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Transportation

Engineering I (CE 653)


Rajesh Khadka
acem

Course Outline
125 = Full Marks
100 = Theory
80 = IOE Final Exam
20 = acem Internal
4 = Attendance
4 = QTs, UTs, CTs, Tutorials, Old questions, Assignments,
Presentations)
6 = Assessment 1
6 = Assessment II

25 = Practical
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1. Introduction to Transportation Engineering (8 M)


1.1 Introduction
1.2 Modes of Transportation
1.3 Comparison between Various Modes of Transportation
1.4 Historical Development of Roads and Road Construction in
Nepal
1.5 Transport Planning including Objective of Road Planning,
National Network Planning, Urban Road Network Planning and
Ring Roads
1.6 Classification of Roads (NRS)

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1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 What is Transportation or Transport?
1.1.2 What is Transportation or Transport Engineering?
1.1.3 What is Highway Engineering?
1.1.4 Scope of Highway Engineering
1.1.5 Basic Purpose of Transportation
1.1.6 Scope of Transportation or Transport Engineering?
1.1.7 History/Evolution of Transportation
1.1.8 Role/Impact of Transportation
1.1.9 What is Transportation System?
1.1.10 Components of Transportation System
1.1.11 Characteristics of Transportation System
1.1.12 Classification of Transportation System
1.1.13 Private and Public Transportation

1.1.14 Urban Transportation System


1.1.15 History of Urban Transportation System

1.1.16 Urban Transportation System in Kathmandu, Nepal


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1.1.1 What is Transportation or Transport?


Transportation (American English) or Transport (British English) is the
movement of people and goods from one place to another.
The term is derived from the Latin trans ("across") and portare ("to
carry").
Transportation or Transportis the movement of people, animals
andgoods from one location to another.

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Movement of People and Goods to Overcome the


Friction of
Geographical Space Efficiently in order to Participate in
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a

1.1.2 What is Transportation or Transport


Engineering?
Branch of Engineering dealing with o planning,

o
o
o
o

One of the Specialization Areas of Civil


Engineering
Multidisciplinary Study
construction,
Comparatively Young Discipline: Only Started
operation,
in 1950s
maintenance, But as an Activity of Life Process as Old as
rehabilitationand Human Civilization

o designing,
o estimation,

o management
- of transportation infrastructures for movement of people
and goods from one place to the other safely, timely, conveniently,
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comfortably, economically by using various modes like highways,

1.1.3 What is Highway Engineering?


An Engineering Discipline branching fromCivil Engineeringthat
involves the o planning,
o design,
o construction,
o operation, and
o maintenance

- of Roads, Bridges andto ensure Safe and


Effectivetransportationof people and goods.
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1.1.4 Scope of Highway Engineering


1. Development, planning and location
2. Highway design
3. Materials, construction and maintenance
4. Traffic operation and its control
5. Roadside development, landscaping and other road furniture
6. Economic, finance and administration
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The T-Shaped New Transportation Professional

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1.1.5 Basic Purpose of Transportation


Why we need the movement?

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1.1.6 Scope of Transportation Engineering


Major Disciplines of Transportation

Transportation engineering can be broadly consisting of the four major parts:


1. Transportation Planning
2. Geometric Design
3. Pavement Design Dealt in TE - II in detail
4. Traffic Engineering Dealt in TE - II in detail
Others
5. Public Transportation
6. Financial and Economic Analysis
7. Environmental Impact Assessment
8. Accident Analysis and Reduction
9. Intelligent
Transportation System
(ITS)
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1.1.7 History/Evolution of Transportation

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1.1.8 Role/Impact of Transportation


1. Economic Development/Role
2. Social Development/Role
3. Spatial Development/Role
4. Cultural Development/Role
5. Environmental Development/Role
6. Political Development/Role
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1.1.9 What is Transportation System?


