-Electrical Safety -Electrical Safety Global Developments

Pillai Sreejith

In this presentation……
Section I  Electrical hazards  Electrical accidents – Statistics  Humans & Electricity  Electrical Safety Programme elements Section II  Global Developments in Electrical Safety

Electrical Accidents-Statistics
• • 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA) • 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH) • Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH •About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB, (India) •42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD) • 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due

ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 10 year Period, Chemical Industry

Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents- Major Causes
Working on live equipment w/o

authorization or PPE
Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of

safe-energy conditions
Leaving unsafe conditions

Electricity and People
A person usually offers a lesser resistance

for the electricity The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground Electricity always tries to travel to ground


 Most electrical equipment is designed with a

earthing system  Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?)  Double & Single earthing- differentiation?  Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70  Take action on high ER values  Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out

Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers
 ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks  Detect small amount of leakage current and

automatically switch off the power  Can be used with extension cords and portable tools  Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment, not people  Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300 mA)

Static Electricity
 Created when materials rub together  Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns  Can damage sensitive electronic equipment  Reduced or prevented by:
– Proper grounding – Anti-Static rubber matting – Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines

Electrical Fire Protection
Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable

cellars along with smoke detectors Consider all major electrical fires in EMP Install master control switches outside all stores Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels

Case Study
 An electrician received a shock while trying to

replace a tube light ballast in live power condition.  He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand.  Post Accident Correction:
– Working on live circuits not permitted – LOTO to be strictly enforced

Equipment Operators
Never tamper with electrical interlocks Do not repair electrical components of

your machine Properly shut off machinery before operation Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures Follow PTW procedures strictly

Electrical Preventive Maintenance
 Identification of critical Electrical Equipment  Emergency lighting  Fire Alarm System  Protection Supply DC System  UPS System, Battery Banks  Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70


Planning for EPM
Personal Safety Equipment Failure Production Economics

Electrical Preventive Maintenance
 Implement EPM without slippage  Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil,

DGA, LP system, transformer protective devices- simulation, FA system for electrical rooms, etc.)  Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance  Adopt Risk Based maintenance  Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography)

‘All electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound’


A systematic approach to critically

analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view

Global Developments in Electrical Safety

Present Status - ES-India
•ES Awareness is slowly growing •Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many •More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India •Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings) •Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)

Evolvement of ES Standards / organizationsUnited States
•NFPA - NEC (1897) •NESC (1913), from IEEE •NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)-1970 • OSHA (1970) •NFPA 70 E & B (1979) -approved by OSHA •Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago (1990) •NESF(1994), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC

ES Products...

ES Auditing Techniques
• Electrical Risk Assessment using SemiQuantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique •Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment • Benchmarking against applicable standards: •NFPA 780 Lightning Protection •NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance •NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety

Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique)
Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk- Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issuescorrection at the next available opportunity. Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation

RCCB Tripping
How do we solve this problem in India ? Bypass it !!!

ES related Information
 Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.):

(MoP, CEA web site,http://powermin.nic.in)  Lightning Protection Risk Assessment:www.furse.com  National Electrical Safety Foundation: www.nesf.org  Free safety Power Point presentations: http://siri.org/  Electrical Accidents: http://www.safteng.net:
 IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. 2004

Standards & Codes
 NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance  NFPA 780- Lightning Protection  API RP 2003- Static Electricity  API RP 500- HAC  OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash  NFPA 70- NEC  IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection  NFPA 77- Static Electricity  OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety

 Electricity will try to reach ground even if it     

means going through a person Earthing has an important role in ES Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified Understand effects of Lightning- it could save your life! Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD , lightning in flammable atmospheres

Thank you!!
Pillai Sreejith pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com

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