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EMOTIONS &

ATTITUDE

Shraddha ShrivastavaE 51
Shreya SharmaE 52
Saurav-

E 65

S Pon Balaji-

E 66

What are
Emotions &
Moods?

Affect
Broad range of feelings

Emotions

Moods

Specific event; brief;


distinct expression;
action oriented

Cause is unclear; lasts


longer; no distinct
expression; cognitive

Basic Emotions

Rene Descartes identified six


simple and primitive passions
Wonder, Love, Hatred, Desire,
Joy and Sadness

Basic Emotions

Psychologists try to identify emotions via facial expressions

Companies offer Anger Management Programs to hide/contain


emotions

Researchers plot basic emotions in continuum:


Happiness-surprise-fear-sadness-anger-disgust

Basic Moods

Positive & Negative Affect

Positive emotions- joy & gratitude

Negative emotions anger & guilt

Emotions cant be neutral - non emotional

Grouping emotions into positive and negative categories


mood states

High Negative
Affect

Tense

Nervous
Stressed

Alert

High Positive
Affect
Excited
Elated

Upset

Happy

Sad

Content

Depressed
Bored

Low Positive
Affect

Fatigued

Serene
Relaxed

Low Negative
Calm Affect

Structure
Of Mood

Basic Moods

Positive & Negative Affect

Positive & negative affect color our perceptions

Negative emotions negative moods

Thinking about negative emotions is five times higher than


thinking about positive (negative is more unusual)

Positivity Offset- with zero input, one is in a mildly positive mood

Functions Of Emotions

Rationality and emotions are in conflict

Demonstration / experience of emotions makes us seem weak /


brittle / irrational

Must have ability to experience emotions to be rational (Phineas


Gage case)

Emotions provide information on how we understand the world

Personalit
Personalit
y
y
Gender
Gender

Sources Of Emotions
Day
Day of
of the
the
week
and
week and
Time
Time of
of
the
day
the day

Age
Age

Weather
Weather

SOURC
ES

Exercise
Exercise

Stress
Stress

Sleep
Sleep

Social
Social
Activities
Activities

Emotional Labour

Emotional labour refers to the employees expression of organizationally desired emotions


during interpersonal transactions at work

The concept of emotional labour arose from studies of service jobs

Emotional labour creates dilemmas for employees

There may be some situations where we may not be able to display the emotions that our
organisation expects from us as the individuals emotional condition may differ from what
he is expected to display

This disparity is called emotional dissonance

Emotional Labour:

It really helps if we learn how to separate our emotions into felt emotions and
displayed emotions

Felt emotions are an individuals actual emotions


Emotions displayed which are for the organisational desires are displayed emotions

For example the look on the faces of the runners up at a Miss Universe competition
is an example of displayed emotions

Displaying fake emotions requires us to suppress real ones

Surface acting is hiding inner feelings and acting as per rules

Emotional Labour:

Deep acting is trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules.

Affective Events Theory

It is a model that demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that


happen to them at work, and this reaction influences their job performance and
satisfaction.

Affective Events Theory:

Test of affective events theory suggest the following:

An emotional episode is actually a series of emotional experiences, precipitated by a


single event and containing elements of both emotions and mood

Current emotions influence job satisfaction at any given time along with history of
emotions surrounding event

Because moods and emotions fluctuate over time, their effect on performance also
fluctuates

Emotion driven behaviours are typically short in duration and of high variability

Because emotions, even positive ones, tend to be incompatible with behaviors


required to do job, they typically have a negative influence on job performance

Emotional Intelligence

It is a persons ability to be (i) self aware (ii) to detect emotions in others and
(iii) manage emotional cues and information

Case for EI:

Intuitive appeal

Predicts criteria that matter

EI is biologically based

Case against EI:

Too vague

Cant be measured

Validity is suspect

Applications Of Emotions And


Moods
Selection
Decision making
Creativity
Motivation
Leadership

Applications Of Emotions And


Moods
Customer service
Job attitudes
Deviant workplace behaviours
Safety and injury at work
Negotiations

An Ethical Choice
CAREER
DEPENDS

DATING
DOWN

DATING UP

BE
PROACTIVE

GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS

DEGREE

NORMS

INTERPRETATIO
N

Attitude

The greatest discovery of my generation is that a human being can alter his life by altering his attitude
- WILLIAM JAMES

Types Of Attitude

Positive Attitude

Negative Attitude

What Can A Positive Attitude Do?

