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Basic Electronic/Electric

components
3rd class meeting.

Sigit Tri Wicaksono, Ph.D.

RESISTORS

Remember...
+ Or Resistor
Promote + Or Promotor
Simulate + Or Simulator
Etc.....
Resist

Resistors
Resistors

can be either fixed or


variable in value
Fixed resistors come in a
variety of different shapes,
sizes and forms
Axial lead resistors have the
value of resistance printed on
them or as a colour code
Surface mount resistors have a
numerical code indicating a value
All resistors have a tolerance
value

Resistors
Variable

resistors
are called
potentiometers
There is a fixed
value of resistance
between two
terminals
The moving part of
the potentiometer is
called the wiper

Resistors
Four

band resistor
colour code
1st band provides the
first digit of the code
2nd band provides the
second digit of the code
3rd band is the
multiplier
4th band indicates the
tolerance value

Resistors
Resistor colour code calculation

The first band red has a value


of 2

The second band purple has a


value of 7

The third band has a multiplier


of x 10

The last band indicates a


tolerance value of +/-5%
Resistance value is 270 +/-5%

2
7
x10
+/-5%

CAPACITORS

Parallel Plate Capacitors


A more typical geometry is two large, closely spaced, parallel
conducting plates Area A, separation d.
Lets find the capacitance:
Charge will all accumulate on the inner surface Q A
Let + and be the charges on each surface
As we already showed using Gausss law, this means
there will be an electric field given by: E n
0

If you integrate the electric field over the distance d, you


get the potential difference

d Qd
Circuit

V E ds dx
0
0 0 A
symbol for a
To get a large capacitance,
capacitor:
Q

A
0
C
C
make the area large and the
V
d
spacing small

Energy in a Capacitor
Suppose you have a capacitor with charge q already
q C V
on it, and you try to add a small additional charge dq to
it, where dq is small. How much energy would this
take?
q
The side with +q has a higher potential
+q
Moving the charge there takes energy
dq q

The small change in energy is: dU dq V


C
Now, imagine we start with zero charge and build it
dq
up gradually to q = Q
It makes sense to say an uncharged capacitor has
U = 0 q Q
Q
Q
q dq q 2
Q2
U dU

C 2C
2C
q 0
0
0
2
2
Q C V
2
U

Q
U
2C
2
Q C V
2C

Energy density in a capacitor


Suppose you have a parallel plate capacitor with
area A, separation d, and charged to voltage V.
(1) Whats the energy divided by the volume between
the plates?
(2) Write this in terms of the electric field magnitude
2
1
U 2 C V 0 A V 2
2d
Energy density is energy over volume
U U
0 A V
1 V
u
0

2
V Ad
2 d
2 Ad
2

V
E
d

d
u E
1
2 0

We can associate the energy with the electric field itself


This formula can be shown to be completely generalizable
It has nothing in particular to do with capacitors

Dielectrics in Capacitors

What should I put between the metal plates of a capacitor? C 0 A


Goal make the capacitance large
d
The closer you put the plates together, the

+
bigger the capacitance
+ + +
Its hard to put things close together

+
unless you put something between them
+ + +
When they get charged, they are also very

+
+ +
attracted to each other
+
Placing an insulating material a dielectric
+ + +

allows you to place them very close


+
together
+ + +
The charges in the dielectric will also shift

+
This partly cancels the electric field

+
+ +
0 A
Small field means smaller potential

C
+
d
difference
1
C = Q/V, so C gets bigger too

Choosing a dielectric
What makes a good dielectric?
Have a high dielectric constant
The combination 0 is also called , the
permittivity
Must be a good insulator
Otherwise charge will slowly bleed away
Have a high dielectric strength
The maximum electric field at which the
insulator suddenly (catastrophically)
becomes a conductor
There is a corresponding breakdown voltage
where the capacitor fails

0 A
C
d

What are capacitors good for?


