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Deep Water

Group Members:
Amir Hany Marcos

Samuel Adel Thabet

Shams el-Dein Mohamed Ashraf
Why DW?
DW world profile
DW Challenges
DW Equipment
Safety in DW
Why Deep Water?
R e ce n t in cre a se o f cru d e o ilp rice s a t th e w o rld
m a rke t a llo w s o ilco m p a n ie s to d e ve lo p e ve n
m a rg in a la n d d e e p -se a h yd ro ca rb o n d e p o sits.
Fig . 1 illu stra te s th e la te st d e e p -w a te r re co rd s o f
o ffsh o re p ro d u ctio n fa cilitie s in th e N o rth S e a ,
th e G u lf o f M exico ( G O M ) a n d th e C a m p o s B a sin
in B ra zil. O th e r p ro m isin g d e e p -se a a re a s a re
fo u n d in th e w a te rs o ff W e st A frica a n d
S o u th e a st A sia / A u stra lia .

Current Global Deepwater Portfolio
United Kingdom


Trinidad Philippines

Gulf of Mexico


Brazil Angola
DW – Drilling Rigs: History

1970, DPDS
Drilling for oil: 3rd century AD, Sedco 445

1999 DPDS, Belford Dolphin

1953, Submarex. 1st Drill -ship

1971, DPDS
1861, 1st Modern
drilling rig

1962, Eureka, 1st Dynamically Positioned DS

2001 DPDS Discoverer Deep seas
1933, Giliasso
1st Mobile unit
Deepwater Challenges
Exploration Drilling Completions & Production

§Seismic imaging §High drilling costs §High completion costs

§Limited §Narrow drilling margin §Unconsolidated
geologic/analogue well formations
information §Borehole stability
challenges §Low reservoir porosity
§Lack of reservoir and permeability
modeling §Complex well variances
§Defining base of salt §Reservoir quality and
§Extreme reservoir depths flow capability
§Drilling optimization §Casing size limitations
§Salt exit strategy §Salt creep
§Unexpected “tar” §Offsetting production
formations declines
Exploration Challenge
Areas of Limited Well Control: Gain Reservoir

Wells are growing in complexity
Reservoir targets are smaller

Geosteering for the Digital Asset

Exploration Challenge
Areas of Limited Well Control: Gain Reservoir

Geosteering for the Digital

Build an accurate earth model
using all available data
Refine earth models and
engineer’s well plan in real
time to reduce uncertainty
Steer the well to the most
productive zones
Drilling Challenge
Improve Drilling Efficiency: Impact Project Economics
A Success Story
Optimize mud weight and manage ECD in a deepwater subsalt exploration
formation pressure tester for real-time formation pressure measurements
Completions Challenge
Lower Completion Costs: Achieve High Production Rates

Customer Challenge:
Lower completions costs
Achieve maximum production

Control sand

Single Trip Multi-Zone (STMZ™)

Completion Systems
Completions Challenge
Lower Completion Costs: Achieve High Production Rates

Single Trip Multi-Zone

Allows treating long production intervals with higher

pump rates

Good for low permeability reservoirs

Can divert different proppants to different zones

In recent years, there have been
considerable advances in the technology
required to drill a deepwater well and this
has opened up new frontiers for
exploration and
As a result the number of
drilling vessels and associated
equipment capable of
operating in a deepwater
environment has increased
significantly. Prior to the
efficiency gains demonstrated
through new equipment, and
associated work processes,

safety issues were driving rig

floor automation.

complex and expensive…
Christmas Trees
Christmas Trees as shown are
integral components of sub-sea
developments. A great number of
these trees cover a hydrocarbon
deposit allowing simultaneous
production from up to 59 wells.
Christmas Trees provide blowout
prevention, pressure and
temperature monitoring as well as
data read back from down hole
instrumentation through control
By umbilical's, some of these
parameters are interactively
controlled from the central
producing vessel. In addition,
electrical power is transmitted to
Tripping adds up.
the typical distance of

pipe to be tripped from a

basic deepwater well
program. It can be seen
that tripping requires
transporting and handling
397,000ft. Manual
handling in certain
cases be proved more
efficient but somewhere
between no and full
automation is felt to result
in the most effective,
efficient and loss free