As defined by Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE):

Application of technology and scientific principles to the o planning,


o functional design,
o operation and
o management

- of facilities for any mode of transportation to provide the


safe,
rapid,
comfortable,
convenient, economical and
environmentally compatible

- movement of people and goods.


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In Other Words, Transportation System


Is a planned network of elements or physical components that play
different roles in the transportation of people & goods
The elements or physical components of a transport system are
referred to as the facilities.
A transportation system can therefore be considered as consisting of
fixed facilities, flow entities, and control system that permit the
movements of peoples and goods.
Transportation system allows people and goods to overcome
friction of geographic space (going from point A to point B)
efficiently to participate in a timely manner in some activity.

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1.1.10 Components of Transportation


System
1) Fixed Facilities Physical Infrastructures
2) Flow Entities Vehicles/Locomotives
3) Control System Operations
a) Vehicular Control
i) Manual
ii) Automated
b) Flow Control

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Fixed Facilities
Are the physical components of the system that are fixed in space and
constitutes the network of links and nodes of the transportation
system.
The links could be roadway segment and railway track and pipes
The nodes could be intersections, interchanges, transit terminals,
harbors, and airports
The design of these fixed facilities has traditionally been within the
realm of civil engineering. i.e. Construction of the fixed facilities is
a subject of civil engineering.
The design includes:

soil and foundation engineering design,


structural engineering design,
the design of drainage systems, and
geometric design, which is concerned with the physical proportioning of the
elements of fixed facilities.

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Fixed Facilities

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Flow Entities
Are the units that traverse the fixed facilities.
These include people, vehicles, container units, railroad cars,
and so on.
In the case of a road system (highways, multilane highways,
freeways, expressways), the fixed facilities are expected to
accommodate a wide variety of vehicle types, ranging from
bicycles to large track-trailer.
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Control System
The control system consists of vehicular control and flow control that keeps the
people achieve their activity goals..
Vehicular control refers to the technological way in which individual vehicles are guided
on fixed facilities.
Vehicular control must incorporate in the proper geometric design of fixed
facilities in addition to the vehicular attributes.
Such controls can be manual or automated.
In the case of highway facilities, where the vehicles are manually controlled, these
include driver's characteristics, such as time a driver takes to perceive and react to
various stimuli.
In the case of automated systems, similar, but more precisely definable response times
exist as well. eg. ITS Intelligent Transportation System
The flow control system consists of the means that permit the efficient and smooth
operation of streams of vehicles and the reduction of conflicts between vehicles.
This system includes various types of signing, marking, and signal systems and the
underlying rules of operation.
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Transportation Demand
Demand for transportation is either derived or indirect.
Transportation
systems
are
generated
transportation needs of community.

to

serve

Community needs to go to school, college, work, shopping,


visiting people etc. This creates demand of transportation.
All these activities have a schedule to fit to. Community
needs to efficiently supply for these needs.
Efficiently means a balance between needs and cost of
construction, environmental effects, convenience, etc.

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Mobility and Accessibility


Mobility refers to the ability to move between different
activity sites
If a facility could move people and goods very fast then that
facility provides very high mobility

Accessibility refers to the number of activity sites


connected by the facility
If a facility provides connection to large number of residences,
commercial places and industrial places then it provides very
high accessibility

Mobility and accessibility are inversely related.


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Mobility & Accessibility

Mobility

Expressways
Multilane Highways
National/State Highways
Feeder Roads/ Postal Highways/Major District Roads
Other District Roads
Village Roads

Accessibility

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Mobility & Accessibility


Urban Expressways

Mobility

Arterials
Sub arterials

Collectors
Locals

Accessibility

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1.1.11 Characteristics of Transportation System


Multi-modal: covering all modes of transport: air, land and sea for both passenger and
freight.
Multi-sector: Encompassing the problems and viewpoints of government, private industry
and public.
Multi-problem: Ranging across a spectrum of issues that includes national and international
policy, planning of regional system, the locating and design of specific facilities, carrier
management issues, regulatory, institutional and financial policies.
Multi-objective: Aiming at national and regional economic development, urban
development, environment quality and social quality as well as service to users and financial
and economic feasibility.
Multi-disciplinary: Drawing on the theories and methods of engineering, economics,
operations research, political science, psychology, other natural and social sciences,
management and law.
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1.1.12 Classification of Transportation


