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4.

Time Study
The major objective of this chapter is to
learn how to calculate a time standard
based on stopwatch time study
procedures.

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Time Study

A process for measuring the required time for


performing a given task, by a given method,
by a trained worker, working in a normal
pace.
Why needed?

For methods improvement

For determining time standards


TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Needs for Time Standard

Developing schedules
Determining wage payment plans
Estimating production costs
Providing a base for estimating productivity
goals
Appraising employee performance
Evaluating alternative process, equipment

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Methods for Creating Time


Standards

Direct time study

Cyclic work
Non cyclic work

Work sampling
Synthetic data

Predetermined times

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Direct Time Study - Tools

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Direct Time Study

Methods improvement
Selection of the examined workers
Explanation (union, managers, workers)
Collecting and recording information
Task division into elements

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Methodology

Who to choose?

Select an Average Worker (What is average?)


Experienced operator
Normal pace

Consistency (well defined, understood by all)


No undue strain for entire day (speed/effort)
Pace that should be performed, not average of current rate

Rating accuracy
Worker acceptance

Can you suggest a better method?


TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Preparation for Timing

Identify the TASK/ CYCLE to be studied before time study


Analyze the Complete Task
Method
Layout of workplace
Equipment used
Environmental conditions
Machine speeds and feeds
Inspection equipment
Communications with foreman, workers
Documents for process, task instructions
Establish relationship
Elemental analysis
Break task into elements
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Fundamental definitions

What is an ELEMENT?

Element is a component of job or task that


are logical divisions with easily identifiable
starting and end points, and are repeated
on a regular basis

What is a CYCLE?

Cycle is the completion of the activities


(elements) required to perform the job
under study.
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Element Analysis

Every element must have an easily


identifiable starting and ending point
(breakpoints)
No discontinuities between elements
Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min
(reasonable)
Relative frequency must be included

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Timing Methods

Continuous

Advantage: Clock never stops, no time omitted


Disadvantage: observer does not know at the job
how individual elements vary

Snapback

Advantage: Observer can note individual variability


within an element and eliminate substraction
Disadvantages: difficult to coordinate eye, watch
and task! Especially when operations are short
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Determining Number of
Cycles
Time measurement

Measuring time of
each element
The number of
observation of each
element depends on
the significance level
and required level of
accuracy

Primary time study


(normally 5 to 10
observation)
Examination of the
required number of
observations (N)
Continue study up to N
observations
Re-checking the required
number of observations (n)

N=n

No

N>=n
Yes
End the time study

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Recommended number of
cycles/observations

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Maytag Company
Approach

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Rules for Performing Time


Study

Dont comment to the worker during the task


Stand (dont sit) beside the worker
Write every event (even though it may seems not
important)
Have a good position to observe
Stop the study if the worker seems to be under
pressure and it affects his/her work

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Time Study On Cyclic Work

Rating evaluation may be written once in a


couple of cycles
Elements times: 0.04min (short), 0.25min
(reasonable)
Denoting non-cyclic elements
The breakpoint between elements should be
clear (touch, push, etc.).

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Types of Elements

Manual/machine (determines the task


duration)
Cyclic/non cyclic
Fixed time/ variable time (i.e. loading time as
a function of weight)
Avoidable/unavoidable unproductive
elements (sometimes hard to identify)

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Time Study on Non Cyclic


Work

Use continuous timing


Divide the task into relatively large elements
Write the evaluated performance rate at the
end of each element
Multiply the observed time with the rate and
summarize the data

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

RATING FACTORS

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Do we expect the average


worker to work in normal
rating ?

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Rating Evaluation Methods

Subjective judgment
Practice by watching movies
For a study with long elements, rate each
separately
Methods:

Speed rating
Westinghouse

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Performance Rating Table


(Westinghouse)

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Criteria for Successful


Speed
Rating Evaluation

Experience in the class of work performed


Selection of an operator who gives
performances between 85 and 115
Use of the average value of three or more
independent studies

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Elements of Allowances
Personal
Need

Basic
Fatigue

Variable
Fatigue

Unavoidable
Delays

Constant
Allowances

Avoidable
Delays

Extra
Allowances

Special Allowances

Total Allowances Allowances

Normal
Time

Standard
Time

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Standard Data Systems


Elemental times, based on previous time
studies, which have been proven to be
accurate and reliable.
Tabulated element standards that allow the
measurement of a specific job without the
use of timing devices.

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Construction Cost Estimating

Given we have the plans for a


new building, how much labor is
needed and what will it be used
for?

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Punch Press Standard Data


(40 strip)

Given we have a new part to run


through the punch press, what
will be the standard time for
the part?

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Advantages Over Direct Time


Study

More consistent standards results


Duplicate time studies on similar operations
are eliminated
Standards are established more rapidly
Less experienced analysts can calculate
standards (use the formula not develop it)
Accurate labor costs and production times
can be estimated before production begins
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

To Illustrate the development


of standard data
Model
Element 119

130

220

310

311

322

329

10

0.24

0.22

0.23

0.23

0.24

0.22

0.23

20

0.38

0.35

0.35

0.37

0.36

0.36

0.37

30

12.06

10.44

8.71

6.58

10.83

6.34

7.25

40

3.66

4.81

0.00

2.79

5.84

4.55

4.10

50

0.00

1.63

1.91

1.69

1.80

1.45

0.00

60

0.12

0.12

0.13

0.11

0.14

0.14

0.13

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Possible Drivers
Model NT 3/4/5

D1

D2

119

15.72

18.00

27.25

20.00

130

16.88

23.50

33.50

16.00

220

10.62

2.50

1.50

11.06

3.00

7.25

311

18.47

25.00

44.00

322

12.34

12.00

18.25

329

11.35

3.00

8.00

Time 30/40/50 (Hrs/1000)

310

18.00
14.00
12.00

D1

10.00

D2

8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

Dimensions (D1 and D2 - inches)

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Correlation

n X1 X 2 X1 X 2
r
2
2
2
n X2
X1
n X2 X2

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Is there a relationship between


D1 and the combined time for
n
X1
X2
X1^2
X2^2
X1*X2
elements
30,
40,
and 50?
1

15.72

18.00

247.1184

324.00

282.96

16.88

23.50

284.9344

552.25

396.68

10.62

2.50

112.7844

6.25

26.55

11.06

3.00

122.3236

9.00

33.18

18.47

25.00

341.1409

625.00

461.75

12.34

12.00

152.2756

144.00

148.08

11.35

3.00

128.8225

9.00

34.05

Sums

96.44

87.00

1389.3998

1669.50

1383.25

r =

0.977
TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Linear Regression
Y

Y = b0 + b1X

X Y X XY

b0
2
n X 2 X

b1

n XY X Y

n X 2 X

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics

Standard Times for Machining


Operations

How long will it take


to drill a 1-inch hole
through two inches
of malleable cast
iron?

TI 2111 Work System Design and Ergonomics