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# 4.

Time Study
The major objective of this chapter is to
learn how to calculate a time standard
based on stopwatch time study
procedures.

Time Study

## A process for measuring the required time for

performing a given task, by a given method,
by a trained worker, working in a normal
pace.
Why needed?

## For determining time standards

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

## Needs for Time Standard

Developing schedules
Determining wage payment plans
Estimating production costs
Providing a base for estimating productivity
goals
Appraising employee performance
Evaluating alternative process, equipment

Standards

## Direct time study

Cyclic work
Non cyclic work

Work sampling
Synthetic data

Predetermined times

## Direct Time Study

Methods improvement
Selection of the examined workers
Explanation (union, managers, workers)
Collecting and recording information

Methodology

Who to choose?

## Select an Average Worker (What is average?)

Experienced operator
Normal pace

## Consistency (well defined, understood by all)

No undue strain for entire day (speed/effort)
Pace that should be performed, not average of current rate

Rating accuracy
Worker acceptance

## Can you suggest a better method?

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

## Identify the TASK/ CYCLE to be studied before time study

Method
Layout of workplace
Equipment used
Environmental conditions
Machine speeds and feeds
Inspection equipment
Communications with foreman, workers
Establish relationship
Elemental analysis
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Fundamental definitions

What is an ELEMENT?

## Element is a component of job or task that

are logical divisions with easily identifiable
starting and end points, and are repeated
on a regular basis

What is a CYCLE?

## Cycle is the completion of the activities

(elements) required to perform the job
under study.
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Element Analysis

## Every element must have an easily

identifiable starting and ending point
(breakpoints)
No discontinuities between elements
Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min
(reasonable)
Relative frequency must be included

Timing Methods

Continuous

## Advantage: Clock never stops, no time omitted

Disadvantage: observer does not know at the job
how individual elements vary

Snapback

## Advantage: Observer can note individual variability

within an element and eliminate substraction
Disadvantages: difficult to coordinate eye, watch
and task! Especially when operations are short
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Determining Number of
Cycles
Time measurement

Measuring time of
each element
The number of
observation of each
element depends on
the significance level
and required level of
accuracy

## Primary time study

(normally 5 to 10
observation)
Examination of the
required number of
observations (N)
Continue study up to N
observations
Re-checking the required
number of observations (n)

N=n

No

N>=n
Yes
End the time study

## TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Recommended number of
cycles/observations

Maytag Company
Approach

Study

## Dont comment to the worker during the task

Stand (dont sit) beside the worker
Write every event (even though it may seems not
important)
Have a good position to observe
Stop the study if the worker seems to be under
pressure and it affects his/her work

## Rating evaluation may be written once in a

couple of cycles
Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min
(reasonable)
Denoting non-cyclic elements
The breakpoint between elements should be
clear (touch, push, etc.).

## TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Types of Elements

duration)
Cyclic/non cyclic
a function of weight)
Avoidable/unavoidable unproductive
elements (sometimes hard to identify)

Work

## Use continuous timing

Divide the task into relatively large elements
Write the evaluated performance rate at the
end of each element
Multiply the observed time with the rate and
summarize the data

RATING FACTORS

## Do we expect the average

worker to work in normal
rating ?

## Rating Evaluation Methods

Subjective judgment
Practice by watching movies
For a study with long elements, rate each
separately
Methods:

Speed rating
Westinghouse

(Westinghouse)

## Criteria for Successful

Speed
Rating Evaluation

## Experience in the class of work performed

Selection of an operator who gives
performances between 85 and 115
Use of the average value of three or more
independent studies

## TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Elements of Allowances
Personal
Need

Basic
Fatigue

Variable
Fatigue

Unavoidable
Delays

Constant
Allowances

Avoidable
Delays

Extra
Allowances

Special Allowances

Normal
Time

Standard
Time

## Standard Data Systems

Elemental times, based on previous time
studies, which have been proven to be
accurate and reliable.
Tabulated element standards that allow the
measurement of a specific job without the
use of timing devices.

## Given we have the plans for a

new building, how much labor is
needed and what will it be used
for?

(40 strip)

## Given we have a new part to run

through the punch press, what
will be the standard time for
the part?

Study

## More consistent standards results

Duplicate time studies on similar operations
are eliminated
Standards are established more rapidly
Less experienced analysts can calculate
standards (use the formula not develop it)
Accurate labor costs and production times
can be estimated before production begins
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

of standard data
Model
Element 119

130

220

310

311

322

329

10

0.24

0.22

0.23

0.23

0.24

0.22

0.23

20

0.38

0.35

0.35

0.37

0.36

0.36

0.37

30

12.06

10.44

8.71

6.58

10.83

6.34

7.25

40

3.66

4.81

0.00

2.79

5.84

4.55

4.10

50

0.00

1.63

1.91

1.69

1.80

1.45

0.00

60

0.12

0.12

0.13

0.11

0.14

0.14

0.13

Possible Drivers
Model NT 3/4/5

D1

D2

119

15.72

18.00

27.25

20.00

130

16.88

23.50

33.50

16.00

220

10.62

2.50

1.50

11.06

3.00

7.25

311

18.47

25.00

44.00

322

12.34

12.00

18.25

329

11.35

3.00

8.00

310

18.00
14.00
12.00

D1

10.00

D2

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

Correlation

n X1 X 2 X1 X 2
r
2
2
2
n X2
X1
n X2 X2

## Is there a relationship between

D1 and the combined time for
n
X1
X2
X1^2
X2^2
X1*X2
elements
30,
40,
and 50?
1

15.72

18.00

247.1184

324.00

282.96

16.88

23.50

284.9344

552.25

396.68

10.62

2.50

112.7844

6.25

26.55

11.06

3.00

122.3236

9.00

33.18

18.47

25.00

341.1409

625.00

461.75

12.34

12.00

152.2756

144.00

148.08

11.35

3.00

128.8225

9.00

34.05

Sums

96.44

87.00

1389.3998

1669.50

1383.25

r =

0.977
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Linear Regression
Y

Y = b0 + b1X

X Y X XY

b0
2
n X 2 X

b1

n XY X Y

n X 2 X

Operations

## How long will it take

to drill a 1-inch hole
through two inches
of malleable cast
iron?