System
1) Primary Modes

a) Land Transportation: (i) Highway (ii) Railway


b) Air Transportation (Aviation): (i) Domestic (ii) International
c) Water Transportation: (i) Inland (ii) Coastal (iii) Ocean/Sea
d) Pipeline Transportation: (i) Water (ii) Gas (iii) Sewer (iv) Others
2) Secondary Modes
e) Ropeways - Cablecars Tuins, Girling
f) Canals
g) Belt Conveyors
h) Others
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Transportation System Classification


How to classify?
Transportation system is often analyzed in terms of various
modes of transportation.
Several possible ways to categorize it based on types of
technology employed, function or type of service provided,
who owns or is responsible for implementation and operation
and so forth.
Also be based on whether they carry primarily freight or
passengers.
Further categorized into 4 major subsystems based on
medium
on which the flowRajesh
entities
are supported.
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Transportation System Classification: Users /


Content
People - Passenger Transportation
Goods - Freight Transportation

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Source:
Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics
& Geography, Hofstra

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Private and Public Transportation

Public Transportation For Hire Services


Further classified as:
Contract carriers and common carriers
Private Not for Hire Services
their availability to the general public and to private
parties and not to their ownership.
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1.1.13 Urban Transportation System

Modes for Intracity or Urban Distribution of Freight (Urban Freight


Transportation) predominately achieved by the Highway Subsystems
using Vans and Trucks of Various Sizes and Capacities.

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Major movements within the urban areas are related to the travel
undertaken by people.
Modes for Urban Passenger Transportation
Water based (Water borne) transportation ?
Found in only a few cities of world

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Air transportation ?
Unsuited for urban travel

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Means of travel available for urban people/passenger are Mainly inland or land based
Include:

Private transportation
services (walking and
private motor vehicles)
and
o Public transportation
services which are
Highways based (Regular
City Buses) and
Others (Urban Rail
Transit Systems)
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1.1.14 History of Urban Transportation


System
Initially cities were pedestrian oriented
Private transportationhorseback and animal drawn carriage
Public transportation in the form of sedan chairs in European
cities and rickshaw in Japan
Motor bus for urban transportation
Private automobile
Jitney services
Taxi
Rapid transitall exclusive right of way system, etc.
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Initially Modern-Era Cities were Pedestrian Oriented

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Private Transportation Horseback and Animal


(Horse, Mule, Ox, Camel, etc.) Drawn Carriage
was Sufficient for Longer Distances

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First known Public Bus Line (known as a "Carriage" at


that time) was launched by French philosopher,
mathematician, scientist,Blaise Pascal in 1662 and was
quite popular until fares were increased and access to the
service was restricted to high society members by regulation.
Services ceased after 15 years. Started the concept of bus.

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There then followed a huge gap in the history of the bus.


There are no records of any other bus services like Pascals
until the early 19th century, when horse-drawn buses began
to appear once more.
Omnibus was invented byStanislas Baudry, France in 1826
The name bus is derived from the Latin word Omnibus
(meaning for all).

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The first 'mechanically propelled, steam powered omnibus


appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833.

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World's first Electric Trolleybus was developed in


Berlin 1882
They were powered by overhead cables.

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Motor Bus for Urban Transportation - The first internal


combustion omnibus was invented in 1895

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Public Transportation in the form of Pulled Rickshaw in


Japan and Sedan Chairs in European cities
Pulled Rickshaw, Japan, about 1897

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Sedan chairs were a major mode of transportation through


Londons narrow streets and along Baths steep lanes
throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and early part of the
19th century.
The chair was named after the town of Sedan in France where
it was first used.
By 1634, they had been introduced to London as vehicles for
hire, and their popularity quickly spread to France and
Scotland, as well as the rest of Europe.

