
perform a task rather than select from given set of
options. Unlike brief-constructed response items, students
have to come up with a more extensive and elaborate
answer or response. Performance tasks are called
authentic or alternative assessments because students

Categories Of Constructed
Response Format
Essay assessments -involve answering a question or
proposition in written form. it is powerful in the sense that
it allows students to express themselves and demonstrate
their reasoning.
Oral questioning -is a common assessment method
during instruction to check on student understanding.
When done formally, oral questioning may take the form
of an interview or conference.

3. Teacher Observations
An observation is an informal visual assessment of
student learning.
Teacher observations are a form of on-going
assessment, usually done in combination with oral
questioning. Teachers regularly observe students to
check on their understanding. By watching how students
respond to oral questions and behave during individual
and collaborative activities, the teacher can get
information if learning is taking place in the classroom

What is an Observations
objective?
To help the teacher see student learning in
order to check on the effectiveness of
instruction, to change instruction, and/or to
assess student learning. It provides immediate
feedback to a teacher about student learning.

Student Self-Assessment
The process by which the student gathers information
about and reflects on his or her own learning [it] is
the students own assessment of personal progress in
knowledge, skills, processes, or attitudes. Selfassessment leads a student to a greater awareness and
understanding of himself or herself as a learner
(Ministry of Education, 2002, p. 3).

Advantages Of Student SelfAssessment


Encourages student involvement and responsibility.
Encourages students to reflect on their role and
contribution to the process of the group
work.
Allows students to see and reflect on their peers
assessment of their contribution.
Focuses on the development of students judgment
skills.

Disadvantages Of Student SelfAssessment


Potentially increases lecturer workload by
needing to brief students on the process as well
as on-going guidance on performing self
evaluation.
Self evaluation has a risk of being perceived as
a process of presenting inflated grades and
being unreliable.

Matching Learning Targets With


Assessment Methods
When designing assessments, it is important to
make sure that any exams or assignments
match the learning outcomes of the course.
Assessments should be based on material
youve covered in the course, and students
should perceive the material as relevant and
fair.

What are Learning Targets?


A standard answers the question, where
am I going in my learning? A learning
target shows students the path to get
there. Learning targets are those specific
statements, typically written in student
friendly language that tell what a student
needs to be able to know and do on the
way to meeting a standard. They are the
steps on the way to meeting the standard.
The learning progression.

Types of Learning Targets


1. Knowledge facts and concepts we
want students to know
2. Reasoning using what they know to
reason and solve problems
3. Skills students use their knowledge
and reasoning to act skillfully
4. Products use knowledge, reasoning,
and skills to create a concrete product

Knowledge Target

Sample Knowledge Targets

Reasoning Proficiency

Sample Reasoning Targets

Skill Targets

Sample Skills Target

Product Targets

Sample Products

How Well Does Your Method Of Assessment Match


Your Target?

Selected Response/Short Response


True/false, multiple-choice, matching, fill-in-the- blank,
short answers

Extended Response
Essays, research reports and lab reports

Performance
Public performances, investigations

Personal Communication through


conversation/observation

Description of Assessment Method

Target-Method Match

Current K to 12 Assessment
Program
The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum has a
balanced assessment program. It utilizes both
traditional and authentic assessment tools and
techniques to get valid and reliable evidences of
student learning.

Example Guide
For Assessing
Learning
Outcomes For
Grade 1

CHED Assessment Program


As for the tertiary level, CHED underscores
the importance of preparing a learning
plan as a tool to check the match between
the learning outcomes, content and
methodology

Sample
Elements Of
A Learning
Plan

Summary
Teachers should realize that a "cookie
cutter approach" in assessment will simply
not do. No single assessment method or
tool will go well with all types of learning. It
would be difficult to assess learning
outcomes utilizing just one method. A
combination of direct and indirect
assessments is advisable.

Summary
When choosing an assessment method, determine first
the purpose (role) of the assessment.
Is it for placement, feedback, diagnosis and
intervention or grading? The selection should also rests
on the (1) nature of the task, (2) level of cognitive
processing, and (3) context of the assessment. What
evidences of learning should be gathered? What
mental processes should students demonstrate? How
would the assessment be carried out? What is the
format? How long will the assessment take? Are there
systems in place and resources available for this
assessment? How will the assessment results be

Thank You And


God Bless!!