A positive attitude can impact every aspect of your life. People who
maintain a positive approach to life situations and challenges will be able
to move forward more constructively than those who become stuck in a
negative attitude. Your mental and physical health can be improved by
learning how to hold a positive state of mind.

Attitude What Does This Mean?

Attitude is a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a


certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an
individuals choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives,
and rewards

Example If someone says, I like this restaurant then he/she is showing


his/her attitude towards the particular outlet

Attitude Structure

Three components of attitude are:

Cognition - A description or belief in the way things are

Affect - Emotional or feeling segment

Behavior - Intention to behave in a particular manner

Cognition

A statement like my pay is less is a description

The aspect of description or belief is the cognitive component of attitude

This sets the stage for the Affective Component

Example of Cognitive component: An employees description of supervisor at


work is

Affect

Cognitive component sets stage for Affective component

This is the Emotional & Feeling segment of Attitude

An employees description such as Im upset on how I was


behaved with is a reflection of the same

Its actually how an employee reacts emotionally

Behavior

This is the intention to behave in a certain manner

The behavior can be towards someone or some issue

Behavioral component is little detached from the other two


components, as it might get personally biased

An example: Im going to look for another job that pays better

The components of an Attitude


Cognitive = Evaluation
My supervisor gave a
promotion to my Co-worker
who deserved it less than
me

Affective = Feeling
I dislike my supervisor

Behavioral = Action
Id complain about my
supervisor to anyone who
would listen

Negative
attitude
towards
supervisor

Does Behavior Follow Attitude?

Few researchers believe that it is true as attitude people hold determines how
they perform

Just like how people watch TV programs they like, employees try to avoid
assignments they find distasteful

It refers to Cognitive dissonance i.e. incompatibility an individual might


perceive between two or more attitudes

Leon Feininger argues in his theory Attitude follows behavior that any form
of inconsistency is uncomfortable and the individual will attempt to reduce the
dissonance & hence, the discomfort

Major Job Attitudes

Three major Job Attitudes:

Job Satisfaction - it describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its
characteristics

Job Involvement - this measures the degree people identify jobs performance to their own self worth

Organizational Commitment - a state where employee identifies with the job, organization and its goal
and commits himself to it

Job Satisfaction
MEANING:

Job Satisfaction is defined as the positive feeling which comes


after evaluating the characteristics of the job

As there are so many aspects to job Satisfaction it is difficult to


define the exact definition

Popular approaches for measuring job satisfaction are Single


global rating and summation of job facets

Are we satisfied with our job?

The answer generally from employees as per a survey in most developed


countries is yes

Research over past 30 years generally indicate workers satisfied with their jobs
rather than being dissatisfied

Satisfaction depends upon various aspects like work environment, co-workers,


supervisors, etc.

How satisfied people are?

Research has shown that jobs which provide more training, variety,
independence and control over the area of work provide the maximum
satisfaction

Apart form these the over all job is the prime reason for Job satisfaction

Most people prefer jobs that are challenging & stimulating over work that is
predictable or routine

Causes of job satisfaction

The relation of salary & job satisfaction poor economy employee would relate
to money as job satisfaction

People who are positive of themselves are more likely to like their jobs

This is referred to as Core Self-evaluation who believe in their inner worth and
competence

Positive Core Self-evaluation Higher Job Satisfaction

Negative Core Self-evaluation Lower Job Satisfaction

Satisfied & Unsatisfied Employees

There are consequences when employees like or dislike their jobs

A theoretical model the Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect framework


helps in understanding consequence of dissatisfaction

The four responses of this framework is shown in the next slide


along two dimensions : Constructive/Destructive & Active/Passive

Satisfied & Unsatisfied Employees


Active
EXIT
Direct behaviour to leave
organization
Looking for new position &
resigning

VOICE
Active & constructive attempt to
improve conditions
Suggest improvements
Discuss problems
Undertake union forms

Constructi
ve

Destructi
ve
NEGLECT
Passively allow conditions to worsen
Chronic absenteeism or lateness
Reduced effort
Increased Error rate

LOYALTY
Patiently allow conditions to improve
Speaking for organization against
criticism
Trusting the organization &
its management to do right things

Passive

Thank