Major 50 Fires & Explosions 1983 to 2003

Pillai Sreejith pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com

Abbreviations used:
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VCE-Vapour Cloud Explosion BLEVE: Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapour explosion DNA- Details Not Available FLR- Floating Roof Tank Pr- Pressure Fr-Fixed Roof tank Exp- Explosion NA- Not Applicable GL- Ground Level NK- Not Known ff-Fire Fighting

Major Fire / Explosion 1
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Date: 7.1.1983 Location: New York port, NJ, USA Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: FLR Event: VCE Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/0i/0e Property loss: 40.3 Million USD

Major Fire / Explosion 2
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Date: 30.08.1983 Location: Milford Haven, Refinery, U.K. Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire / Boil Over Cause of Fire: Crack in the roof allowed vapours to get ignited by carbon particles from flare Time taken to fight fire:15 h Problems faced in ff:Insufficient foam Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/2i/0e Property loss: 17.3 Million USD

Major Fire / Explosion 3
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Date: 19.11.1984 Location: LPG Depot, San Juanico, Mexico Chemical involved: LPG Type of tank: Pr. Vessel Event: VCE /BLEVE /Fire Cause of Fire: Leak from 12” pipeline ignited by GL flare Time taken to fight fire:8 h Problems faced in ff:Nil Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 650d/20000i/200000e Property loss: 22.5 Million USD

Major Fire / Explosion 4
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Date: 24.2.1986 Location: Oil terminal, Thessalonilca, Greece Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: VCE /Exp/Boil Over Cause of Fire: Hot work in bund area ignited oil spillage Time taken to fight fire:168h Problems faced in ff:Burn back of flame in area extinguished by foam Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 5
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Date: April 1986 Location: Storage Terminal, Usan, South Korea Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:Nil Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 14d/12i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 6
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Date: April 1986 Location: Refinery, Singapore Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 7
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Date: May 1986 Location: Storage Terminal, Saraland, USA Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire /Exp. Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/3i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 8
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Date: May 1986 Location: Refinery, Sardinia, Italy Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: Gas Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Soldering iron ignited during maintenance Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 9
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Date: May 1986 Location: Refinery, Mexico Chemical involved: Gas Oil Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/3000e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 10
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Date: May 1987 Location: Storage Terminal, Kuwait Chemical involved: LPG Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Sabotage Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 11
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Date: May 1987 Location: Tokyo, Japan Chemical involved: Fuel Oil Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Unsafe maintenance act Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 3d/6i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 12
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Date: June1987 Location: Storage Depot., Lyon, France Chemical involved: Gasoilne Type of tank: FLR Event: Exp./Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/16i/00e Property loss: 12 Million Franc

Major Fire / Explosion 13
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Date: 2.6.1987 Location: Shell Depot, Port Edoward, Herriot, France Chemical involved: Flammable Liquid Type of tank: FR Event: Fire /Exp./Boil Over Cause of Fire: Welding Machine ignited flammable spray Time taken to fight fire:32 h Problems faced in ff:Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty equipment Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 14
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Date: 11.6.1987 Location: Refinery, Dalmeny, Grangemouth Chemical involved: Flammable Liquids Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Sludge with flash point less than 1 C ignited by a cigarette Time taken to fight fire:32 h Problems faced in ff:Inadequate foam / lack of heavy duty equipment Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 2d/8i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 15
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Date: Aug 1987 Location: Philadelphia, USA Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA Property loss: 24000 barrels burnt