Vertical pipe racking

Vertical pipe racking is

certainly one of the
newest technologies
that have increased
deepwater capability,
safety, and efficiency
in new offshore rigs
built in the last three
They permit operations off

the drilling critical path

and enable expanded
operational efficiency

Automated systems such as

vertical pipe racking were

not conceived to merely
replace man with machine or
to automate a manual
process. They were also
designed to change the very
processes of tubular

“A new toolset for marine sciences deep
sea” operations

The GEOSTAR system

consists of two main
components - the deep-sea
intervention tool named
MODUS and the innovative
deep-sea observatory. This
benthic station is capable
to perform autonomous,
long-term geophysical,
geochemical and
observations in abyssal
depths. The acquired data
are transmitted via by
acoustic telemetry.
“A. new toolset for marine sciences deep
sea” operations
the MODUS ROV is a very
cost effective tool.
In addition, two persons
are required to check
functionality of the
sensors and to start
operation of the benthic
For reliability and cost
reduction reasons, the
GEOSTAR system uses
deep sea proved ‘out of
the shelf’ components
like thrusters, sonar,
altimeter , underwater
lights and cameras or
acoustic releases
“Deep Water Solution”
Artificial Seabed .

 (introduced by Atlantis)
Sub sea Blowout preventer
A blowout preventer  (BOP) is a large valve
that can seal off at the surface wellhead a
well being drilled or worked over.


1-Ram Bop

Piperam : have smicircular openings that match the

diameters of pipe sizes for which they are designed

Blind ram: designed to close when no pipe is in the hole

Shear ram: used to shear the drillstring and

prevent flow From the well
2-Annular Bop or “Bag type preventor ” :

Used to stop flow by using apacking element

“synthetic rubber ”Around any size of drill
pipe .

3-Rotary Bop:

Seal around the kelly at the top of the Bop

-When air or gas used as drilling fluid.
-Underbalance drilling.
Landing sub sea Bop:
Why Bop is important?
Transport off shore rigs:
Safety in
Deepwater drilling

In deepwater operations due to the increased distance

required to transport material and equipment from the
drill floor to the seabed and with increased day rate
costs of larger “fit for purpose” drilling units required.
Rig efficiency is a prime candidate to improve upon in
order to reduce operating times and drilling costs.
Figure 1 : Man hours
breakdown , deepwater GOM .
It can be concluded from figure 1
therefore that as equipment rig up ,
pipe handling / tripping , BOP , casing ,
running etc . account for more that 55 %
of drilling operations .
These areas should thus be targeted
to improve rig efficiencies . In recent
years therefore a new generation of
deepwater drilling units with
increased , dual and automated drilling
equipment handling capabilities and
capacity have evolved .
Figure 2 ; UK accidents
breakdown 97 / 98
Furthermore from the pie chart in figure
2, >56% of all safety related incidents
occur with manual handling equipment.
incentives to more reliable, efficient
and effective handling systems, could if
designed with operational ease of use in
mind lend towards being key drivers to
delivering safety statistics to a more
desirable level.
Deepwater equipment standards
required .
The following rig equipment requirements
for a semi-submersible, conventional
drillship and a new generations
deepwater drillship, serve to illustrate
the required
specifications that are required for
deep open water environments compared to
conventional operations
* Equipment should be fit for purpose, operationally

functional, simple to operate, with critical spares

requirements fully assessed.
* Adequate deck load and deck space should be available
to store complete riser together with drilling tubular,
bulk, casing etc.
* Tensioner capacity must be adequate to capably handle
the maximum water depth at a predetermined maximum
mud weight.
* Adequate power must be available to continue drilling
while maintaining position in rough weather.
*Station keeping ability is required that must have
considered the rigs stability characteristics and
anticipated operating environments.
* 10 or 12 point anchoring system are preferred, with high
holding power anchors to suit softer seabed condition.
* Moon pool facilities to efficiently deploy and launch ROV
and related sub sea equipment.

