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Introduction to HRM

Contents
HRM purpose and role
Workforce planning( need, full or part time,

permanent or temporary)
Recruiting and selecting staff
Training, developing and appraising staff
Measuring and monitoring staff
performance
How to improve staff performance
Trade unions
Health and safety at workplace

What is HR?
Human Resources is the part of the

organization that deals with people


Managing the human resource
This means acquiring developing and

supporting staff as well as ensuring they


fulfill their role at work

Define HRM
Torrington et al It is a series of activities which;

first enables working people and the organisation


which uses their skills to agree about the objective
and nature of their working relationship and
secondly, ensure that the agreement is fullfilled.
Human resource management is to make the most
productive use of human resource to the greatest
benefits of the organization and individuals.
Organization: profits and social commitments.
Individuals: development and achievement

HRM
The Policies and practices in carrying out

the people or human resource aspects of


a management position including,
recruiting, screening, training, rewarding
and appraising. (Dessler G)
The Charted Institute of Personnel
Management The design, implementation
and maintenance of strategies to manage
people for optimum business performance
including the development of policies and
process to support these strategies

Continue
So the Human Resource Manager job includes:
Conducting Job analysis ( determining the nature of
each job)
Planning labour needs and recruiting job candidated
Selecting Job candidates
Orienting and training new employees
Managing wages and salaries (compensating
employees)
Providing incentives and benefits
Appraising performance
Communicating ( interviewing, counselling,
disciplining)
Training and development

Cont.
Training and Developing managers
Building employee commitment

And what a HRM Manger should know about


Equal opportunity and affirmative action
Employee health and safety
Handling grievances and labour relations

Organization and
individual

(1) Organization needs: Profits, productivity

and markets.
(2) Individual needs: Maslows Need

Hierarchy
Physiological needs, security, belonging,
self-respect and self-actualization.
(3) Coordinating organization and individual
needs: goal of HRM.

Introduction to HR
The 1980s and 90s saw Human Resource

Management(HRM) replace Personnel


Management
fashionable term
re-organisation of work of personnel department
distinctively different with new management approach

Long term rather than short term perspective


Psychological contract of commitment
Self-control rather than external controls
Management integration
Maximum utilisation of resource

Why is it Important?
Staff are the largest revenue cost of any

organisation.
Staff are a volatile resource, they can leave you
any time.
Staff are a store of corporate knowledge and the
means of service delivery.
Retaining and developing good staff allows you to
use skills and develop as a business.
Individuals should contribute more than they cost.
In the industry customer care critical and
delivered by staff as representatives.

Purposes of Human
Resource Planning
Setting goals and objectives
Examining the effects of

alternative human resource


policies and programs

4.3

Factors Affecting HR
Legislation
The Economic environment
The global economy
The structure of the labour market
The Political environment
Changes in technology
Need to constantly retrain staff

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Workforce planning
Workforce planning is a set of procedures that an

organization can implement to maintain the most


efficient employee/management team possible,
maximizing profits and ensuring long-term success.

Success Factors Workforce Planning helps

ensure you have the right people with the right


skills at the right time and cost, so you can
execute successfully on your business strategy
now and in the future.
Work force planning base on different
employment types:
full-time
part-time or
casual.
It is important to know the type of employment
because pay rates, leave and other entitlements are
different.

Workforce planning
What is a full-time employee?
A full-time employee has ongoing employment and
works, on average, around 38 hours each week. The
actual hours of work for an employee in a particular job
or industry are agreed between the employer and the
employee and/or set by an award or registered
agreement.
Permanent or fixed term contract employees
Employees can be hired as permanent employees or
on a fixed term contract.
Permanent employees are employed on an ongoing
basis until the employer or employee ends the
employment relationship.
Fixed term means that the employee is employed for a
specific period of time or task, for example a 6 or 12
month period, and employment ends on the date
specified in the contract.

Workforce planning
A part-time employee:
works, on average, less than 38 hours per

week
usually works regular hours each week
is entitled to the same benefits as a fulltime employee, but on apro ratabasis
is a permanent employee or on a fixedterm contract.

Workforce planning
Most frequently, though,

hiring temporary employeesserves a


business purpose for the company and the
objective is to hire temps rather than
taking on the cost of a regular employee.
Business purposes include: seasonal
customer demand, temporary surges in
manufacturing orders, an employee on sick
or maternity leave, and short-term, clearly
defined work such as a census worker.

Workforce planning
A part-time employee:
works, on average, less than 38 hours per week
usually works regular hours each week
is entitled to the same benefits as a full-time

employee, but on apro ratabasis


is a permanent employee or on a fixed-term
contract.
Temporary employees are hired to assist
employers to meet business demands yet allow
the employer to avoid the cost of hiring a regular
employee. Sometimes, it is the expectation of the
employer that if the temporary employee is
successful, the temporary employee will be hired.