Major Fire / Explosion 16
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Date: Oct 1987 Location: Plastic plant, Tray Ohio, USA Chemical involved: Molten Polymer Type of tank: FR Event: Fire /Exp. Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/10i/00e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 17
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Date: Dec. 1987 Location: Refinery, Mumbai Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 18
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Date: Dec.1987 Location: Chemical Plant, Basle, Switzerland Chemical involved: Ethylene Oxide Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire / Exp. Cause of Fire: Material Fire Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/6i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 19
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Date: 02.01.1988 Location: Floreffe, Pensylvania Chemical involved: Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Tank shifted 100’ away & spillage went to river Cause of Fire: Rupture of tank due to low temp embitterment & ignited by welding equipment Time taken to fight fire:NA Problems faced in ff:NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 20
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Date: April 1988 Location: Petrochemical Plant, Jubail, Saudi Arabia Chemical involved: Ethylene Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Missile Attack Time taken to fight fire:1 week Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 21
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Date: May 1988 Location: Storage Terminal, Chihuahua City, Mexico Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Electrical Short Circuit Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/150000e Property loss: USD 0.5 Million

Major Fire / Explosion 22
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Date: June 1988 Location: Storage Terminal, Sines, Portugal Chemical involved: Fuel Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Exp./Fire / Roof Blowing Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:Flying roof fell on firemen Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/03i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 23
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Date: 15.06.1988 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Genoa, Italy Chemical involved: Hydrogen Type of tank: Pr. Vessel Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire:NK Problems faced in ff:NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 02d/02i/15000e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 24
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Date: 23.06.1988 Location: Storage Terminal, Mexico Chemical involved: Gasoline Type of tank: FR Event: Exp. Cause of Fire: Sparks of soldering iron ignited overfilled contents through corroded roof Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 04d/14i/10000e Property loss: USD 3 Million

Major Fire / Explosion 25
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Date: 16.07.1988 Location: Refinery, California Chemical involved: Hydrogen Peroxide Type of tank: DNA Event: Exp. /Spillage of 600 BBL Cause of Fire: Sparks welding torch Time taken to fight fire:NA Problems faced in ff:Crew built dykes for containment Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/05i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 26
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Date: 23.10.1988 Location: Electronics Industry, Sunnywale, California, USA Chemical involved: Silane Gas Type of tank: DNA Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Auto Ignition Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:Fire continued till product is consumed Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/04i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 27
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Date: 25.10.1988 Location: Refinery, Singapore Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire: 5 days Problems faced in ff:Mutual Aid sought from govt. & industries Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: USD 8 Million

Major Fire / Explosion 28
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Date: 09.01.1988 Location: Refinery, Mahul, Mumbai Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Exp/fire/roof blowing Cause of Fire: Pipeline burst Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 12d/40i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 29
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Date: 17.01.1989 Location: Fertlizer Plant, Bhatinda, Punjab Chemical involved: Ammonia Type of tank: DNA Event: Gas leak & Fire Cause of Fire: Not Known Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/500i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 30
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Date: 20.03.1989 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Janova, Lithuania Chemical involved: Ammonia Type of tank: Refrigerated storage Event: Fire / Toxic release Cause of Fire: NH3 vapour pressure increased and tank burst due to NH3
compressor failure

Time taken to fight fire:12 h for tank fire & 72 h for fertilizer plant Problems faced in ff:NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 07d/57i/3000e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 31
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Date: 22.03.1989 Location: Storage terminal, Sulfam Voe, U.K. Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 32
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Date: 26.03.1989 Location: Refinery, Porvoo, Finland Chemical involved: Hexane Type of tank: Floating chamber storage tank Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Not Known Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 33
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Date: 30.06.1989 Location: Power Station, Puerto Ayacuho, Venezuela Chemical involved: Fuel Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire / Boil Over Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 34
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Date: 26.08.1989 Location: Refinery,Bahrain Chemical involved: Petroleum Products Type of tank: FR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/03i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 35
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Date: 17.10.1989 Location: Storage Terminal, Rotterdam Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile Type of tank: FR Event: Explosion Cause of Fire: Improper maintenance work Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: DNA Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 36
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Date: 29.05.1991 Location: Refinery, Vishakapatinam Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Lightning strike Time taken to fight fire:1 hour Problems faced in ff:though Halon acted, foam and portable fire extinguishers also were used Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 08d/0i/0e Property loss: approx. 55 lakhs