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Private Automobiles

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Jitney Services a small bus that carries passengers over a regular route
on a flexible schedule for a fare appeared around 1915s in Los Angeles

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Taxi - type ofvehicle for hirewith a driver, used by a single passenger


or small group of passengers, often for a non-shared ride
1897DaimlerVictoria was the first gasoline-powered taxicab

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Rapid Transit (RT) System/Mass Rapid Transit


(MRT)/ Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) System all
exclusive right of way system

High-capacitypublic transport generally found in


Rapid Rail Transit (RRT) Systems
urbanCapacity
areas. Rail Transport Systems
Medium

Light Rail transit (LRT) Systems


Monorail Systems
Metro Systems
Suburban and Commuter Rail Systems
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Systems
Automated Urban Metro Subway (AUMS) Systems
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Rapid Rail Transit (RRT)


High-capacityrail transport generally found inurban areas.
Unlikebusesrapid transit systems are electric railways that operate on
an exclusiveright-of-way, which cannot be accessed by pedestrians or
other vehicles of any sort, and which is oftengrade separatedintunnels
or onelevated railways.
TheNew York City Subwayis the world's largest single operator rapid
transit system by number of stations, at 469.

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Singapore Rapid Transit

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Medium Capacity Rail


Rail transportsystem with a capacity greater thanlight rail, but less
than metropolitanrapid transit.
It is also known aslight metroorlight rapid transit.
For example, theTaiwanMCS system can board around 6,00020,000
passengers per hour per direction (p/h/d).
Light railsystems have passenger capacity volumes of around 10,000
12,000 p/h/dor 12,00018,000 p/h/d.

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Light Rail Transit (LRT)


Urbanpublic transportusing rolling stock similar to atramway, but operating at
a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
The termlight railwas coined in 1972 by the U.S. Urban Mass Transportation
Administration
Light Rail Transit (LRT) and Busesoperated in mixed traffic

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Monorail
Amonorailis arailwayin which the track consists of a single rail,
typically elevated.
The term is also used to describe the beam of the system, or the
vehicles traveling on such a beam or track.
The term originates from joiningmono(one) andrail(rail), from as early
as 1897, possibly from Germany.

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Metro
Network of transit ways with frequent, all-day service between stations
with enhanced amenities.
Some METRO lines use trains, others use buses.
Whether it runs on a road or on tracks, customers can expect trips at
least every 15 minutes throughout most of the day.
In some cases, metro systems are referred to assubways
Earliest metro system, theLondon Underground, first opened as an
"underground railway" in 1863

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Suburban and Commuter Rail


Train services that connect city centres with outer suburbs or nearby cities, with
most passengers doing work or school commuting.
Passenger rail transportservice that primarily operates between a city centre, and
the middle to outer suburbs beyond 15km (10 miles) andcommuter townsor
other locations that draw large numbers ofcommuters people who travel on a
daily basis.
Trains operate following a schedule, at speeds varying from 50 to 200km/h (30 to
125mph).
Unlike metros, these systems usually operate on main line tracks unsegregated
from other rail traffic.
And unlikelight rail, they also usually have lower service frequencies but generally
offer multiple services throughout work days andpeak hours.

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Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)


High-quality bus-based transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective services at metrolevel capacities.
It does this through the provision of dedicated lanes, with busways and iconic stations typically aligned to the
center of the road, off-board fare collection, and fast and frequent operations.
BRT aims to combine the capacity and speed oflight railormetrowith the flexibility, lower cost and simplicity
of a bus system
With the right features, BRT is able to avoid the causes of delay that typically slow regular bus services, like
being stuck in traffic and queuing to pay on board.
The first BRT system was inCuritiba, Brazil, which entered service in 1974.

This inspired many similar systems around Brazil and the world, such asTransMilenioinBogot,Colombia,
which opened in 2000.