Workforce planning
How part-time is different to full-time or
casual
Full-time employees work longer hours. On
average, they work 38 hours per week.
Casual employees usually work irregular
hours but they dont get paid sick leave or
annual leave.

(2) Functions of HRM


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

Conducting job analysis.


Planning future needs and supplies.
Recruiting and selecting employees.
Orienting and training employees.
Managing wages and benefits.
Performance appraisal.
Communicating (discipline and services).
Building employee commitment (incentives).

Human Resources Management


Functions

Recruitment

Recruitment
Job description outline of the role

of the job holder


Person specification outline
of the skills and qualities required
of the post holder
Applicants may demonstrate their
suitability through application form,
letter or curriculum vitae (CV)

Selection

Selection
The process of assessing candidates and

appointing a post holder


Applicants short listed
most suitable candidates selected
Selection process
varies according to organisation:

Selection
Interview most common method
Psychometric testing assessing the

personality of the applicants will they fit


in?
Aptitude testing assessing the skills
of applicants
In-tray exercise activity based around
what the applicant will be doing, e.g.
writing a letter to a disgruntled customer
Presentation looking for different skills
as well as the ideas of the candidate

Employment Legislation

Employment Legislation
Increasingly

Even in a small business, the legislation


relating to employees is important
chemicals used in a hairdressing salon for
example have to be carefully stored and
handled to protect employees.

important aspect
of the HRM role
Wide range
of areas for
attention
Adds to the cost
of the business

Discipline

Discipline
Firms cannot just sack workers
Wide range of procedures and steps

in dealing with workplace conflict


Informal meetings
Formal meetings
Verbal warnings
Written warnings
Grievance procedures
Working with external agencies

Development

Development
Developing the employee

can be regarded as investing


in a valuable asset
A source of motivation
A source of helping the employee
fulfil potential

Training

Training
Similar to development:
Provides new skills for the employee
Keeps the employee up to date

with changes in the field


Aims to improve efficiency
Can be external or in-house

Rewards Systems

Rewards Systems
The system of pay and benefits used by the

firm to reward workers


Money not the only method
Fringe benefits
Flexibility at work
Holidays, etc.

Trade Unions

Trade Unions
Importance of building relationships with

employee representatives
Role of Trade Unions has changed
Importance of consultation
and negotiation and working
with trade unions
Contributes to smooth change
management and leadership

Productivity

Productivity
Measuring performance:
How to value the workers contribution
Difficulty in measuring some types of output

especially in the service industry


Appraisal
Meant to be non-judgmental
Involves the worker and a nominated appraiser
Agreeing strengths, weaknesses and ways forward

to help both employee and organisation

Measuring and monitoring staff


performance

Performance Standards Must Include:

A. A Fully Successful standard established for critical elements and

placed in the employee performance plan.


B. Balanced, credible measures
1. Qualitative - accuracy, appearance, usefulness or effectiveness of product
2. Quantitative - addresses how much is produced and/or error rate
3. Timeliness - addresses how quickly, when or by what date the work product
4. Cost-Effectiveness addresses dollar savings to the Government or
working with a budget.
5. Manner of Performance

performance Appraisal
Theprocessby which amanager

orconsultant(1)examinesand evaluates
anemployee'sworkbehaviorby comparing it
with preset standards,
(2)documentstheresultsof the comparison,
and (3)usesthe results
toprovidefeedbackto the employee to show
whereimprovementsare needed and why.
Performance appraisals areemployedto
determine whoneedswhattraining, and who
will be promoted, demoted, retained, or fired.

Workplace Safety
Awareness training for
support staff working
in a Disability
Employment Service

Creating a safe
workplace

Providing and maintaining


safe machines and
systems of work
for supported employees
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Organising the safe use


of
dangerous goods and
hazardous
chemicals
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Controlling hazards
such as
dust, noise and fumes
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Providing hygiene facilities


such as toilets and
change rooms
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Providing instruction,
training
and supervision to
supported employees
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Monitoring your work area


and
employee health
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Maintaining information
and records on health
and safety
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Supporting an injured
supported employees
return to work
How can we
achieve this in
our workplace?

Designing good jobs


Promote healthy workplaces
Prevention and management of common

health problems
Job content, job context and organizational
arrangements critical
Move from a less desirable (bad jobs) to a
more desirable state (good jobs)
HSE Management Standards can help in
prevention and management

Summary
The workplace offers the opportunity to

promote and improve the health of


employees and their families
The drivers for ill-health are not always the
same as the drivers for absence
We need a better understanding of the
causes of sickness absence so these can be
managed in a proactive manner
Current attendance management practice
and policy is based on convention rather than
evidence (IES, 2007)