Major Fire / Explosion 37
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Date: 11.07.1991 Location: ONGC, Mehsana, Gujarat Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire / Roof & shell were blown out Cause of Fire: lightning strike (tank not earthed) Time taken to fight fire:2 ½ h Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 01d/0i/0e Property loss: Rs. 1 crore

Major Fire / Explosion 38
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Date: 21.08.1991 Location: Tank terminal, Coodee Island, Australia Chemical involved: Acrylonitrile Type of tank: FR Event: Lifting of tanks from base & bund, pool fires, tank explosion Cause of Fire: NK Time taken to fight fire:NK Problems faced in ff:NK Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: USD 24 million

Major Fire / Explosion 39
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Date: 02.11.1994 Location: Tank Depot, Dronka, Egypt Chemical involved: Aviation / Diesel Type of tank: FR Event: Blazing liquid flowed into village Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire:NK Problems faced in ff:NK Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: NK Property loss: NK

Major Fire / Explosion 40
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Date: 08.04.1995 Location: Barouch Chemical involved: Impure Methanol Type of tank: FR Event: Fire & Explosion Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 41
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Date: 04.08.1995 Location: Refinery, Baroda Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire / Fire Ball Cause of Fire: Ineffective spark arrestor provided Time taken to fight fire:27 h Problems faced in ff:Intense fire did not allow people to go near the dyke Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: NK

Major Fire / Explosion 42
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Date: 31.12.1995 Location: Pharmaceutical factory, Mohali, Chandigarh Chemical involved: Toulene / HCL Type of tank: FR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Static Electricity Time taken to fight fire:3 ½ h Problems faced in ff:Nil Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: Rs. 3.25 crores

Major Fire / Explosion 43
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Date: 05.01.1996 Location: Petroleum Company, Manesar, India Chemical involved: Acid Type of tank: FR Event: Explosion Cause of Fire: Clogging of filter Time taken to fight fire:NA Problems faced in ff:NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/3i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 44
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Date: 10.02.1996 Location: Thane Chemical involved: Furnace Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Fire & Explosion Cause of Fire: Overheating of coils due to low oil level Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 45
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Date: 09.09.1996 Location: Refinery, Digboi Chemical involved: Crude Oil Type of tank: FR Event: Flash fire through storm water drain Cause of Fire: Spark from nearby hutment Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 46
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Date: 24.09.1996 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Rourkela Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: DNA Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 1d/2i/0e Property loss: DNA

Major Fire / Explosion 47
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Date: 20.07.1997 Location: Refinery, Haldia Chemical involved: Crude Type of tank: FLR Event: Tank rim fire Cause of Fire: Lightning Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:DNA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs

Major Fire / Explosion 48
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Date: 07.10.1997 Location: Refinery, Gujarat Chemical involved: Naphtha Type of tank: FLR Event: Smoke / Fire from the tank roof Cause of Fire: Pyrophoric iron Time taken to fight fire:DNA Problems faced in ff:Foam used, mutual aid assistance from neighboring industries called in for help Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: 0d/0i/0e Property loss: Approximately Rs. 5 lakhs

Major Fire / Explosion 49
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Date: 07.03.2003 Location: Refinery, Digboi, Assam Chemical involved: Motor Spirit / Petrol Type of tank: FLR Event: Fire Cause of Fire: Terrorism Time taken to fight fire:60 h Problems faced in ff:Fire fighting hampered due to collapse of floating roof and partial tank shell Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: Rs. 11.25 crores

Major Fire / Explosion 50
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Date: 09.04.2003 Location: Fertilizer Plant, Paradep,Orissa Chemical involved: Phosphoric Acid Type of tank: FR Event: Explosion Cause of Fire: Pressurization of tank due to generation of Time taken to fight fire:NA Problems faced in ff:NA Deaths /Injuries/Evacuated: Nil Property loss: Rs. 4 crores

Hydrogen due to reaction between Phosphoric acid and steel

Thank you!!

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com

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