As of October 2014, 186 cities in six continents have implemented BRT systems.
In Nepal
- study of BRT along Ringroad.
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Automated Urban Metro Subway (AUMS)


TheLondon Underground'sVictoria line, opened in 1967, was the first line
operated with Automatic Train Operation.
Trains operate without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming
within the train, or with no staff on board.

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High-Speed Rail: Bullet Train


Operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an
integrated system of specializedrolling stockand dedicated tracks.
Shinkansen, Japan: The maximum operating speed is 320km/h
(200mph).]Test runs have reached 443km/h (275mph) for conventional
rail in 1996.

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Maglev
Maglev(derived from magnetic levitation) is a transport method that uses magnetic levitation to
move
vehicles
without
touching
the
ground.
Withmaglev, a vehicle travels along a guideway using magnets to create both lift and propulsion,
thereby reducing friction by a great extent and allowing very high speeds.
Construction of the line began in March 1, 2001, and public commercial service commenced on 1
January 2004.
The top operational commercial speed of this train is 431km/h (268mph), making it the world's
fastest train in regular commercial service since its opening in April 2004.
Japan's newmaglevbullet train is now the fastest in the world.
Japan Railways' latest mag-lev bullet train just broke its own record as the fastest train in the world.
The bullet train travelled at 603 kph (374 mph), blowing through last week's top speed of 590 kph
(366 mph).

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Para Transit
Recognized in North America as specialtransportation
services for people with disabilities, often provided as a
supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by
publictransitagencies.

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Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)


Operated on a network of specially built guideways - small automated vehicles
Also referred to as Podcars.
PRT is a type of Automated GuidewayTransit(AGT), a class of system which also
includes larger vehicles all the way to small subway systems.
Horizontal elevators

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Articulated System
Articulated Bus - (either amotor busortrolleybus)
Usually asingle-deckdesign, and comprises two rigid sections linked by
apivoting joint(articulation) enclosed by protective folding
Approximately 18 m (59ft) in length; standard rigid-construction buses
are usually 11 to 14 m (36 to 46ft).
Bi-articulated bus, where the vehicle has two trailer sections rather than
one. Their capacity is around 200 people, and their length about 25 m
(82ft).
Flow units can be connected to form trains

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Cable cars

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1.1.16 Urban Transportation System in Kathmandu,


Nepal
Passenger Transportation
Private Transportation

o Bicycles, Electric Cycles


o Tricycles (for Disabled People))
o Motorbikes
o Scooters
o Cars,
Jeep Vans
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Public Transportation
o Rickshaw
o Taxis
o Tempos (Electric, LPG)
o Jeep, Vans
o Microbus/Hiace
o Minibus
o Large Bus
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Freight Transportation
Tricycles (Thela Gada)

Pick Ups

Mini Trucks
Trucks

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Tippers

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Few Asked Questions in IOE Examinations


1. 2068 R/B: What is transportation planning?
2. 2068 R/B: Why the development of public transportation should be
given preference over the development of private transportation?
3. 2068 B: Why Macadam is considered as a pioneer of modern roads?
4. 2068 B: Differentiate between public and private transportation.
5. 2069 R: Why road transportation is considered the most feasible in our country?
6. 2069 R: Explain the road classification system based on NRS.
7. 2070 R: Explain briefly, the classification of transportation system.
8. 2070 B: Explain different roles of transportation in society.
9. 2070 B: Write down the scope of highway engineering.
10.2072 R: Explain the components of transportation system. What are the
objectives of road planning?
11.2072 B: Discuss in detail the classification of roads as per NRS.
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At the End of this Lecture: Transportation


Engineering is
An Interesting / Exciting/ Highly Demanding Sector of Civil
Engineering !
Scope of Employment
o 50% Government Sectors
o 40% Contractors, Consultants
o 5% Research, Teaching
o 5% Others: Railways, Aviation, Transport Companies, etc.
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