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Tylers Model of

Curriculum Development

Group 1

Brief history of Tyler model:


http://tylerobjectivemodel.weebly.com/

The Tyler Model, often referred to as the Objective


Model, was developed by Ralph Tyler in 1942. The model
consists of fourquestions that Tyler identifies must be
asked for effective classroom instruction:
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to
attain?
2.How can learning experiences be selected which are
likely to be useful in attaining these objectives?
3.How can learning experiences be organized for effective
instruction?
4.How can the effectiveness of learning experiences be
evaluated?

There are 4 Basic


steps

1) What is the purpose of the education?


-Determine the schools purposes
2) What educational experiences will attain the
purposes?
-Identify educational experiences related to
purpose
3) How can these experiences be effectively
organised?
-Organize the experiences
4) How can we determine when the purposes are
met?

Step one

determining the objectives of the school or


class
what do the students need to do in order to be
successful?
Each subject has natural objectives that are
indicators of mastery. All objectives need to be
consistent with the philosophy of the school
and this is often neglected in curriculum
development.
For example, a school that is developing an
English curriculum my create an objective that
students will write essays. This would be one

Step two

developing learning experiences that help the


students to achieve step one.
For example, if students need to meet the
objective of writing an essay. The learning
experience might be a demonstration by the
teacher of writing an essay. The students then
might practice writing essays. The experience
(essay demonstration and writing) is
consistent with the objective (Student will
write an essay).

Step three

organizing the experiences.


Should the teacher demonstrate first or should
the students learn by writing immediately?
Either way could work and preference is
determined by the philosophy of the teacher
and the needs of the students.
The point is that the teacher needs to
determine a logical order of experiences for
the students.

Step four

evaluation of the objectives.


Now the teacher assesses the students ability
to write an essay. There are many ways to do
this.
For example, the teacher could have the
students write an essay without assistance. If
they can do this, it is evidence that the
students have achieve the objective of the
lesson.

Establishing the
Purpose

Who are the decision makers?

Industry
Teachers
Advisory board
University administrators

Determining the
purpose

Societal needs
Student Needs

Establishing the
Purpose

Outline the goals broad statements that


indicate what is to be the outcome of the
students education. For what are they
preparing?

Establishing the
Purpose

Develop Objectives
a description of a performance you want
learners to be able to exhibit before you
consider them competent.
Describes an intended result of instruction,
rather than the process of instruction itself.

Why do you need instructional


objectives in your curriculum?

1.

When clearly defined objectives are lacking,


there is
no sound basis for the selection or designing
of instructional materials, content, or
methods.
If you don't know where you are going, it is
difficult to select a suitable means for getting
there.

Why do you need instructional


objectives in your curriculum?

2.

To find out whether or not the objective, has


in fact been accomplished.
Test items designed to measure whether
important instructional outcomes have been
accomplished can be selected or created
intelligently only when those instructional
outcomes have been made explicit.

Why do you need instructional


objectives in your curriculum?

3. Good objectives provide students with a


means to organize their own efforts toward
accomplishment of those objectives.
Experience has shown that with clear
objectives in view, students at all levels are
better able to decide what activities on their
part will help them get to where it is important
for them to go.

Good Objectives. . .

Are related to intended outcomes rather than


the process for achieving those outcomes.
specific and measurable, rather than broad
and intangible.
Are concerned with students, not teachers.

Grouping objectives

At university level, objectives are grouped into


courses
Similar objectives grouped together

What experiences will achieve the


purpose?

What methods of teaching and learning will be


used?

Lectures
Laboratory exercises
Internships
Combination of many methods

Experiences must cover all 3


domains of learning

Cognitive
Affective
Psycomotor

How are these experiences


organized?

From simple to complex


From general to specific
Experiences should build on each other

How do we determine if the goals


are met?

Follow up studies
Graduating student interviews
Program Reviews

Tylers model of curriculum


development
Principle 1:
Defining appropriate learning
objectives
Principle 2:
Establishing useful learning
experiences

KSSR
Scheme of work in KSSR

KBAT : the new curriculum has 4Ms,


with Reasoning added to the
original 3Ms. The need for our
children to think and reason, of
making connections between their
actions and consequences is now
stressed. There is a shift from rote
learning where students simply
followed instructions and are overly
dependent on teachers. Students
are now being taught to be active
decision makers and be accountable
for their actions.

Principle 3:
Organizing learning
experiences to have a
maximum cumulative effect

Emphasises on the development of


basic language skills so that pupils
will have a strong foundation to
build their proficiency in the
language

Principle 4:
Evaluating the curriculum and

PBS, UPSR