They store energy
The energy stored is not extremely large, and it tends to leak away
over time
Gasoline or fuel cells are better for this purpose
They can release their energy very quickly
Camera flashes, defibrillators, research uses
They resist changes in voltage
Power supplies for electronic devices, etc.
They can be used for timing, frequency filtering, etc.
In conjunction with other parts

Capacitors
Types of capacitors
The dielectric material
determines the type of
capacitor
Common types of
capacitors are:
Mica
Ceramic
Plastic film

Capacitors
Some

capacitors are
polarised, they can
only be connected
one way around
Electrolytic
capacitors are
polarised

Capacitors
Variable

capacitors are
used in communication
equipment, radios,
televisions and VCRs
They can be adjusted by
consumers by tuning
controls
Trimmers are internal
adjusted capacitors
that a consumer cannot
adjust

Capacitors
These

variable
capacitors would be
difficult to squeeze
into your mobile
phone and iPod
Current technology
uses semi-conductor
variable capacitors
called varactors
(varicaps)

INDUCTORS

Inductors
Generally

- coil of conducting wire

Usually wrapped around a solid core. If


no core is used, then the inductor is
said to have an air core.

http://bzupages.com/f231/energy-stored-inductor-uzma-noreen-group6-p

Symbols

http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_15/1.h
tml

Alternative Names for


Inductors
Reactor-

inductor in a power grid


Choke - designed to block a particular frequency
while allowing currents at lower frequencies or
d.c. currents through
Commonly used in RF (radio frequency) circuitry
Coil

- often coated with varnish and/or wrapped


with insulating tape to provide additional
insulation and secure them in place
A winding is a coil with taps (terminals).

Solenoid

a three dimensional coil.

Also used to denote an electromagnet where the


magnetic field is generated by current flowing
through a toroidal inductor.

Energy Storage
The

flow of current through an inductor creates


a magnetic field (right hand rule).

B
field
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Theory/Mutual_Indu
ctance
If the

current flowing through the inductor


drops, the magnetic field will also decrease and
energy is released through the generation of a
current.

Sign Convention

The sign convention used with


an inductor is the same as for a
power dissipating device.
When current flows into the positive
side of the voltage across the
inductor, it is positive and the
inductor is dissipating power.
When the inductor releases energy
back into the circuit, the sign of the
current will be negative.

Current and Voltage


Relationships
L

, inductance, has the units of Henries (H)


1 H = 1 V-s/A

di
vL L
dt
t1

1
iL vL dt
L to

Power and Energy


t1

p L vL iL LiL iL dt
to

t1

t1

diL
w L
iL dt L iL diL
dt
to
to

Inductors
Stores

energy in an magnetic
field created by the electric
current flowing through it.
Inductor opposes change in current
flowing through it.
Current through an inductor is
continuous; voltage can be
discontinuous.

http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/Electricity%20-%20Basic%20Navy%20Training%20C
ourses/electricity%20-%20basic%20navy%20training%20courses%20-%20chapter%2012.htm

Calculations of L
For a solenoid (toroidal inductor)

N A N r o A
L

N is the number of turns of wire


A is the cross-sectional area of the toroid in m2.
r is the relative permeability of the core material
o is the vacuum permeability (4 10-7 H/m)
l is the length of the wire used to wrap the toroid in
meters

Wire
Unfortunately, even bare
wire has inductance.

7
L ln 4 1 2 x10 H
d

d is the diameter of the


wire in meters.

Properties of an Inductor
Acts

like an short circuit at steady state


when connected to a d.c. voltage or
current source.
Current through an inductor must be
continuous
There are no abrupt changes to the current, but there
can be abrupt changes in the voltage across an inductor.

An

ideal inductor does not dissipate


energy, it takes power from the circuit
when storing energy and returns it when
discharging.

Properties of a Real
Inductor
Real

inductors do dissipate
energy due resistive losses in the
length of wire and capacitive
coupling between turns of the
wire.

DIODE

What Are Diodes Made Out Of?


Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) are the two most common
single elements that are used to make Diodes. A
compound that is commonly used is Gallium Arsenide
(GaAs), especially in the case of LEDs because of its large
bandgap.
Silicon and Germanium are both group 4 elements,
meaning they have 4 valence electrons. Their structure
allows them to grow in a shape called the diamond lattice.
Gallium is a group 3 element while Arsenide is a group 5
element. When put together as a compound, GaAs creates
a zincblend lattice structure.
In both the diamond lattice and zincblend lattice, each atom
shares its valence electrons with its four closest neighbors.
This sharing of electrons is what ultimately allows diodes to
be build. When dopants from groups 3 or 5 (in most cases)
are added to Si, Ge or GaAs it changes the properties of
the material so we are able to make the P- and N-type
materials that become the diode.