* A planned Maintenance system to afford quality assurance of all

* High pressure 7500psi circulating pipe work, 3 or 4 1600-
2200HHP triplex mud pumps to be able to clean the wellbore and
the marine riser as required.
* Large variable deck load, deck space, with good transportation
capabilities are to carry and transport all drilling tools and
equipment in all work environments.
* Adequate mud pit and reserve capacity > 5000 bbls
* Efficient BOP and riser handling system
* 20 - 25 ft compensator preferably, Crown mounted and/or Active
* Adequate skidding areas and space for simultaneously handling
sub sea trees, sub sea equipment, in addition to normal drilling
* Satellite rig positioning capabilities ( To be used in spud / hole
location )
* A competent and experienced drilling team
 Personnel
Experienced personnel are essential to ensuring and maintaining
performance especially so, when performing non standard
operations typified during deepwater drilling operations.
Personnel requirements
Use specialists with local area knowledge and experience when
· Continuity and means to ensure the industry experts are
available when required.
Proper scheduling, affording standby rates are means to ensure
· Provide adequate training and development for essential
personnel, i.e. rig site training, pre-spud meetings
· Provide a well documented drilling “lessons learned” dossier
· Update dossier as lessons are learned to ensure organisational
learning exists
· Provide two sub sea engineers for running/pulling BOP’s / risers,
sub sea equipment
· Provide two mud engineers when drilling top surface and
intermediate sections.
· Provide additional crane drivers, roughnecks and roustabouts
during key
operations to ensure operational efficiency can be maintained,
safely and
Tripping adds up.
Table 2 : Trip footage for a
deepwater well
the typical distance of pipe to be tripped
from a basic deepwater well program. It can
be seen that tripping requires transporting
and handling 397,000ft i . e 70 miles ! of
drilling tubular ’ s . Manual handling in
certain cases be proved more efficient but
somewhere between no and full automation is
felt to result in the most effective,
efficient and loss free performance.
Guide line less drilling systems .
In deep water drilling operations, the use of
dynamically positioned drilling vessels and guide
lineless drilling systems offer distinct advantages,
e.g. reduced operating sequence, equipment
requirements, time and efficiency cost savings.
When using a guide lineless system, the bit is set on the
bottom without guidance and the hole for the conductor is

When running the conductor, observation by ROV camera is

used when stabbing the conductor into the hole.
The wellhead on the conductor will not have a PGB
installed around it., but is equipped with a specially
designed guide funnel (with bulls eyes attached) to be used
both when guiding bits into the wellhead and when
installing the BOP stack after having run surface string
and high pressure wellhead housing.
The drilling system however to be used by a
dynamically positioned drilling vessel in
deepwater should be a guideline less system.
This eliminates the safety risk of guidelines
breaking and becoming entangled in the BOP
stack during critical situations
e.g. an emergency riser disconnect from the BOP

in bad weather situations where a sudden drift-

off was imminent or happened.

Two factors exist for the safe and operationally

successful use of the guideline less system in
deep water drilling;

1. accurate determination of the well position at

 Guide lineless deepwater drilling operating recommendations
1. The drilling vessel should be dynamically positioned semi-submersible rig or a

2. A semi-submersible rig will have better motion characteristics that may be the preferred
alternative. The final choice of vessel, would rest with the operator and be based on evaluation in
each specific case of riser analysis, station keeping ability and equipment reliability.

3. A guide lineless drilling system should be used

- For the successful use of the guide lineless drilling system, an ROV able to operate at the
maximum required depth is recommended.

- The position of the well at seabed must be determined with a fair degree of accuracy before
pulling the drill string out of the 36” hole or wellhead. The marker may be one or more ROV buoys,
an acoustic source or a sonar reflector.
If an acoustic/sonar marker is used, a seeker device must be available to be used by the ROV to
find the marker.

- A permanent acoustic source should be mounted on the (conductor) wellhead. Additionally a

sonar reflector may also be mounted on the wellhead if the ROV is equipped with a sonar. After the
conductor has been set, the ROV can then locate the wellhead directly, and the markers placed on
seabed prior to spud may be retrieved.

- An alternative method to find back to the well without using ROV can be to use an acoustic
seeker device that is sent down along the drill pipe to locate the wellhead. If an acoustic source is
placed on seabed at spud location prior to spudding the well, this seeker device can also be used
to locate the 36” hole (prior to running the conductor).

4. The use of a temporary guide base (TGB) in guide lineless deep water drilling operations is not