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

Si
+4

The diagram above shows


the 2D structure of the Si
crystal. The light green
lines represent the
electronic bonds made
when the valence electrons
are shared. Each Si atom
shares one electron with
each of its four closest
neighbors so that its
valence band will have a full
8 electrons.

N-Type Material
N-Type
Material:
+4

+4

+4

+4

+5

+4

+4

+4

+4

When extra valence electrons are


introduced into a material such as
silicon an n-type material is
produced. The extra valence
electrons are introduced by putting
impurities or dopants into the
silicon. The dopants used to create
an n-type material are Group V
elements. The most commonly
used dopants from Group V are
arsenic, antimony and phosphorus.
The 2D diagram to the left shows
the extra electron that will be
present when a Group V dopant is
introduced to a material such as

P-Type Material
P-Type Material:

+4

+4

+4

+4

+3

+4

+4

+4

+4

P-type material is produced when the dopant


that is introduced is from Group III. Group III
elements have only 3 valence electrons and
therefore there is an electron missing. This
creates a hole (h+), or a positive charge that
can move around in the material. Commonly
used Group III dopants are aluminum, boron,
and gallium.
The 2D diagram to the left shows the hole that
will be present when a Group III dopant is
introduced to a material such as silicon. This
hole is quite mobile in the same way the extra
electron is mobile in a n-type material.

The PN Junction
Steady State1
Metallurgical
Na Junction
-

ionized
acceptors

Nd

+
+

+
+
+

Space
+
- Charge
Region

ionized
donors

E-Field
+
h+ drift

+
= h+ diffusion

e- diffusion

_
=e- drift

The PN Junction
Steady State

Metallurgical
Na Junction

ionized
acceptors

Nd

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
- Charge
Space
Region +
-

E-Field
+
h+ drift

ionized
donors
_

== h+ diffusion

e- diffusion

When no external source


is connected to the pn
junction, diffusion and
drift balance each other
out for both the holes and
electrons

==e- drift

Space Charge Region: Also called the depletion region. This region
includes the net positively and negatively charged regions. The space
charge region does not have any free carriers. The width of the space
charge region is denoted by W in pn junction formulas.
Metallurgical Junction: The interface where the p- and n-type materials
meet.
Na & Nd: Represent the amount of negative and positive doping in
number of carriers per centimeter cubed. Usually in the range of 10 15 to
1020.

The Biased PN Junction


Metal
Contact
Ohmic
Contact

(Rs~0)

+
Applied
Electric Field

I
+

Vapplied
The pn junction is considered biased when an external voltage is applied.
There are two types of biasing: Forward bias and Reverse bias.
These are described on then next slide.

The Biased PN Junction


Forward Bias:

Vapplied > 0

Reverse Bias:

Vapplied < 0

In forward bias the depletion region shrinks slightly in


width. With this shrinking the energy required for charge
carriers to cross the depletion region decreases
exponentially. Therefore, as the applied voltage
increases, current starts to flow across the junction. The
barrier potential of the diode is the voltage at which
appreciable current starts to flow through the diode. The
barrier potential varies for different materials.
Under reverse bias the depletion region widens. This
causes the electric field produced by the ions to cancel
out the applied reverse bias voltage. A small leakage
current, Is (saturation current) flows under reverse bias
conditions. This saturation current is made up of electronhole pairs being produced in the depletion region.
Saturation current is sometimes referred to as scale
current because of its relationship to junction
temperature.

Properties of Diodes
Figure 1.10 The Diode Transconductance Curve2

ID

(mA)

VD = Bias Voltage
ID = Current through
Diode. ID is Negative
for Reverse Bias and
Positive for Forward
Bias

IS
VBR

IS = Saturation Current

~V

(nA)

VD

VBR = Breakdown
Voltage
V = Barrier Potential
Voltage

Properties of Diodes
The Shockley Equation
The transconductance curve on the previous slide is characterized by the
following equation:

ID = IS(eVD/VT 1)
As described in the last slide, ID is the current through the diode, IS is the
saturation current and VD is the applied biasing voltage.
VT is the thermal equivalent voltage and is approximately 26 mV at room
temperature. The equation to find VT at various temperatures is:
q
k = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K

VT = kT
T = temperature in Kelvin

q = 1.6 x 10-19 C

is the emission coefficient for the diode. It is determined by the way the
diode is constructed. It somewhat varies with diode current. For a silicon
diode is around 2 for low currents and goes down to about 1 at higher
currents